Forced Migration

Implications of Enforced Disappearances on Women-Headed Families in the Northern Province, Sri Lanka


Subramaniam, Jeevasuthan, Nur Mohammad Majumder, Zulkarnain A. Hatta, and Abul Fozol Muhammod Zakaria. 2014. “Implications of Enforced Disappearances on Women-Headed Families in the Northern Province, Sri Lanka.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 4 (4): 236-243.

Authors: Jeevasuthan Subramaniam, Nur Mohammad Majumder, Zulkarnain A. Hatta, Abul Fozol Muhammod Zakaria


Enforced disappearances persist in many countries all over the world. It creates severe social and psychological repercussions on families left behind. The Sri Lankan internal ethnic conflict lasted for three decades ended up with the deaths of more than 150,000 people and massive internal and external displacements. Additionally, a new social phenomenon has been evolved as “Women-headed Households of persons with forcibly disappeared” from all ethnic groups. The government of Sri Lanka and rebels have used forced disappearances as a weapon to suppress dissents and combat the armed conflict. This study attempted to examine the impact of enforced disappearances on Women-headed Households of North Province in a post-conflict context. Predominantly, it intended to focus on identity crisis, patriarchal domination, psychological implications, handling with painful experiences and potential challenges in implementing psycho-social programs for their well-being. The potential role of social work professionals also has been discussed. Mentioned the methodology use and highlighted the major findings.

Keywords: Sri Lanka, enforced disappearances, psychosocial challenges, women-headed households

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, Mental Health, Households, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2014

'Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder’: Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1770


Morgan, Jennifer L. 1997. “‘Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder’: Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1770.” The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, 54 (1): 167–92.

Author: Jennifer L. Morgan

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Race, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, Americas

Year: 1997

Gender, Labour and the Law: The Nexus of Domestic Work, Human Trafficking and the Informal Economy in the United Arab Emirates


Mahdavi, Pardis. 2013. “Gender, Labour and the Law: The Nexus of Domestic Work, Human Trafficking and the Informal Economy in the United Arab Emirates.” Global Networks 13 (4): 425–40.

Author: Pardis Mahdavi


Based on ethnographic fieldwork with female migrants in the United Arab Emirates, the focus of this article is on the confluence of human trafficking discourses, gendered migration, domestic work and sex work in the UAE. I explore three main findings. First, domestic work and sex work are not mutually exclusive. Second, women choose to enter sex work in preference to domestic work because of poor working conditions in the latter. Third, global policies on human trafficking that seek to restrict female migration have inspired female migrants in the Gulf in search of higher wages and increased autonomy to look for employment in the informal economy. Employing a theoretical lens that emphasizes structural violence, the article chronicles the individual and macro social factors structuring the transition of female migrants from the formal economy of domestic and care work into the informal economy of sex work.

Keywords: sex workers, human trafficking, gulf countries, domestic work, middle east, informal economies

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: United Arab Emirates

Year: 2013

Was the Slave Trade Dominated by Men?


Eltis, David, and Stanley L. Engerman. 1992. “Was the Slave Trade Dominated by Men?” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 23 (2): 237–57. 

Authors: David Etlis, Stanley L. Engerman

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Race, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking Regions: Africa, Americas

Year: 1992

Transnational Ruptures: Gender and Forced Migration


Nolin, Catherine. 2006. Transnational Ruptures: Gender and Forced Migration. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.

Author: Catherine Nolin


A key development in international migration in recent years has been the increasing feminization of migrant populations. Research attention now focuses not only on the growing number of women on the move but also on their changing gender roles as more female migrants participate as principal wage earners and heads of household rather than as 'dependants'. The tensions between population displacement within and beyond Guatemala and the multiple local, regional and national realities encountered and reconfigured by these refugee and migrants allow a fascinating window onto the connections and ruptures experienced in a 'global/local world'. Transnational Ruptures holds great interest and value for a wide readership, from scholars who are interested in transnational and refugee studies and international migration, to upper level university students in disciplines such as human geography, anthropology, sociology, Latin American Studies, gender studies, political science and international studies. (Amazon)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2006

The Differential Experience of Mozambican Refugee Women and Men


Ager, Alastair, Wendy Ager, and Lynellyn Long. 1995. “The Differential Experience of Mozambican Refugee Women and Men.” Journal of Refugee Studies 8 (3): 265–87.

Authors: Alastair Ager, Wendy Ager, Lynellyn Long


This study examines differences in the experience of Mozambican women and men in refuge in Malawi in late 1990, with particular regard to the differential impact of assistance policies and programmes. Data collection was through a survey of 420 households and intensive qualitative interviews and daily schedule analysis with a representative focal sample of 20 individual refugees. Sample sites spanned both refugee camps and integrated settlement patterns. Data on educational activity indicated that established gender inequalities in schooling were perpetuated in the refugee setting. Programmed vocational training activities had little impact on income generation for either men or women. Whilst incomes were generally very low, the median income for women was zero. Work burden was generally heavier on women. Whilst the health status of men and women was similar, there was evidence of poorer health in female-headed households. Discussion focuses on the inter-relationship between these findings and refugee assistance efforts at the time of the study. In general terms, such assistance had clearly failed to significantly impact the key targets of substantive income generation for women and reduction in female work burden. Indeed, food relief policy and structures for refugee representation appeared to frequently exacerbate existing gender inequalities. Such findings regarding the differential experience of refugee women and men may be of considerable relevance to the planning and management of future refugee assistance programmes. In particular, the goals of increasing time availability for women and increasing support for indigenous action are commended.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Households, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi, Mozambique

Year: 1995

Disasters and Displacement: Gaps in Protection


Cohen, Roberta, and Megan Bradley. 2010. “Disasters and Displacement: Gaps in Protection.” Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies 1 (1): 95-142.

Authors: Roberta Cohen, Megan Bradley


Natural disasters, particularly those related to climate change, are fast becoming a leading cause of forced displacement although conceptual, normative and institutional frameworks to provide human rights protection to the environmentally displaced are not yet in place. This article discusses the human rights and protection dimensions of disaster-induced displacement, identifies the major challenges to protecting disaster victims, and proposes ways forward. The authors argue that while most environmentally displaced persons are expected to remain within their own countries, there is a lack of clarity about the status and protection needs of those uprooted by environmental degradation and other ‘slow-onset’ disasters as opposed to those displaced by 'sudden-onset' disasters. By far the biggest protection gap exists for those who cross borders. These individuals do not generally qualify as refugees under the 1951 Refugee Convention, there is no normative framework to address their specific needs and vulnerabilities and States have not been willing to commit to more than temporary protection on an ad hoc basis. The need is now critical for new approaches to be developed for the environmentally displaced, including expanded normative and institutional frameworks, comprehensive national policies, national and international monitoring, rights training, and more effective ways of dealing with governments that fail to protect their populations.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2010

The Future of Refugee Flows and Policies


Rogers, Rosemarie. 1992. “The Future of Refugee Flows and Policies.” International Migration Review 26 (4): 1112-43.

Author: Rosemarie Rogers


The number of forced migrants--recognized refugees, persons in "refugeelike" situations, and internally displaced--is estimated today to exceed 40 million. The changed international climate of the 1990s (a renewed emphasis on human rights; broader concepts of national security; and the profound political changes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) has shifted the focus from the asylum and resettlement countries to the countries of origin: there is today a greater willingness to intervene in other countries' affairs either to avert the creation of new flows of focused migrants or to assist internally displaced populations, and there is the expectation of large-scale voluntary returns of refugees in asylum. This article discusses these and other policy issues concerning forced migration in this new international environment.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women

Year: 1992

Gender, Conflict and Displacement: Contesting 'Infantilisation' of Forced Migrant Women


Manchanda, Rita. 2004. "Gender, Conflict and Displacement: Contesting 'Infantilisation' of Forced Migrant Women." Economic and Political Weekly 39 (37): 4179-4186.

Author: Rita Manchanda


The experience of the refugee or the internally displaced person is one that is fundamentally disenfranchising. While women and children make up a majority of the forcibly displaced, international humanitarian discourses confer on them a presumed passivity that is naturalised in practice. Systems of care and protection even in UNHCR camps remain largely gender insensitive especially in south Asia where national laws reinforce gender discrimination. This paper uses a gender sensitive perspective, analysing the way a woman as a refugee subject is configured as a non-person so as to gain fresh insights on the 'infantilisation' and 'de-maturation' of the refugee experience. Moreover, it raises questions on the secondary status women occupy as citizens in south Asian polities.

Keywords: conflict, female refugees, migrant

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Gender, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2004

Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War


Bennett, Trude, Linda Barlett, Oluwasayo Adewumi Olatunde, and Lynn Amowitz. 2004. “Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 10 (11): 2034-35.

Authors: Trude Bennett, Linda Barlett, Oluwasayo Adewumi Olatunde, Lynn Amowitz


Women make up high proportions of refugee and internally displaced populations, and they suffer unique consequences of war and conflict because of gender-based violence, discrimination, and caretaking roles.  Refugee women are especially vulnerable to infectious disease, as well as threats to their mental health and physical safety.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Sexual Violence, SV against Women

Year: 2004


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