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Gender

Gender, Race and Climate Justice: National and Global Policy Perspectives

Colette Pichon Battle

Jacqueline Patterson

Osprey Orielle Lake

Anita Nayar and Camden Goetz

April 1, 2021

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Gender, Agency and Decision Making in Community Engagement: Reflections from Afghanistan’s Mes Aynak Mine

Citation:

Rickard, Sophie. 2020. “Gender, Agency and Decision Making in Community Engagement: Reflections from Afghanistan’s Mes Aynak Mine.” The Extractive Industries and Society 7 (2): 435–45. 

Author: Sophie Rickard

Abstract:

This paper explores what constitutes meaningful participation of women in community consultation processes of extractive operations, through a case study of the Mes Aynak Copper Mine resettlement in Afghanistan. It aims to better understand the factors that enable and constrain women’s agency and ability to effectively influence decisions; and how the understanding of gender and culture in Afghanistan by key stakeholders’ influences women’s participation in the sector. Through a review of the literature and key Mes Aynak project documents, as well as interviews with experts, practitioners and civil society, the paper unpacks women’s participation in community engagement processes, drawing on Arnstein’s ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969) as a basis to explore women’s participation. It explores the role of gender and culture in determining outcomes and provides reflections on how to improve women’s meaningful participation in Afghanistan’s extractive industries. Crucially, it was found that there is a need to critically examine how key sector stakeholders understand and engage with cultural norms around women’s participation in the sector; as well as the need to work with the Citizens Charter programme to reinforce inclusion and avoid the sector exacerbating existing inequalities.

Keywords: community engagement, resettlement, Afghanistan, extractive industries, mining, participation

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2020

In Search of Feminist Foreign Policy: Gender, Development, and Danish State Identity

Citation:

Richey, Lisa Ann. 2001. “In Search of Feminist Foreign Policy: Gender, Development, and Danish State Identity.” Cooperation and Conflict 36 (2): 177-212.

Author: Lisa Ann Richey

Abstract:

This article investigates the extent to which the Danish state's identification with gender issues is transferred into Danish development policy. Is Denmark pursuing a gender and development policy that is radically different from most other Western donor states and, if not, why might we see a less progressive policy in Denmark than we might expect from a domestically `feminist' state? In this article, it is suggested that the very nature of development aid and the policies in place to promote it are gendered. Gender and development aid could provide an arena for international constitution of domestically `feminist' policies. However, it is argued that `development' itself poses important challenges for implementing the goals of Denmark's gender and development policies. Conversely, implementing the critical strategy of agenda-setting within gender and development would reconstitute both `development' and the identity of the Danish state as donor.

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Gendered Discourses Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Denmark

Year: 2001

Ecology Is a Sistah’s Issue Too: The Politics of Emergent Afrocentric Ecowomanism

Citation:

Riley, Shamara Shantu. 2003. “Ecology Is a Sistah’s Issue Too: The Politics of Emergent Afrocentric Ecowomanism.” In This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb, 368–81. Abingdon: Routledge. 

Author: Shamara Shantu Riley

Annotation:

Summary:
“The extinction of species on our ancestral continent, the “mortality of wealth,” and hazardous-waste contamination in our backyards ought to be reasons enough for Black womanists to consider the environment as a central issue of our political agendas. However, there are other reasons the environment should be central to our struggles for social justice. The global environmental crisis is related to the sociopolitical systems of fear and hatred of all that is natural, nonwhite, and female that has pervaded dominant Western thought for centuries. I contend that the social constructions of race, gender, class and nonhuman nature in mainstream Western thought are interconnected by an ideology of domination. Specific instances of the emergent Afrocentric ecowomanist activism in Africa and the United States, as well as West African spiritual principles that propose a method of overcoming dualism, will be discussed in this paper" (Shantu 2003, 369).

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Race Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2003

The Contribution of Critical Ecofeminism to the Criminological Debate in Spain: Debating All Rules of All Tribes

Citation:

Varona, Gema. 2020. “The Contribution of Critical Ecofeminism to the Criminological Debate in Spain: Debating All Rules of All Tribes.” In The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change, edited by Sandra Walklate, Kate Fitz-Gibbon, JaneMaree Maher, and Jude McCulloch, 119–36. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.

Author: Gema Varona

Abstract:

This chapter aims to rethink how gender inequality is related to interpersonal and structural asymmetries of power displayed in our relationships with ecosystems, questioning the classical concept of ‘nature’ as something ‘out there’, as pointed out by dark ecology. First, with the aim of offering a joint North–South critical perspective on equality and sustainability, critical ecofeminism, through the work of A. Puleo, will be explained as a Spanish feminist line of thought and movement. This author, rejecting some essentialist visions of deep ecology, sets her ideas in relation to general critical social theory. Second, contrasting perspectives (critical feminism and ecology) will be combined to offer a rich cross-fertilisation between different perspectives and traditional themes in criminology. A common denominator can be found in the exercise of criticism through questioning binary categories, underlying assumptions and social injustice in relation to the visibility of harms. Third, the relevance of ecofeminism for current criminological debates will be highlighted beyond the obvious connections with green victimology. Finally, ecofeminism will be interpreted as a new critical standpoint and as a more inclusive language for fostering the criminological and victimological imagination in order to help to rethink the rules of the criminal justice system.

Keywords: ecofeminism, critical theory, green criminology, dark ecology, deep ecology, Spain

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2020

Critical and Constructive Contributions of Ecofeminism

Citation:

Spretnak, Charlene. 1993. “Critical and Constructive Contributions of Ecofeminism.” The Bucknell Review 37 (2): 181–89.

Author: Charlene Spretnak

Annotation:

Summary:
"In summary, ecofeminism is a movement that focuses attention on the historical linkage between denigration of nature and the female. It seeks to shed light on why Eurocentric societies, as well as those in their global sphere of influence, are now enmeshed in environmental crises and economic systems that require continuing the ecocide and the dynamics of exploitation. Ecofeminism continues the progression within traditional feminism from attention to sexist to attention to all systems of human oppression (such as racism, classism, ageism, and heterosexism) to recognize that “naturism” (the exploitation of nature) is also a result of the logic of domination. Ecofeminism challenges environmental philosophy to abandon postures upholding supposedly gender-free abstract individualism and “rights” fixations and to realize that human relationships (between self and the rest of the world) are constitutive, not peripheral” (Spretnak 1993, 187-8).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender

Year: 1993

Eco‐Feminism and Eco‐Socialism: Dilemmas of Essentialism and Materialism

Citation:

Mellor, Mary. 2009. “Eco‐Feminism and Eco‐Socialism: Dilemmas of Essentialism and Materialism.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 3 (2): 43-62.

Author: Mary Mellor

Annotation:

Summary:
“The core of my argument is that it will prove impossible to construct an eco-socialist/feminist revolutionary theory and practice unless we can finally break out of the laager of economic analysis to embrace women and nature, not as objects of the economic system but as subjects in their own right” (Mellor 2009, 43).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women

Year: 2009

Ecofeminism and Forest Defense in Cascadia: Gender, Theory and Radical Activism

Citation:

Mallory, Chaone. 2006. “Ecofeminism and Forest Defense in Cascadia: Gender, Theory and Radical Activism.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 17 (1): 32–49.

Author: Chaone Mallory

Annotation:

Summary:
"[T]he intent of this essay is to report on the radical activism that began in the summer of 2003 and has continued through the present (fall of 2005) by women in the Pacific Northwest. I look at how such activisms represent an explicit and direct integration of feminism with environmentalism that should encourage and inspire ecoliberatory theorists such as ecofeminists, ecosocialists, green anarchists, and deep ecologists. I also consider how such activism exemplifies the kind of intersection of theory and praxis long sought by ecofeminist, ecosocialist, and other scholars concerned with liberation. I explore these questions using the analytic tools developed through the academic discourse of ecofeminism to examine how both gender identity and movement-generated understandings of the intersection of oppressions affects, informs, and produces environmental activisms. Such an analysis, done in the context of women’s direct action forest defense in the Pacific Northwest, reveals interesting and important knowledges about the character of the interrelation between ideas and action, a subject of long-standing interest to those engaged in the practice of environmental theory. Such an analysis also advances the liberatory goals of ecotheorists and ecoactivists by contributing to the development of a robust, efficacious ecofeminist political theory that does not reinscribe a theory/activism dualism." (Mallory 2006, 34-5).

 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada, United States of America

Year: 2006

Reclaiming Peoples’ Power in Copenhagen 2009: A Victory for Ecosocialist Ecofeminism

Citation:

Kaara, Wahu. 2010. “Reclaiming Peoples’ Power in Copenhagen 2009: A Victory for Ecosocialist Ecofeminism.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 21 (2): 107–11.

Author: Wahu Kaara

Abstract:

The article describes the contribution of African women to ecosocialism. The authors argue that the 2009 Copenhagen Conference represents the recognition that the collapsing patriarchal market economy owes humanity an economic debt, and owes the planet an ecological and climate debt. The author compares the status of the police forces in Kenya and Denmark, since both uphold the bankrupt system of neoliberalism.

Keywords: females, socialism, human ecology, protest movements

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, East Africa, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Denmark, Kenya

Year: 2010

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