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Feminisms

Pioneers of U.S. Ecofeminism and Environmental Justice

Citation:

Mann, Susan A. 2011. “Pioneers of U.S. Ecofeminism and Environmental Justice.” Feminist Formations 23 (2): 1–25.

Author: Susan A. Mann

Abstract:

From the late-nineteenth through the early decades of the twentieth century, women in the United States played important roles in the conservation and preservation of wildlife, as well as in environmental activism that fostered clean air, water, and food in our nation’s urban centers. This article examines the contributions of women of different classes and races to these environmental struggles. It not only synthesizes the findings of previous environmental histories, but also focuses more attention on the ways environmental contamination affected the lives of women of color and their struggles against environmental racism. In this way, an environmental justice lens is used to excavate and reclaim the history of our ecofeminist predecessors to better ensure that the visions and voices of marginalized peoples do not remain hidden from history.

Keywords: ecofeminism, environmental history, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Justice

Year: 2011

The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism

Citation:

Warren, Karen J. 1990. “The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism.” Environmental Ethics 12 (2): 125–46.

Author: Karen J. Warren

Annotation:

Summary:
Ecological feminism is the position that there are important connections-historical, symbolic, theoretical-between the domination of women and the domination of nonhuman nature. I argue that because the conceptual connections between the dual dominations of women and nature are located in an oppressive patriarchal conceptual framework characterized by a logic of domination, (1) the logic of traditional feminism requires the expansion of feminism to include ecological feminism and (2) ecological feminism provides a framework for developing a distinctively feminist environmental ethic. I conclude that any feminist theory and any environmental ethic which fails to take seriously the interconnected dominations of women and nature is simply inadequate. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 1990

States and Markets: An Ecofeminist Perspective on International Political Economy

Citation:

Tickner, J. Ann. 1993. “States and Markets: An Ecofeminist Perspective on International Political Economy.” International Political Science Review / Revue Internationale de Science Politique 14 (1): 59–69.

Author: J. Ann Tickner

Abstract:

This article examines the way in which the interaction between states and markets since the seventeenth century has depended on the exploitation of nature. The accumulation of wealth and power by the early modern state depended on the enlightenment ideology that saw nature as a resource to be exploited for human progress. An expansionary Eurocentric state system imposed this ideology on other cultures through imperialism and the globalization of capitalism. Feminists believe that this attitude toward nature has also been associated with the exploitation of women and other cultures. While environmentalists look to international regulation to solve ecological problems caused by the development of the international system, feminists and social ecologists claim that not until all these forms of exploitation are ended can an ecologically secure future be achieved.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Globalization, Political Economies

Year: 1993

The Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy

Citation:

Sandilands, Catriona. 1999. The Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.

Author: Catriona Sandilands

Annotation:

Summary:
Heroic mothers defending home and hearth against a nature deformed by multinationalist corporate practice: this may be a compelling story, but it is not necessarily the source of valid feminist or ecological critique. What’s missing is the democratic element, an insistence on bringing to public debate all the relations of gender and nature that such a view takes for granted. This book aims to situate a commitment to theory and politics—that is, to democratic practice—at the center of ecofeminism and, thus, to move toward an ecofeminism that is truly both feminist and ecological.

The Good-Natured Feminist inaugurates a sustained conversation between ecofeminism and recent writings in feminist postmodernism and radical democracy. Starting with the assumption that ecofeminism is a body of democratic theory, the book tells how the movement originated in debates about “nature” in North American radical feminisms, how it then became entangled with identity politics, and how it now seeks to include nature in democratic conversation and, especially, to politicize relations between gender and nature in both theoretical and activist milieus. (Summary from University of Minnesota Press)

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender

Year: 1999

Eco-Feminism: Lessons for Feminism from Ecology

Citation:

Rosser, Sue V. 1991. “Eco-Feminism: Lessons for Feminism from Ecology.” Women’s Studies International Forum 14 (3): 143–51.

Author: Sue V. Rosser

Abstract:

For almost two decades feminists have successfully used the lens of gender to critique the extent to which androcentric bias has distorted the theory and practice of science. More recently ecofeminists have extended this critique to ecology, recognizing male domination and exploitation of both women and the environment. In this paper I pose the question in the other direction, to explore what the science of ecology in its theories, methods, and practice might contribute to the critique of feminism. In their fusion as ecofiminism both theories can intertwine and complement to form a strong framework for praxis.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations

Year: 1991

Feminism and the Mastery of Nature

Citation:

Plumwood, Val. 1993. Feminism and the Mastery of Nature. London: Routledge.

Author: Val Plumwood

Annotation:

Summary:
Two of the most important political movements of the late twentieth century are those of environmentalism and feminism. In this book, Val Plumwood argues that feminist theory has an important opportunity to make a major contribution to the debates in political ecology and environmental philosophy.

Feminism and the Mastery of Nature explains the relation between ecofeminism, or ecological feminism, and other feminist theories including radical green theories such as deep ecology. Val Plumwood provides a philosophically informed account of the relation of women and nature, and shows how relating male domination to the domination of nature is important and yet remains a dilemma for women. (Summary from CRC Press)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 1993

Re-Writing Corporate Environmentalism: Ecofeminism, Corporeality and the Language of Feeling

Citation:

Phillips, Mary. 2014. “Re-Writing Corporate Environmentalism: Ecofeminism, Corporeality and the Language of Feeling.” Gender, Work & Organization 21 (5): 443–58. 

Author: Mary Phillips

Abstract:

For ecofeminism, the rationalist and instrumentalist responses of most corporations to multiple ecological crises are characteristic of a ‘logic of patriarchy’ based on interrelated and cross-cutting dualisms that support the subordination of nature and other oppressed groups. Dualisms such as culture/nature, reason/body justify corporate denial or appropriation of the feminine, the maternal and nature. Combining ecofeminist philosophy and the work of Helene Cixous, the paper suggests that a subversive approach utilizing embodied, poetic writing could begin to move corporations, and those who work with and in them, to value feeling and organic embeddedness and encourage a more ecocentric engagement with the world.

Keywords: ecofeminism, Cixous, embodiment, nature, ecological crisis

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2014

Gender Equality and State Environmentalism

Citation:

Norgaard, Kari, and Richard York. 2005. “Gender Equality and State Environmentalism.” Gender & Society 19 (4): 506–22.

Authors: Kari Norgaard, Richard York

Abstract:

There are several compelling reasons to expect that gender equality may serve to foster state environmentalism. However, most previous research on environmental politics has neglected gender. To help further our understanding of the connection between gender and environmental politics, the authors empirically assess the association between the representation of women in national Parliament and environmental treaty ratification, using a large sample of nations. The findings indicate that nations with higher proportions of women in Parliament are more prone to ratify environmental treaties than are other nations. The results point to the importance of considering the role of gender in analyses of state behavior and environmental politics and are consistent with the argument of some feminist theorists that the exploitation of nature and the exploitation of women are interconnected.

Keywords: ecofeminism, environmental treaty ratification, state environmentalism

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation

Year: 2005

Ecofeminism

Citation:

Mies, Maria, and Vandana Shiva. 2014. Ecofeminism. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Maria Mies, Vandana Shiva

Annotation:

Summary:
This groundbreaking work remains as relevant today as when it was when first published. Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva argue that ecological destruction and industrial catastrophes constitute a direct threat to everyday life, the maintenance of which has been made the particular responsibility of women. In both industrialized societies and the developing countries, new wars, violent ethnic chauvinisms and the malfunctioning of the economy pose urgent questions. Is there a relationship between patriarchal oppression and the destruction of nature in the name of profit and progress? How can women counter the violence inherent in these processes? Should they look to a link between the women's movement and other social movements? These two world-renowned feminist environmental activists offer a thought-provoking analysis of these and many other issues from a unique North-South perspective. (Summary from WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, "New Wars", Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Violence

Year: 2014

Green Politics: Ecofeminist, Ecofeminine or Ecomasculine?

Citation:

Mellor, Mary. 1992. “Green Politics: Ecofeminist, Ecofeminine or Ecomasculine?” Environmental Politics 1 (2): 229–51.

Author: Mary Mellor

Abstract:

Many commentators have seen a ‘natural’ affiliation between the ecology movement and the feminist movement. The green movement has attracted many women members and supporters although the German Green Party has adopted the most overtly feminist stance. In Britain, neither feminism nor the presence of women appears to have had a profound effect on green politics. Ecofeminists argue that green politics should start from women's experience as women share with nature a common oppression at the hand of male‐dominated ‘progress’. They also share with the natural world a common experience of nurturing and life‐giving. The failure of mainstream (male) green thinking to incorporate women's experience of caring and nurturing is most clearly revealed in the debate around the future of work. Some aspects of women's lives have been incorporated into green thinking, particularly in the distinction between the feminine and masculine ‘principles’. Without a distinctively feminist perspective these principles are seen as cross‐gender and no account is taken of the imbalance of power between men and women that these ‘principles’ represent. In the absence of a positive integration between feminism and green thinking, green politics is in danger of reverting to, or never leaving, a masculinist stance reflecting the values of patriarchal society.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation

Year: 1992

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