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Feminist Political Economy

Women Peace and Security: Adrift in Policy and Practice


Davis, Laura. 2019. "Women Peace and Security: Adrift in Policy and Practice." Feminist Legal Studies 27 (1): 95-107.

Author: Laura Davis


This comment refects on how the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda has been translated into policy and put into practice by the European Union and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although the WPS agenda has enabled many gains by women peacebuilders, this comment identifes important challenges from these two very diferent contexts. First, situating WPS policy areas within a broader feminist political economy analysis demonstrates how little infuence the WPS agenda has across government. Second, the WPS agenda is being (mis)used to promote heteronormative, patriarchal understanding of ‘gender’, stripped of any power dynamics and excluding any gender identities that do not conform. The result, then, is that WPS policies and practice are adrift in the patriarchal policy mainstream.

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Peacebuilding, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Europe Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2019

Beyond “Market” and “State” Feminism: Gender Knowledge at the Intersections of Marketization and Securitization


Stachowitsch, Saskia. 2019. “Beyond ‘Market’ and ‘State’ Feminism: Gender Knowledge at the Intersections of Marketization and Securitization.” Politics & Gender 15 (1): 151–73.

Author: Saskia Stachowitsch


This article assesses the implications of the shifting market-state relationship for feminism in the neoliberal era. In a case study of the private military and security industry as an actor that is uniquely positioned at the intersections of security governance and global markets, the analysis combines feminist security studies’ critique of securitized gender discourses and feminist global political economy scholarship on corporate-led equality initiatives. Based on a critical discourse analysis of documents from industry and nongovernmental organizations, such as codes of conduct and policy recommendations, I argue that the discourses on gender put forward in the context of security privatization merge securitized and marketized discourses to the effect that the emancipatory potential of “gender” is further curtailed, raising new challenges for feminist knowledge in powerful organizations. The article thus contributes to the critical gender research on private security, debates on the neoliberalization and securitization of feminism, and the integration of feminist security studies and feminist global political economy.

Topics: Economies, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Feminist Foreign Policy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2019

Drawing on the Continuum: A War and Post-war Political Economy of Gender-Based Violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina


Kostovicova, Denisa, Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic, and Marsha Henry. 2020. "Drawing on the Continuum: A War and Post-war Political Economy of Gender-Based Violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina." International Feminist Journal of Politics 22 (2): 250-72.

Authors: Denia Kostovicova, Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic, Marsha Henry


Current understandings of why and how gender-based violence continues beyond the end of conflict remain siloed along theoretical and disciplinary lines. Recent scholarship has addressed the neglected structural dimension when examining the incidence and variation of post-conflict gender-based violence. In particular, continuum of violence and feminist political economy perspectives have offered accounts of gender-based violence during and after conflict. However, these approaches overlook how war and post-war economic processes interact over time and co-constitute the material basis for the continuation of gender-based violence. The war and post-war political economy perspective that we leverage examines critically the distinction, both in theory and practice, between global and local dynamics, and between formal and informal actors in post-conflict societies. Exposing these neglected structural and historical interconnections with evidence from post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, we demonstrate that the material basis of gender-based violence is a cumulative result of political and socio-economic dynamics along the war-to-peace trajectory. Our findings point to the need to be attentive to the enduring material consequences of interests and incentives formed through war, and to the impact of post-war global governance ideologies that transform local conditions conducive to gender-based violence.

Keywords: gender, violence, continuum, political economy, Bosnia

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Political Economies, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2020

Don’t Mention the War! International Financial Institutions and the Gendered Circuits of Violence in Post-Conflict


True, Jacqui, and Aida A. Hozić. 2020. “Don’t Mention the War! International Financial Institutions and the Gendered Circuits of Violence in Post-Conflict.” Review of International Political Economy, April, 1–21. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2020.1732443.

Authors: Jacqui True, Aida A. Hozić


This paper provides a framework for explicitly linking feminist analysis of global political economy and feminist analysis of war/peace through the concept of ‘gendered circuits of violence.’ The framework connects the gendered economics of peace and war through analyses of standard policy mechanisms promoted by International Financial Institutions and International Organizations—from general debt servicing and lending in post-war recovery to microfinance programmes, extractive resource economics, taxation, budgeting and austerity in the state sector. With gendered circuits of violence as the core concept, feminist political economy analysis transgresses security-IPE-development divides. Gendered circuits of violence are manifest through bodies that are carriers of violence from war zones to areas of alleged peace; through IFIs as distributors of harm and comfort to transnational households; and in the interstitial post-conflict spaces created by remittances, care and debt. Feminist analysis reveals the imbrication of capitalist systems with the intersectional politics of gender and race, and the (re)production and diffusion of violent conflict.

Keywords: critical feminist IPE, post-conflict, international financial institutions, gendered violence, war, households

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Households, International Financial Institutions, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Race, Violence

Year: 2020

Frontier Finance: The Role of Microfinance in Debt and Violence in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste


Johnston, Melissa Frances. 2020. “Frontier Finance: The Role of Microfinance in Debt and Violence in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste.” Review of International Political Economy, April, 1–25. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2020.1733633. 

Author: Melissa Frances Johnston


Microfinance programs targeting poor women are considered a ‘prudent’ first step for international financial institutions seeking to rebuild post conflict economies. IFIs continue to visibly support microfinance despite evidence and growing consensus that microfinance neither reduces poverty nor breaks the cycle of domestic violence. In the case of Timor-Leste, a feminist political economy approach reveals how microfinance engendered debt allows for the control, extraction, and accumulation of profits and resources by an elite class and exacerbates gender-based violence. Timorese elite classes have benefitted from microfinance during the Indonesian occupation and in today’s post-conflict regime. Extractive debt relations between elite classes and ordinary citizens are enabled by a gender order that is regulated by brideprice and characterized by gendered circuits of violence. Brideprice weds the exchange of women to the class system in which the (violent) control of women is paramount to retaining political power. Microfinance adds liquidity and high interest rates to the debt relations of brideprice helping to create the very conditions for poor women’s disempowerment in a fragile state. Thus, the success of microfinance is predicated on systems of gender inequality and gendered circuits of violence, debt, and the exchange of women.

Keywords: microfinance, debt, feminist political economy, peacebuilding, brideprice, gender-based violence

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2020

Women, War and Austerity: IFIs and the Construction of Gendered Economic Insecurities in Ukraine


Mathers, Jennifer G. 2020. “Women, War and Austerity: IFIs and the Construction of Gendered Economic Insecurities in Ukraine.” Review of International Political Economy, April, 1–22. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2020.1725903.

Author: Jennifer G. Mathers


This paper analyses the gendered circuits of violence that create and sustain economic insecurity in Ukraine. Drawing on feminist political economy analysis of the dependence of structural adjustment programmes on women’s labor, and feminist security studies critical analysis of the negative effects of militaries on human security, the paper shows how IFI-imposed austerity measures in Ukraine are inextricable from processes of militarization. While the gendered impacts of each of these distinct processes have been explored, this paper empirically demonstrates how IFI loan conditionalities and militarization intensify and reinforce one another precisely through the burdens they place on households and especially on women in the context of conflict.

Keywords: Ukraine, global financial crisis, international financial institutions, gender, conflict, security, russia

Topics: Economies, Feminist Economics, Conflict, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Households, International Financial Institutions, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Security, Violence Regions: Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Russian Federation, Ukraine

Year: 2020

What Kind of Growth? Economies that Work for Women in Post-War Settings

Full Citation: 

Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights. 2017. What Kind of Growth? Economies that Work for Women in Post-War Settings. Boston: Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights.


On July 17 & 18, 2017, Carol Cohn (Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights) and Claire Duncanson (University of Edinburgh) convened a workshop entitled, “What Kind of Growth? Economies that Work for Women in Post-War Settings.” Its focus was post-war economic reconstruction and its gendered impacts. The aims were to:

  • delineate the gendered economic challenges that post-war contexts generate;
  • outline the gendered impacts of current approaches to post-war reconstruction;
  • consider the extent to which feminist alternatives to neoclassical economic models offer the potential for generating solutions.
Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights
Year Published: 

Toward a Transformative Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Full Citation: 

Cohn, Carol and Claire Duncanson. 2015. Toward a Transformative Women, Peace and Security Agenda. Boston: Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights.


In June 2015, fifteen feminist scholars, policy makers and practitioners met in Oslo, Norway, for the augural workshop of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights’ project to create a “Feminist Roadmap for Sustainable Peace.” The purpose of the FRSP’s first workshop was to try to identify the most important transnational actors, processes and dynamics that have shaping effects in post-war countries, and to begin to think-through what women, and men, who seek gender-just, sustainable peace need to know about them, so that if the chain of “ifs” (if we achieve women’s political participation, if these women get into positions where they have some amount of influence, if they want to use that influence for the purpose of transforming unequal gendered power relations) were to become a chain of actual events, they would be better able to achieve their goals.

Carol Cohn
Claire Duncanson
Year Published: 

Ecofeminist Political Economy and the Politics of Money


Mellor, Mary. 2009. "Ecofeminist Political Economy and the Politics of Money." In Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology, edited by Ariel Salleh, 251-67. London: Pluto Press.

Author: Mary Mellor


"So how can the capitalist market be challenged in a way that provides a feasible alternative at a systematic level? As the exploration of externalities shows, the market system places a boundary around certain limited activities and functions that are defined by their value in money terms. Ecofeminist political economy points to the dualist construction of the modern market economy and the way in which economic valuing and the social dominance of men are directly connected. This chapter will explore first the basis of that dualism and then explore the critical question of money issue and circulation that has largely been ignored by both radical and conventional economists" (Mellor 2009, 252).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Economy, Political Economies

Year: 2009

Social Provisioning as a Starting Point for Feminist Economics


Power, Marilyn. 2004. “Social Provisioning as a Starting Point for Feminist Economics.” Feminist Economics 10 (3): 3–19.

Author: Marilyn Power


The past decade has seen a proliferation of writing by feminist economists. Feminist economists are not identified with one particular economic paradigm, yet some common methodological points seem to be emerging. I propose making these starting points more explicit so that they can be examined, critiqued, and built upon. I use the term ‘‘social provisioning’’ to describe this emerging methodology. Its five main components are: incorporation of caring and unpaid labor as fundamental economic activities; use of well-being as a measure of economic success; analysis of economic, political, and social processes and power relations; inclusion of ethical goals and values as an intrinsic part of the analysis; and interrogation of differences by class, race-ethnicity, and other factors. The paper then provides brief illustrations of the use of this methodology in analyses of US welfare reform,gender and development, and feminist ecological economics.

Keywords: social provisioning, welfare reform, gender and development, feminist political economics, feminist ecological economics, feminist methodology

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2004


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