Gender Analysis

Gender Mainstreaming in a Post-Conflict State


D’Costa, Bina and Katrina Lee-Koo, ed. 2009. Gender Mainstreaming in a Post-Conflict State. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Bina D'Costa, Katrina Lee-Koo


Gender equality is widely believed by international organizations and mainstream commentators to contribute to the consolidation of democratic norms and domestic and international peace.1 The United Nations (UN) has promoted strategies for achieving gender equality as a central part of its peacebuilding and reconstruction programs. In Bosnia, Kosovo, and East Timor, UN missions have incorporated gender mainstreaming and gender-balanced decision-making policies and programs to foster civil society as means to ensure long-term peace and development. To what extent, though, are these institutional initiatives able to transform the deep-seated gendered social hierarchies in these new states? Feminist scholars argue that such hierarchies are at the root of violence against women, women’s lack of voice, and political representation. They hold that any meaningful democratic strategy must eliminate these hierarchies to bring about political freedom and equality. In Timor these feminist perspectives on gender justice and equality are an emerging part of the public debate about the processes of democratization in state and civil society. They can be seen in speeches, communications, and reports of local women’s organizations, donor agencies, NGOs, and the UN, however, this political activity has yet to be theoretically analyzed by feminist or nonfeminist scholars. Here we seek to highlight some of the gendered practices of democratization and assess the struggles within East Timorese civil society to forge a gender-equal democracy.

Keywords: civil society, domestic violence, United Nations, gender equality, gender perspective

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peacekeeping Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, Timor-Leste

Year: 2009

The ‘War’/‘Not-War’ Divide: Domestic Violence in the Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative


Gray, Harriet. 2018. "The ‘War’/‘Not-War’ Divide: Domestic Violence in the Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative." The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 21 (1): 189-206.

Author: Harriet Gray


While recognising the importance of policy designed to tackle conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence, scholars have increasingly critiqued such policies for failing sufficiently to apprehend the multiple forms of this violence – from rape deployed as a weapon of war to domestic violence – as interrelated oppressions located along a continuum. In this article, I explore a connected but distinct line of critique, arguing that sexual and gender-based violence policies are also limited by a narrow understanding of how gender-based violences relate to war itself. Drawing on an analysis of the British Government’s Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative, I identify a key distinction which emerges between those types of sexual and gender-based violence which are considered to be part of war, and those which are not. This division, I suggest, closes down space for recognising how war is also enacted within private spaces.

Keywords: armed conflict, conflict-related SGBV, domestic violence, gender, preventing sexual violence initiative, private sphere, PSVI, public sphere, sexual and gender-based violence, war, Women Peace and Security agenda

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Households, Peace and Security, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2018

Gender, Militaries and Security Sector Reform


Bastick, Megan. 2017. “Gender, Militaries and Security Sector Reform.” In The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military, edited by Rachel Woodward and Claire Duncanson, 387–402. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Megan Bastick


Feminist scholars have been critical of policy approaches to implementing gender in security sector reform (SSR), and sceptical of their success. Nonetheless, one can find many examples of women’s organizations influencing SSR, and SSR contributing to more gender-responsive security sector institutions. SSR processes addressing armed forces should focus on the gendered aspects of personnel and operational capabilities, institutional culture and governance. Armed forces involved in international operations are increasingly mandated to undertake SSR activities, and require capabilities to address their gender dimensions. This chapter examines NATO missions’ efforts to recruit women into Afghan security forces, as highlighting some of the challenges and tensions that are illuminated by a gendered analysis of SSR.

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Security Sector Reform Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2017

Women and Peace Operations: The Achievement of the Italian Mission in Herat


Sartori, Paola, and Alessandra Scalia. 2017. "Women and Peace Operations: The Achievement of the Italian Mission in Herat." IAI Working Papers, Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), Rome. 

Authors: Paola Sartori, Alessandra Scalia


The research that forms the basis of this study aims to address women’s roles within peace operations, as well as their contribution to security and peace-building. Based on Italy’s contribution to the NATO-led missions – the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and, currently, Resolute Support (RS) – the subject of the analysis is Afghanistan, and particularly Herat Province. The research effort is specifically aimed at assessing the impact of the civil–military cooperation (CIMIC) initiatives implemented by Italian troops in Herat, with a specific focus on gender and Afghan women. The first part of this paper addresses the theoretical framework on women’s participation in stabilization and reconstruction efforts. It introduces concepts such as gender analysis and gender mainstreaming, and, consequently, the benefits of focusing on gender when carrying out CIMIC initiatives within peace operations. The second part focuses on the CIMIC activities implemented by the Italian contingent in Herat Province. The concluding section of the paper provides some “food for thought”, aimed at contributing to further enhancing the effectiveness of the CIMIC projects carried out by the Italian military and their related effects.

Keywords: Afghanistan, security, education, economy, military missions, NATO, civil-military cooperation, Italy

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Italy

Year: 2017

Women, Land, and Resource Conflicts: Policy Implications and Interventions in Kenya


Nyukuri, Elvin. 2006. "Women, Land, and Resource Conflicts: Policy Implications and Interventions in Kenya." Nairobi: Acts Press.

Author: Elvin Nyukuri


Environment and conflict research and policy interventions have focused primarily on the linkage between natural resources and acute violence but have paid less attention to the gender dimension of this correlation. Paradoxically women are more active in environmental and resource conservation activities especially land, which are widely documented. The overall objective of this study is to identify and asses the extent to which gender aspects can be of help in identifying the specific pathways involved and hence the entry points for intervention in resolving land and conflicts research and policy. (Summary from AfricaPortal)
Table of Contents:
1. Background to the Research Project
2. Grievances and Tensions over Land in Kenya
3. Gender, Land and Conflicts
4. Peace and Policy Interventions


Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2006

Gender-wise Rural-to-Urban Migration in Orissa, India: An Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change


Velan, Nirmala and Ranjan Kumar Mohanty. 2016. "Gender-wise Rural-to-Urban Migration in Orissa, India: An Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change." In Inequality and Climate Change: Perspectives from the Soutlh, edited by Carlo Delgado Ramos, 137-70. Oxford: African Books Collective.

Authors: Nirmala Velan, Ranjan Kumar Mohanty



"Overall, [this paper] attempts to gauge the determinants of rural to urban migration and the adaptability of rural households under environmental change. An understanding of who migrates, under what circumstances, how far and why, would provide a deeper insight into the nature, type and cause of migration, facilitating policy making for their welfare and for those who do not migrate. Therefore, the main objectives of the study are to:

i) gain an overview the variations in socio-economic background of the
respondent households by migrant status before and after migration/given
period by gender in Puri district, Orissa;

ii) analyse the factors inducing gender-wise rural to urban migration among
the rural households in the study area;

iii) examine the impacts of migration in terms of the benefits gained and
problems experienced by the migrants and their families;

iv) survey the reasons for non-migration by gender; and

v) assess the impact of climate change on poverty and income inequality of
the sample households by gender and migrant status" (Velan and Mohanty 2016, 139-40).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

The Complex Ties that Bind: Gendered Agency and Expectations in Conflict and Climate Change-related Migration


Myrttinen, Henri. 2017. "The Complex Ties that Bind: Gendered Agency and Expectations in Conflict and Climate Change-related Migration." Global Policy 8 (1): 148-54.

Author: Henri Myrttinen


For the past decade, western public discourse and the policy world have become increasingly concerned about ‘irregular’ migration and, to a slightly lesser extent perhaps, what driving role conflict and climate change play in triggering it. Addressing the causes and effects requires having a better understanding of the impacts that climate change has on multi‐dimensional crises and the knock‐on effect this has on migration. A key factor in understanding how these processes affect different women, girls, men, boys and other gender identities is gender. Much of the analysis, however, has tended to be based on relatively simplistic teleological models and gender stereotypes. Based on case studies, this article argues for more nuanced understandings of how gender and other societal markers affect people differently in different contexts of crisis and climate change‐related migration to better formulate policy responses.

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis

Year: 2017

Gendered Livelihoods in the Artisanal Mining Sector in the Great Lakes Region


Stewart, Jennifer, Richard Kibombo, and L. Pauline Rankin. 2020. "Gendered Livelihoods in the Artisanal Mining sector in the Great Lakes Region." Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue canadienne des études africaines 54 (1): 37-56.

Authors: Jennifer Stewart, Richard Kibombo, L. Pauline Rankin


Using data collected from a survey administered at seven mine sites in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda, this paper examines differences in the livelihoods and economic well-being of women and men involved in artisanal and small-scale mining. To provide a deeper context, the results from the survey are combined with findings from other methodological approaches. The results provide evidence that men have more experience in the mining sector and that men earn more both at mine sites and at activities not conducted at mine sites. The evidence also highlights the need for research on the artisanal mining sector to be gender sensitive, to yield policies that improve the economic well-being of all those reliant on the sector.
En utilisant les données receuiillies dans le cadre d’une enquête conduite sur sept sites miniers en Ouganda, en République démocratique du Congo et au Rwanda, cet article examine les différences dans les moyens de subsistance et le bien-être économique des femmes et des hommes impliqués dans l’exploitation minière artisanale et à petite échelle. Afin de fournir un contexte plus approfondi, les résultats de l’enquête sont combinés avec les résultats obtenus grâce à d’autres approches méthodologiques. Les résultats montrent que les hommes ont plus d’expérience dans le secteur minier et qu’ils gagnent plus d’argent à la fois sur les sites miniers et dans les activités qu’ils n’y ont pas menées. Les résultats soulignent également la nécessité pour la recherche sur le secteur de l’exploitation minière artisanale d’être sensibilisée au genre en vue de l’élaboration de politiques d’amélioration du bien-être économique de tous ceux qui dépendent de ce secteur.

Keywords: gender, livelihoods, work, economic well-being, artisanal small-scale mining, exploitation minière artisanale et à petite échelle, genre, moyens de subsistance, travail, bien-être économique

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Uganda

Year: 2020

Gender and Mobility in Africa: Borders, Bodies and Boundaries


Hiralal, Kalpana, and Zaheera Jinnah, eds. 2018. Gender and Mobility in Africa: Borders, Bodies and Boundaries. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan.

Authors: Kalpana Hiralal, Zaheera Jinnah



This volume examines gender and mobility in Africa though the central themes of borders, bodies and identity. It explores perceptions and engagements around ‘borders’; the ways in which ‘bodies’ and women’s bodies in particular, shape and are affected by mobility, and the making and reproduction of actual and perceived ‘boundaries’; in relation to gender norms and gendered identify.  Over fourteen original chapters it makes revealing contributions to the field of migration and gender studies. Combining historical and contemporary perspectives on mobility in Africa, this project contextualises migration within a broad historical framework, creating a conceptual and narrative framework that resists post-colonial boundaries of thought on the subject matter. This multidisciplinary work uses divergent methodologies including ethnography, archival data collection, life histories and narratives and multi-country survey level data and engages with a range of conceptual frameworks to examine the complex forms and outcomes of mobility on the continent today. Contributions include a range of case studies from across the continent, which relate either conceptually or methodologically to the central question of gender identity and relations within migratory frameworks in Africa. This book will appeal to researchers and scholars of politics, history, anthropology, sociology and international relations. (Summary from Palgrave MacMillan)
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction: Gender and Mobility in Africa: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives - Hiralal, Kalpana
  2. Why Were the Women Left Behind? Chinese and Indian Migration in the Indian Ocean Region: A Historical Perspective - Hiralal, Kalpana
  3. The Migration of Women in Tunisia: Between Tradition and Modernity - Bouchoucha, Ibtihel
  4. (Re)negotiating Gender Identity Among Zimbabwean Female Pentecostal Migrants in South Africa - Chimbidzikai, Tinashe
  5. Migration, Mobilities and Families: Comparative Views Amongst Congolese, Burundian and Zimbabwean Female Refugees - Rugunanan, Pragna (et al.)
  6. Negotiating Culture and Responses to Domestic Violence in South Africa: Migrant Women and Service Providers’ Narratives - Kiwanuka, Monica
  7. ‘Who I Am Depends on Who I Am Talking To’ - Oliveira, Elsa (et al.)
  8. Between Prosecutors and Counsellors: State and Non-state Actors in the Rehabilitation of Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria - Ikuteyijo, Lanre Olusegun
  9. Crossing Borders, Present Futures: A Study of the Life Histories of Pakistani Immigrants in Durban - Rai, Sasha
  10. Senegalese Migrants in Morocco: From a Gender Perspective - Ait Ben Lmadani, Fatima
  11. Mobile Women: Negotiating Gendered Social Norms, Stereotypes and Relationships - Matshaka, Sarah
  12. Social Control in Transnational Families: Somali Women and Dignity in Johannesburg - Shaffer, Marnie
  13. Concluding Thoughts and Pathways for Future Research - Jinnah, Zaheera



Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Burundi, Congo-Brazzaville, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe

Year: 2018

Green Practices Are Gendered: Exploring Gender Inequality Caused by Sustainable Consumption Policies in Taiwan


Wang, Sumei. 2016. “Green Practices Are Gendered: Exploring Gender Inequality Caused by Sustainable Consumption Policies in Taiwan.” Energy Research & Social Science 18 (August): 88–95.

Author: Sumei Wang


In the context of climate change, governments and international organizations often promote a “sustainable lifestyle.” However, this approach has been criticized for underestimating the complexity of everyday life and therefore being inapplicable to households and consumers. In addition, procedures for promoting sustainable consumption seldom incorporate domestic workers’ opinions and often increase women’s housework loads. This article employs a practice-based approach to examine the “Energy-Saving, Carbon Reduction” movement, a series of sustainable consumption policies that have been advocated by the Taiwanese government since 2008. The goal of the movement is to encourage an eco-friendly lifestyle. On the basis of empirical data collected through ethnographic interviews, this article argues that existing policies unexpectedly increase women’s burdens and exacerbate gender inequality.

Keywords: sustainable consumption, gender inequality, Taiwan, global warming

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, International Organizations Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Taiwan

Year: 2016


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