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Feminist Foreign Policy

Pro-Gender Foreign Policy by Stealth: Navigating Global and Domestic Politics in Australian Foreign Policy Making

Citation:

Lee-Koo, Katrina. 2020. "Pro-Gender Foreign Policy by Stealth: Navigating Global and Domestic Politics in Australian Foreign Policy Making." Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (2): 236-49.

Author: Katrina Lee-Koo

Abstract:

As a middle-power nation, Australia promotes its global effectiveness, in part, through the adoption of international norms. Among those that it has more recently embraced has been pro-gender norms. The inclusion—for the first time—of gender equality considerations into overarching strategic doctrines, and the development of stand-alone gender strategies demonstrates this. While this is not without its shortcomings and contradictions, it is evidence that Australia is allowing feminist design to underpin areas of its foreign policy. However, unlike other states, this is not publicly emphasized. In fact, it is as if these policies were developed by stealth. This article examines the depth of Australia’s commitment to pro-gender norms in foreign policy. It argues that there is a genuine embrace of progender norms, but the masculinist cultures of Australia’s politics limit the capacity for it to be publicly debated and celebrated.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2020

Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy and “Gender Cosmopolitanism”

Citation:

Rosamond, Annika Bergman. 2020. "Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy and “Gender Cosmopolitanism.” Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (2): 217-35.

Author: Annika Bergman Rosamond

Abstract:

Gender justice and equality have risen to prominence in the constitution of foreign and security policy. This article locates the analysis of feminist foreign policy (FFP) within the wider context of Sweden’s state feminist tradition as well as its pursuit of “gender cosmopolitanism” in global politics. Both “gender cosmopolitanism” and Sweden’s state feminist tradition provided fertile ground for the formal adoption of FFP in 2014. The article employs poststructural discursive techniques that enable the identification of the statist feminist and cosmopolitan foundations of feminist foreign policy. More specifically, the article provides a discursive analysis of the ethical and feminist ambitions, normative contents, and pitfalls of FFP. Though FFP is grounded in other-regarding cosmopolitan care for vulnerable women and girls beyond borders, it exhibits a range of pitfalls and inconsistencies, such as equating gender with women and, at times, privileging results-oriented strategies over thoroughgoing gender analysis of structural injustices such as gendered violence. The article ends with a discussion of Sweden’s attempts to translate the feminist and cosmopolitan contents of FFP commitments into policy practice, with a focus on the eradication of gender-based violence.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2020

Pro-Gender Norms in Norwegian Peace Engagement: Balancing Experiences, Values, and Interests

Citation:

Skjelsbæk, Inger, and Torunn Lise Tryggestad. 2020. "Pro-Gender Norms in Norwegian Peace Engagement: Balancing Experiences, Values, and Interests." Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (2): 181-98.

Authors: Inger Skjelsbæk, Torunn Lise Tryggestad

Abstract:

The national self-image of Norway is as a gender-equal and peace-promoting nation. Norwegian gender equality policies grew out of a strong social and political civil society engagement from below combined with equal rights laws as well as quota systems implemented from above by the state. In this paper, we explore the intersection of pro-gender norms and peace engagement in Norwegian foreign policy. While gender mainstreaming has been on the agenda of Norwegian development cooperation for decades, the introduction of pro gender norms in peace engagement is a more recent phenomenon. How are gender equality norms and concerns understood and promoted by Norwegian peace facilitators in practice. And how are pro-gender experiences, values, and norms balanced in Norwegian peace engagement?

Topics: Gender, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Norway

Year: 2020

Canada's New Feminist International Assistance Policy: Business as Usual?

Citation:

Parisi, Laura. 2020. "Canada's New Feminist International Assistance Policy: Business as Usual?" Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (2): 163-80.

Author: Laura Parisi

Abstract:

This paper asks to what extent does Canada's new Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP) represent a more transformational and intersectional approach to gender equality and neoliberal international development? In other words, what is “new” about Canada's international development policy when it comes to gender equality and women's empowerment? Through a critical examination of the discourses of economic development in the FIAP on poverty, trade, market citizenship, and the private sector, I argue that the FIAP embodies both neoliberal feminism as well as feminist neoliberalism, which limit the transformational potential and impact of the FIAP on gender and international development strategies.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Pro-Gender Foreign Policy by Stealth: Navigating Global and Domestic Politics in Australian Foreign Policy Making

Citation:

Lee-Koo, Katrina. 2020. “Pro-Gender Foreign Policy by Stealth: Navigating Global and Domestic Politics in Australian Foreign Policy Making.” Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (3): 236–49

Author: Katrina Lee-Koo

Abstract:

As a middle-power nation, Australia promotes its global effectiveness, in part, through the adoption of international norms. Among those that it has more recently embraced has been pro-gender norms. The inclusion— for the first time—of gender equality considerations into overarching strategic doctrines, and the development of stand-alone gender strategies demonstrates this. While this is not without its shortcomings and contradictions, it is evidence that Australia is allowing feminist design to underpin areas of its foreign policy. However, unlike other states, this is not publicly emphasized. In fact, it is as if these policies were developed by stealth. This article examines the depth of Australia’s commitment to pro-gender norms in foreign policy. It argues that there is a genuine embrace of progender norms, but the masculinist cultures of Australia’s politics limit the capacity for it to be publicly debated and celebrated.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2020

Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy and “Gender Cosmopolitanism”

Citation:

Rosamond, Annika Bergman. 2020. “Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy and ‘Gender Cosmopolitanism.’” Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (2): 217–35.

Author: Annika Bergman Rosamond

Abstract:

Gender justice and equality have risen to prominence in the constitution of foreign and security policy. This article locates the analysis of feminist foreign policy (FFP) within the wider context of Sweden’s state feminist tradition as well as its pursuit of “gender cosmopolitanism” in global politics. Both “gender cosmopolitanism” and Sweden’s state feminist tradition provided fertile ground for the formal adoption of FFP in 2014. The article employs poststructural discursive techniques that enable the identification of the statist feminist and cosmopolitan foundations of feminist foreign policy. More specifically, the article provides a discursive analysis of the ethical and feminist ambitions, normative contents, and pitfalls of FFP. Though FFP is grounded in other-regarding cosmopolitan care for vulnerable women and girls beyond borders, it exhibits a range of pitfalls and inconsistencies, such as equating gender with women and, at times, privileging results-oriented strategies over thoroughgoing gender analysis of structural injustices such as gendered violence. The article ends with a discussion of Sweden’s attempts to translate the feminist and cosmopolitan contents of FFP commitments into policy practice, with a focus on the eradication of gender-based violence.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2020

How Gender Became a Defence Issue: A Feminist Perspective on Canadian Military and Defence Policy

Citation:

Eichler, Maya. 2020. “How Gender Became a Defence Issue: A Feminist Perspective on Canadian Defence Policy.” In Turbulent Times, Transformational Possibilities?: Gender and Politics Today and Tomorrow, edited by Fiona MacDonald and Alexandra Dobrowolsky. University of Toronto Press.

Author: Maya Eichler

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Feminist Foreign Policy, Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Understanding Gender Equality in Foreign Policy

Citation:

Bigio, Jamille and Rachel Vogelstein. 2020. Understanding Gender Equality in Foreign Policy. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Authors: Jamille Bigio, Rachel Vogelstein

Annotation:

Summary:
A growing body of research definitively links gender equality with global prosperity and security. Unlocking the potential of half the population is not just a moral obligation—it is an economic and security imperative. At a time when resources are limited, investing in women and girls is a proven way to bolster good governance, economic growth, community health, and peace and stability. Nations seeking to advance national security, maximize the utility of foreign aid, and bolster stable and democratic partners should prioritize women’s advancement.
 
In recent years, a growing number of countries have begun to institutionalize gender equality and women’s empowerment as a foreign policy priority in the areas of diplomacy, defense, aid, and trade. Nations are adopting action plans, creating funds, appointing envoys, and setting aid targets to advance gender equality through development cooperation, diplomatic and security activities, and trade agreements. The most comprehensive effort is the “feminist foreign policy” first articulated by Sweden in 2014—a designation since adopted by Canada in 2017, France in 2019, and Mexico in 2020—which promises greater commitment to gender equality abroad in service of national security at home.
 
Incorporating lessons from the gender mainstreaming approaches pursued by other countries, the U.S. government should take a more systematic and well-resourced approach to promoting gender equality in foreign policy. To strengthen prosperity and stability around the world, the U.S. government should launch a high-level White House council to elevate and coordinate efforts to advance gender equality, issue a government-wide strategy to promote this goal as a domestic and foreign policy priority, close the gender financing gap, and mainstream transparency and accountability on gender equality efforts into foreign policy initiatives. The United States should demonstrate genuine leadership, adopt strong policies, and provide sufficient resources that will not only improve the lives of women and girls but also strengthen the stability and prosperity of entire economies and nations. These steps will help the United States draw on the benefits of women’s empowerment globally and thereby promote international security and global growth. (Summary from Council on Foreign Relations)

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Health, Peace and Security, Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2020

Moving Towards a Feminist Foreign Policy

Citation:

Arshad, Yasmin. 2019. “Moving Towards a Feminist Foreign Policy.”  Pakistan Horizon 72 (1): 63-80.

Author: Yasmin Arshad

Abstract:

The feminist perspective in international relations has become an increasingly popular norm as more and more women call for foreign policy issues to be dealt with from a more gendered lens. With this view in mind, the Security Council of the UN passed Resolution 1325, advocating for inclusion of women in foreign policy, peace and security initiatives at all levels in order to increase gender equality. Sweden is the first country to have a declared feminist foreign policy for which they have created a framework highlighting policy implementations at various levels. This framework is an example of how other countries can also advance the cause of gender equality. However, policy formation and implementation have differing conclusions which is why this paper analyses Sweden's feminist foreign policy and its achievements and whether it is a framework that can be adapted by other countries in different regions as well. The region used as an example in this paper is South Asia which has a different perspective on gender from Sweden and other similar minded western countries.

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2019

Feminist Interventions on Foreign Policy and Diplomacy

Citation:

Ansorg, Nadine, Toni Haastrup, and Katharine Wright. 2020. “Feminist Interventions on Foreign Policy and Diplomacy.” In Routledge Handbook of Feminist Peace Research, edited by Catia Confortini and Tarja Väyrynen. Taylor & Francis Group.

Authors: Nadine Ansorg, Toni Haastrup, Katharine Wright

Abstract:

In this chapter, we examine the contributions of feminist scholarship and activism to the discourses and practices of foreign policy and diplomacy. From the changes in the make of foreign policy actors to include more women, to the implications of the Women, Peace and Security agenda and the nascent adoption of Feminist Foreign Policy by some countries, we show how feminism has been fundamental to the evolution international politics’ search for peace. We nevertheless highlight persistent blind spots and unintended consequences of the ‘feminist’ turn in foreign policy and diplomatic practice highlighting their challenges to credible ethical practices of states. As we argue, states located in the Global North are more predisposed to branding their foreign policy as ‘feminist’. The implementation of feminist foreign policy for the distant other obscures domestic realities, while reinforcing colonial logics. We conclude that while this feminist turn has given more space for feminist interventions, the adoption of an ethical code is crucial when tackling tensions and contradictions between idealism and pragmatism in feminist foreign policy.

Keywords: feminism, FFP, foreign policy, diplomacy

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS

Year: 2020

Pages

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