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Forced Migration

La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano

Citation:

Céspedes-Báez, Lina-María. 2010. "La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano." Revista Estudios Socio-Juridico 12 (2): 273-304.

Author: Lina-María Céspedes-Báez

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article reviews the evidence collected by diverse national and international organizations regarding the relationship between sexual violence against women, forced displacement, and dispossession in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. To this end, it uses the concept of "sexual violence regimes" to highlight that the ends pursued by sexual violence are not always exhausted by simple consummation (that is, the act of sexual violence itself), but depending on the context, can be connected with broader strategic goals of armed actors. At the same time, this document admits the difficulty of proving this relationship with respect to judicial procedures, and thus sets out the possibility of creating a rebuttable presumption, in the framework of "unconstitutional state of affairs" created by judgment T-025 of 2004, that alleviates the burden of proof of the victims, and serves as a catalyst to promote new gender-based mechanisms of reparations.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El presente artículo parte de la evidencia que ha sido recogida por diversas organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales, en materia de la interrelación entre la violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres, el desplazamiento forzado y el despojo en el conflicto armado colombiano. Para el efecto, utiliza el concepto de regímenes de violencia sexual, a fin de realzar el que los fines perseguidos por la conducta no se agotan siempre en el simple consumo, sino que, dependiendo del contexto, pueden estar conectados con objetivos más amplios dentro del repertorio estratégico de los actores armados. Asimismo, el documento admite la dificultad de la prueba de esta correlación en las instancias judiciales pertinentes, por lo cual plantea la posibilidad de crear una presunción desvirtuable, en el ámbito del estado de cosas inconstitucional declarado por la sentencia T-025 de 2004, que morigere la carga de la prueba de las víctimas y sirva como un catalizador para promover nuevos arreglos de género.

Keywords: desplazamiento forzado, Conflicto Armado, violencia sexual, tierras, pruebas, forced displacement, armed conflict, sexual violence, land, evidence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Land Tenure, International Organizations, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2010

Revisión teórica sobre el post-conflicto: una oportunidad para empoderar a mujeres víctimas de desplazamiento

Citation:

Romero-Acosta, Kelly, and Eidy Maria Contreras Banques. 2015. “Revisión teórica sobre el post-conflicto: una oportunidad para empoderar a mujeres víctimas de desplazamiento.” Cultura Educación y Sociedad 6 (1): 79-92.

Authors: Kelly Romero-Acosta, Eidy Maria Contreras Banques

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Many Colombian women have experimented forced displacements, now new perspectives of life have been opened. These women have assumed new responsibilities they had not faced before, new situations have allowed them to become active members not only in political levels but also social, besides, it is necessary to develop field works to accomplish this propose, which will allow to improve these women lives, opportunities and choices. Qualitative research should be considered as a useful tool to carry out mediation projects in order to strengthen and empower the mentioned population in their new reality. This work is aimed to infer about women and forced displacement; by taking into account obtained results, this research proposal is addressed to reflect about mediations related to different roles of women in post-conflict settings, above all on restitutions of fields cases.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Debido al desplazamiento forzado a muchas mujeres colombianas se les abre una nueva perspectiva de vida en la cual ellas tienen que asumir responsabilidades que no tenían antes y en la que pueden ser más participativas a nivel políti- co y social. Es preciso realizar trabajos de campo que contribuyan a mejorar sus opciones de vida. La metodología cualitativa puede ser de gran ayuda para realizar procesos de intervención de modo que terminen fortalecidas y empoderadas en su nueva realidad. El siguiente trabajo hace una reflexión sobre la mujer y el desplazamiento forzado y genera, a partir de los datos encontra- dos, una propuesta de intervención relacionada con el papel de la mujer en el post-conflicto, específicamente en la restitución de tierras.

Keywords: desarollo rural, post-conflicto, salud mental, woman, rural development, post-conflict, mental health

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

El impacto del desplazamiento forzado sobre las mujeres en Colombia

Citation:

Ramírez, María Himelda. 2001. “El impacto del desplazamiento forzado sobre las mujeres en Colombia.” Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire 3.

Author: María Himelda Ramírez

Keywords: Colombia, desplazados, Mujeres

Annotation:

Summary:
"Este artículo presenta una mirada sobre la producción reciente acerca del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia, que incluye, el impacto sobre las mujeres. Esta visión, puesta en escena por las investigadoras que introdujeron la perspectiva de género en tales estudios, es innovadora en los análisis del tema1. Algunas vertientes de la investigación que muestran las diferencias de género, parten de la observación de las experiencias de la vida cotidiana de las comunidades campesinas antes de la expulsión. Así, es posible apreciar la especialización de funciones o, en otros términos, la división del trabajo por sexos, como un referente clave de la organizaciones sociales tradicionales, el cual es alterado de manera radical en la etapas subsiguientes al éxodo" (Ramírez 2001, 1).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2001

How Do Women Respond in the Context of Acquisition of Agricultural Land? A Micro Level Study in Semi-Urban South Bengal, India

Citation:

Kanti Das, Bidhan, and Nabanita Guha. 2016.  “How Do Women Respond in the Context of Acquisition of Agricultural Land? A Micro Level Study in Semi-Urban South Bengal, India.”  Indian Journal of Human Development 10 (2):  253-69.

Authors: Bidhan Kanti Das, Nabanita Guha

Abstract:

The state’s ‘eminent domain’ provision under colonial Land Acquisition Act, 1894 is the major cause that forcefully dispossesses the peasantry of their major means of production, that is, land. Though it facilitates rapid industrialization, it has a severe impact on affected persons that often leads to socio-economic impoverishment. Despite the existence of a significant number of studies on the relationship and impacts of development-forced displacement and resettlement in general, only a few studies focus on gender issues. Moreover, there is complete absence of studies on the consequences, which women face in the context of acquisition of agricultural land, where the affected persons are not physically relocated. Based on a micro-level field study, it tries to explore what the affected persons, particularly the women, do when the productive assets like agricultural lands have been acquired for private industries. Furthermore, it tries to examine whether there is any impact on the members of neighbouring families, particularly the women, whose lands have not been acquired. Analyzing the village-level data in an industrial zone of South Bengal, India, it is revealed that land acquisition forced the affected women to go outside for earning, thereby enhancing their position in the family in an agrarian environment. This positively affected the neighbouring women and made them engage in income-generating activities, breaking the cultural traditions of non-participation of women in outside work and patriarchal subjugation, prevalent in peasant societies of India.

Keywords: Land acquisition Act 1894, occupational change, utilisation of compensation money, South Bengal

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

Social and Policy Aspects of Gender and Migration in Sudan

Citation:

Assal, Munzoul. 2012. "Social and Policy Aspects of Gender and Migration in Sudan." The Ahfad Journal 29 (2): 25-37.

Author: Munzoul Assal

Abstract:

Sudan is both a sending and a receiving country for economic as well as forced migrants (refugees). Out-migration from Sudan is caused by conflict and political instability, but also by the desire of Sudanese migrants to have better economic and educational opportunities abroad and, in some cases, for family reunification purposes. Migrants coming to Sudan are either refugees or recent voluntary migrants following oil exploration and the signing of the peace agreements in 2005. The same causes that result in the migration of Sudanese also lead to foreigners coming to Sudan. Statistics show that Asians represent the majority of economic migrants in Sudan, while Ethiopians and Eritreans represent the overwhelming majority of refugees in the country. The paper employs the analytic review and a meta analytic methods to address foreign migrants' influx to the Sudan, the gender aspect and the relevant policies. Findings revealed that migration issues are dealt with through legal frameworks that regulate the presence and work of foreigners, and travel matters of nationals. But the laws are not gender sensitive and do not address the concerns of migrants generally and migrant women in particular. There is a need for legal reform and there is also a need for the introduction of policies or programs that are gender sensitive when dealing with migration issues. Sudan needs to enter into bilateral agreements with receiving countries, to ensure the protection of migrant Sudanese women and also foreign migrant women in Sudan.

Keywords: policy aspects of migration, migrant, influx, gender and migration, internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees, gender sensitive laws

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Economies, Gender Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2012

Invisible Lives: Gender, Dispossession, and Precarity amongst Syrian Refugee Women in the Middle East

Citation:

Canefe, Nergis. 2018. "Invisible Lives: Gender, Dispossesion, and Precarity amongst Syrian Refugee Women in the Middle East." Refuge 34 (1): 39-49. 

Author: Nergis Canefe

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article attends to the connections between neo-liberal and neo-developmentalist labour regimes, asylum and immigration management, and the exploitation of undocumented, refugee, and migrant women, based on the experiences of Syrian refugee women in Turkey. The concept of precarity is explored as a selectively applied strategy by states to people who lack “status” or who are unable to benefit from “membership rights.” Forced migrants, illegal migrants, and asylum seekers are directly implicated in highly precarious work experiences at the bottom end of labour markets across the Global South, becoming trapped in forced labour and human trafficking arrangements. The article establishes a link between extreme forms of migrant labour exploitation in precarious life worlds and gender-based  profiling of life chances.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article concerne les connexions entre les régimes de travail néo-libéraux et néo-développementistes, la gestion de l’asile et de l’immigration, et l’exploitation de femmes migrantes, réfugiées, sans papiers, à partir du vécu de réfugiées syriennes en Turquie. Le concept de précarité est exploré en tant que stratégie appliquée de manière sélective par les états aux personnes qui n’ont « pas de statut » ou ne peuvent pas bénéficier de « droits d’appartenance ». Les migrants forcés, les migrants illégaux et les demandeurs d’asile sont directement concernés par des expériences de travail fortement précaire au plus bas des marchés du travail sur l’ensemble des pays du Sud, et deviennent alors prisonnier du travail forcé et du trafic d’êtres humains. L’article établit un lien entre des formes extrêmes d’exploitation des migrants au travail dans des contextes de vie précaires et un profilage des opportunités de vie en fonction du genre.

 

Keywords: political economy of crisis, precarity, forced migration, gender and migration, gender and precarity, Middle Eastern States

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Syria, Turkey

Year: 2018

A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Citation:

Jane Freedman, Zeynep Kivilcim, and Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu, eds. 2017. A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Jane Freedman, ed. , Zeynep Kivilcim, ed. , Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu, ed.

Annotation:

Summary:
The refugee crisis that began in 2015 has seen thousands of refugees attempting to reach Europe, principally from Syria. The dangers and difficulties of this journey have been highlighted in the media, as have the political disagreements within Europe over the way to deal with the problem. However, despite the increasing number of women making this journey, there has been little or no analysis of women’s experiences or of the particular difficulties and dangers they may face.
 
A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis examines women’s experience at all stages of forced migration, from the conflict in Syria, to refugee camps in Lebanon or Turkey, on the journey to the European Union and on arrival in an EU member state. The book deals with women’s experiences, the changing nature of gender relations during forced migration, gendered representations of refugees, and the ways in which EU policies may impact differently on men and women. The book provides a nuanced and complex assessment of the refugee crisis, and shows the importance of analysing differences within the refugee population.
 
Students and scholars of development studies, gender studies, security studies, politics and middle eastern studies will find this book an important guide to the evolving crisis.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, International Organizations Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Lebanon, Syria, Turkey

Year: 2017

The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict

Citation:

Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala, Naomi Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, eds. 2018. The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, ed., Naomi Cahn, ed., Dina Francesca Haynes, ed., Nahla Valji, ed.

Abstract:

The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict brings together leading interdisciplinary scholars, policymakers, and practitioners to address a complex range of challenges, contexts, geographies, and issues that arise for women and men in the context of armed conflict. The Handbook addresses war and peace, humanitarian intervention, countering violence and extremism, the United Nations Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, sexual violence, criminal accountability, autonomous weapons, peacekeeping, refugee and internally displaced person (IDP) status, the political economy of war, the economics of conflict, as well as health and economic security. It begins with theoretical approaches to gender and conflict, drawing on the areas of international, peace and conflict, feminist, and masculinities studies. The Handbook explores how women and men’s pre-war societal, economic, and legal status relates to their conflict experiences, affecting the ways in which they are treated in the post-conflict transitional phase. In addition to examining these conflict and post-conflict experiences, the Handbook addresses the differing roles of multiple national and international actors, as well as the UN led Women, Peace, and Security Agenda. Contributions survey the regulatory framework and gendered dimensions of international humanitarian and international human rights law in situations of conflict and occupation as well as addressing, and critiquing, the gendered nature and content of international criminal law. The Handbook also includes grounded country case studies exploring different gendered experiences of conflict in various regions. As a whole, this Handbook seeks to critically examine the contemporary gender-based challenges that emerge in conflict and post-conflicts contexts.

Keywords: gender, conflict, post-conflict, sexual violence, feminism, United Nations, women, Peace and Security agenda, International actors, peace, war

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction: Mapping the Terrain: Gender and Conflict in Contemporary Perspective
Fionnuala Ní Aoláin

2. Theories of War
Laura Sjoberg

3. From Women and War to Gender and Conflict?: Feminist Trajectories
Dubravka Žarkov

4. The Silences in the Rules that Regulate Women during Times of Armed Conflict
Judith Gardam

5. How should we Explain the Recurrence of Violence Conflict, add What Might Gender Have to do with it?
Judy El-Bushra

6. The Gendered Nexus between Conflict and Citizenship in Historical Perspective
Jo Butterfield and Elizabeth Heineman

7. Violence Conflict and Changes in Gender Economic Roles: Implications for Post-Conflict Recovery
Patricia Justino

8. Victims Who are Men
Chris Dolan

9. Women, Peace, and Security: A Critical Analysis of the Security Council's Vision
Dianne Otto

10. Participation and Protection: Security Council Dynamics, Bureaucratic Politics, and the Evolution of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda
Anne Marie Goetz and Rob Jenkins

11. A Genealogy of the Centrality of Sexual Violence to Gender and Conflict
Karen Engle

12. 1235 + 17 = ?: Filling in the Blanks of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda
Kimberly Theidon

13. Complementary and Convergence?: Women, Peace, and Security and Counterterrorism
Naureen Chowdhury Fink and Alison Davidian

14. Unlocking the Potential of CEDAW as an Important Accountability Tool for the Women, Peace and Security Agenda
Pramilla Patten

15. The Promise and Limits of Indicators on Women, Peace and Security
Pablo Castillo Díaz and Hanny Cueva Beteta

16. Humanitarian Intervention and Gender Dynamics
Gina Heathcote

17. (Re)Considering Gender Jurisprudence
Patricia Viseur Sellers

18. Complementarity as a Catalyst for Gender Justice in National Prosecutions
Amrita Kapur

19. Forced Marriageduring Conflict and Mass Atrocity
Valerie Oosterveld

20. Advancing Justice and Making Amenda Through Reparations: Legal and Operational Considerations
Kristin Kalla

21. Colonialism
Amina Mama

22. Conflict, Displacement, and Refugees
Lucy Hovil

23. Gender and Forms of Conflict: The Moral Hazards of Dating the Security Council
Vasuki Nesiah

24. The Martial Rape of Girls and Women in Antiquity and Modernity
Kathy L. Gaca

25. "Mind the Gap": Measuring and Understanding Gendered Conflict Experiences
Amelia Hoover Green

26. Intersectionality: Working in Conflict
Eilish Rooney

27. Agency and Gender Norms in War Economies
Patti Patesch

28. Risk and Resilience: The Physical and Mental Health of Female Civilians during War
Lauren C. Ng and Theresa S. Betancourt

29. The Gender Implications of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Conflict Situations
Barbara A. Frey

30. Unmanned Weapons: Looking for the Gender Dimensions
Christof Heyns and Tess Borden

31. Gender and Peacekeeping
Sabrina Karim and Marsha Henry

32. Peacekeeping, Human Trafficking, and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
Martina E. Vandenberg

33. Women, Peace Negotiations, and Peace Agreements: Opportunities and Challenges
Christine Bell

34. Women's Organizations and Peace Initiatives
Aili Mari Tripp

35. Gender and Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration: Reviewing and Advancing the Field
Dyan Mazurana, Roxanne Krystalli, and Anton Baaré

36. Decolonial Feminism, Gender, and Transitional Justice in Latin America
Pascha Bueno-Hansen

37. Gender and Governance in Post-Conflict and Democratizing Settings
Lisa Kindervater and Sheila Meintjes

38. Who Defines the Red Lines?: The Prospects for Safeguarding Women's Rights and Securing Their Future in Post-Transition Afghanistan
Sari Kouvo and Corey Levine

39. "That's Not My Daughter": The Paradoxes of Documenting Jihadist Mass Rape in 1990s Algeria and Beyond
Karima Bennoune

40. Consequences of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence on Post-Conflict Society: Case Study of Reparations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Lejla Hadzimesic

41. Colombia: Gender and Land Restitution
Donny Meertens

42. Knowing Masculinities in Armed Conflict?: Reflections from Research in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Maria Eriksson Baaz and Maria Stern

43. Northern Ireland: The Significance of a Bottom-Up Women's Movement in a Politically Contested Society
Monica McWilliams and Avila Kilmurray

44. Gendered Suffering and the Eviction of the Native: The Politics of Birth in Occupied East Jerusalem
Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian

45. Rwanda: Women's Political Participation in Post-Conflict State-Building
Doris Buss and Jerusa Ali

46. Sri Lanka: The Impact of Militarization on Women
Ambika Satkunanathan

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Economies, War Economies, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Justice, Livelihoods, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Terrorism, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence

Year: 2018

Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Forced Displacement: Implications for the Health Sector

Citation:

Chynoweth, Sarah K., Julie Freccero, and Heleen Touquet. 2017. "Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Forced Displacement: Implications for the Health Sector." Reproductive Health Matters 25 (51): 90-4. 

Authors: Sarah K. Chynoweth, Julie Freccero, Heleen Touquet

Abstract:

Sexual violence against men and boys is commonplace in many conflict-affected settings and may be frequent in relation to forced displacement as well. Adolescent boys, forming the majority of unaccompanied minors globally, are a particularly vulnerable group. Yet sensitised health services for adult and adolescent male sexual violence survivors are scarce, and barriers to accessing care remain high. We describe current challenges and gaps in the provision of health care for male survivors in settings affected by conflict and forced displacement, and provide suggestions on how to improve service provision and uptake.

Keywords: sexual violence, humanitarian, men and boys, male, health

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Men, Boys, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexual Violence, SV against Men

Year: 2017

Frictions in Transitional Justice Processes: Colombia's Victims Law, Integral Reparation and the Temporality of Multiple Victimization in Displaced Women

Citation:

Rahme, Sophie. 2018. "Frictions in Transitional Justice Processes: Colombia's Victims Law, Integral Reparation and the Temporality of Multiple Victimization in Displaced Women." Gobernar: The Journal of Latin American Public Policy and Governance 2 (1): 33-56.

Author: Sophie Rahme

Abstract:

This article addresses the challenges that integral reparation programs meet when aiming to respond to multiple victimization experienced by displaced women. By adopting the ethnographic concept of “frictions” (Tsing, 2005), I analyze four dimensions of discursive frictions that occur surrounding reparative practice backed by the Law on Victims and Land Restitution and its multiple local encounters and dis-encounters when compensating multiple victimization in the post-conflict of Medellín. Like other studies have identified shortcomings of the idealistic and innovative Colombian reparation program, it becomes evident that the integral reparation efforts fall short in addressing the real complexity of interrelated and multiples victimizations in the urban context. Respectively the paper addresses the question of how experiences of compound victimization are considered within their temporal beginnings, continuities and endings. Derived from field research and problem-centred interviews conducted in 2017 the paper draws on a perspective of compound harm to understand the complexity of multiple victimization experienced by forcibly displaced women.

Keywords: transitional justice, integral reparations, transformative reparations, Colombia's Victims Law, displaced women

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

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