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Masculine Republicans and Feminine Democrats: Gender and American's Explicit and Implicit Images of the Political Party


Winter, Nicholas J.G. 2010. “Masculine Republicans and Feminine Democrats: Gender and American’s Explicit and Implicit Images of the Political Party.” Political Behavior 32 (4): 587-618. 

Author: Nicholas J.G. Winter


During the past three decades Americans have come to view the parties increasingly in gendered terms of masculinity and femininity. Utilizing three decades of American National Election Studies data and the results of a cognitive reaction-time experiment, this paper demonstrates empirically that these connections between party images and gender stereotypes have been forged at the explicit level of the traits that Americans associate with each party, and also at the implicit level of unconscious cognitive connections between gender and party stereotypes. These connections between the parties and masculinity and femininity have important implications for citizens' political cognition and for the study of American political behavior

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2010

From Obama to Abbott


Johnson, Carol. 2013. “From Obama to Abbott.” Australian Feminist Studies 28 (75): 14-29. 

Author: Carol Johnson


This article analyses how politicians' use of emotion is gendered. Key Australian, US and UK politicians studied include Obama, George W. Bush, Hillary Clinton, Cameron, Rudd, Abbott and Gillard. Emotions analysed range from fear to compassion. A particular focus is placed on issues of masculinity; however, the implications for constructions of both femininity and masculinity will be considered, including arguments that female politicians face particular problems in utilising emotion, for example, in projecting an image of being both tough and compassionate. It will be argued that it is not just that politicians' use of emotion intersects with issues of gender but that particular gendered identities are a key vehicle via which emotion is deployed. Consequently, the analysis contributes new insights to both the literature on the politics of emotion and the literature on masculinity and gender. 

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America, Oceania Countries: Australia, United States of America

Year: 2013

Picturing Islamic Authority: Gender Metaphors and Sufi Leadership in Senegal


Hill, Joseph. 2014. “Picturing Islamic Authority: Gender Metaphors and Sufi Leadership in Senegal.” Islamic Africa 5 (2): 275-315. 

Author: Joseph Hill


Gendered metaphors of begetting, birth, milk nursing, maternal nurturing, virility, filial piety, patrilineage, and marital relationships have been central to Sufi imaginations of religious knowledge and authority for over a millennium. Contemporary adherents of the Fayḍa Tijāniyya Sufi movement in Senegal continue to use these metaphors, picturing changing relations of religious authority in terms of familiar social realities. Although the most widely used metaphors are perhaps those of fatherhood for male leaders and motherhood for female leaders, a range of masculine and feminine metaphors can describe either men or women. The Fayḍa Tijāniyya's founder, Shaykh Ibrahim Niasse, is best known to disciples as “Baay” (“Father”). The paternal metaphor is largely reserved for Shaykh Ibrahim's unique place in the movement. Yet women leaders overwhelmingly describe themselves in terms of maternal metaphors, presenting religious leadership as growing naturally out of their maternal qualities. At the same time, these women deconstruct gender distinctions using mystical discourses, sometimes presenting all Sufis as “men” and sometimes insisting that gender has no reality. Although some scholars have argued that Sufi gender metaphors value men and masculinity while devaluing women and femininity, this article shows that the effects of a metaphor must be sought in the performative context in which it is invoked. Ancient gender metaphors now serve to imagine new configurations of religious authority, including the growing number and influence of women Sufi leaders.

Topics: Clan, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Religion Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Senegal

Year: 2014

Equality Means Business? Governing Gender through Transnational Public-Private Partnerships


Prügl, Elisabeth, and Jacqui True. 2014. “Equality Means Business? Governing Gender through Transnational Public-Private Partnerships.” Review of International Political Economy 21 (6): 1137–69.

Authors: Elisabeth Prügl, Jacqui True


From the World Bank's 'gender equality is smart economics' to The Economist's 'womenomics' and Nike's 'girl effect', feminism seems to have well and truly penetrated the business world. Government action on behalf of gender equality is well institutionalized but private corporations appear as a new actor in this cause. This article asks: What do businesses and their public partners do in order to advance gender equality? What motivates their engagement now and how does it fit into existing public and private relationships of power? What do they mean for feminist agendas? How legitimate are they? And how effective are they? To address these questions the article examines four exemplary initiatives involving businesses in advancing gender equality and women's empowerment: the Goldman Sachs 10,000 Women Global Initiative, the World Economic Forum's Women Leaders and Gender Parity Program, the European Union's Programme on Gender Balance in Decision-Making Positions, and the UN Global Compact-UNIFEM Women's Empowerment Principles for Business. Our purpose is to conceptually locate these initiatives as new private forms of governance involving partnerships with governments. We assess these initiatives employing criteria of feminist evaluation and find decidedly ambiguous results. We argue that the new attention to gender equality in business and global economic governance is both an expression of and a key process in the transformation of states and corporations in the context of global competition and restructuring.

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, International Financial Institutions, International Organizations, Multi-national Corporations

Year: 2014

Militarism, conflict and women's activism in the global era: Challenges and prospects for women in three West African contexts


Mama, Amina and Margo Okazawa-Rey. 2012. "Militarism, conflict and women's activism in the global era: challenges and prospects for women in three West African contexts." Feminist Review 101 (1): 97-123.

Authors: Amina Mama, Margo Okazawa-Rey


This article develops a feminist perspective on militarism in Africa, drawing examples from the Nigerian, Sierra Leonean and Liberian civil wars spanning several decades to examine women’s participation in the conflict, their survival and livelihood strategies, and their activism. We argue that postcolonial conflicts epitomise some of the worst excesses of militarism in the era of neoliberal globalisation, and that the economic, organisational and ideological features of militarism undermine the prospects for democratisation, social justice and genuine security, especially for women, in post-war societies. Theorisations of ‘new wars’ and the war economy are taken as entry points to a discussion of the conceptual and policy challenges posed by the enduring and systemic cultural and material aspects of militarism. These include the contradictory ways in which women are affected by the complex relationship between gendered capitalist processes and militarism, and the manner in which women negotiate their lives through both. Finally, we highlight the potential of transnational feminist theorising and activism for strengthening intellectual and political solidarities and argue that the globalised military security system can be our ‘common context for struggle’1 as contemporary feminist activist scholars.

Keywords: militarism, gender, armed conflict, West Africa, feminism, security

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Democracy / Democratization, Economies, Gender, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Justice, Livelihoods, Militarized livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone

Year: 2012

Gender Water Networks: Femininity and Masculinity in Water Politics in Bolivia


Laurie, Nina. 2011. “Gender Water Networks: Femininity and Masculinity in Water Politics in Bolivia.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35 (1): 172–88. 

Author: Nina Laurie


This article explores how transnational networking around neoliberal water policies intersects with drives to mainstream gender. It examines how understandings of gender are constructed through water conflicts and demonstrates how complex contemporary gendered water experiences are reflected in a variety of networks operating at and across different scales. It challenges essentialist accounts of gender within policy debates, demonstrating how gendered subjectivities are produced, reproduced and disrupted through hybrid networks of struggle. It shows how these subjectivities enter the global arena through the anti-globalization movement. The article suggests that some transnational water networks become hybrid spaces that draw in both those who support and contest neoliberal agendas and argues that contemporary analyses of water must be understood in this context of intersection. It draws on the example of Bolivian water politics to highlight how gender intersects with ethnicity, notions of appropriate femininity and constructions of heroic masculinities. It illustrates how women's activities are circumscribed by understandings of the supermadre and explores how this femininity has become powerful in representational terms. Finally, the article examines the disciplining role of sexuality in producing femininities and understandings of heroic masculinity in national and transnational settings, including the water ministry and wider contemporary Bolivian politics. 


Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2011

Poder e Igualdade: as relações de gênero entre sindicalistas rurais de Chapecó, Santa Catarina


Boni, Valdete. 2004. "Poder e Igualdade: as relações de gênero entre sindicalistas rurais de Chapecó, Santa Catarina." Estudos Feministas, 12: 289-302.

Author: Valdete Boni



A participação das mulheres na direção dos sindicatos, incluindo o Sindicato de Trabalhadores Rurais, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. O movimento sindical rural, historicamente masculino, não aceitava mulheres associadas até início dos anos 1980. Hoje, as mulheres vêm ocupando cargos nas direções executivas, o que não significa que os sindicatos tenham mudado suas práticas discriminatórias. Neste texto analiso as relações de gênero e poder que envolvem homens e mulheres dirigentes no oeste do estado de Santa Catarina. Mesmo com a abertura do espaço sindical para as mulheres e a instauração da cota mínima de 30% de participação feminina estabelecida pela CUT, não há muitas mulheres nos cargos de direção. Elas ficam ‘escondidas’ nos quadros de apoio, ou não participam igualmente, já que o sindicato não evoluiu quanto às suas práticas cotidianas, ainda discriminatórias. É uma batalha constante aliar reivindicações de classe à busca por igualdade de gênero e poder. Às vezes, as mulheres precisam escolher uma das bandeiras.


The participation of the women in the direction of the unions, including Agricultural Workers, has increased in recent years. Until the 80’s, the agricultural syndical movement, specially male, did not accept women associates. Nowadays, women are occupying positions in the executive directory but it does not mean that the unions have changed its pratical discriminatory. This paper presents an analysis concernig gender and power, i.e., a relation between men and women leadership in the west of Santa Catarina State. In spite of improving their participation in the unions and to be established by CUT that 30% of the minimum quota should be women, there are not enough women in the directory positions. They are effectly ocuppying administrative positions or they do not participate equally since the union did not improve its discriminatory participation. It is a frequently war to combine class claims and the search of equality and power gender. Sometimes, they have to choose one claim.

Keywords: gênero, sindicalismo, empoderamento

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

O papel das mulheres no desenvolvimento rural: uma leitura para Timor-Leste


Narciso, Vanda and Pedro Damião de Sousa Henriques. 2008. "O papel das mulheres no desenvolvimento rural: uma leitura para Timor-Leste." CEFAGE-UE Working Paper, Universidade de Évora, Évora.

Authors: Vanda Narciso, Pedro Damião de Sousa Henriques



O caminho percorrido para que as questões do género e do desenvolvimento e em especial a sua interligação sejam assuntos importantes e alvo de atenção tanto académica como política, foi longo. Várias áreas do conhecimento, como a sociologia, a antropologia e a economia, contribuem para a construção do conhecimento neste domínio, a par de outras mais recentes como os estudos feministas e os estudos pós-coloniais. Como resultado, as teorias e os conceitos sobre a relação das mulheres com o desenvolvimento e os efeitos deste sobre as mulheres têm sido vários. O objectivo deste trabalho foi em primeiro lugar pôr em relevo o papel que as mulheres desempenham no desenvolvimento rural, identificando as suas funções, as principais abordagens utilizadas e a sua situação perante o enquadramento jurídico internacional. Em segundo lugar fazemos uma aplicação à situação das mulheres em Timor-Leste, abarcando os aspectos sociais, nomeadamente os papéis de género, da família, e o acesso aos recursos naturais, com saliência para a terra. Faz-se igualmente uma leitura da situação das mulheres perante o direito positivo e o sistema costumeiro. A análise recorreu essencialmente a informação documental e a observações feitas no local em 2000 e 2003. Os contributos que as mulheres de Timor-Leste poderão dar ao desenvolvimento do seu país
está bastante condicionado pelas desigualdades de género presentes no direito consuetudinário, no qual destacamos o desigual acesso aos recursos naturais, com relevo para a terra. A HRBA parece ser a abordagem que melhor se adapta a uma integração plena das mulheres no processo de desenvolvimento, ao defender a igualdade e a não discriminação das mulheres em qualquer circunstância, e ao apelar à formação e ao empoderamento das mulheres para o exercício dos seus direitos.
It has been a long way, until both gender and development were recognized as important issues in academic and political arena. Several fields of science, such as sociology, anthropology, and economy contributed to the knowledge in this area, in addition to recent developments in feminist and pos-colonial studies. As a result, there are different gender approaches to development. The first objective of this paper is to stress the role of women in rural development, identifying their roles, the main gender approaches to development and women status under international law framework. The second aim is to analyze the position of women in East Timor with respect to social aspects, namely the gender roles, the family, access to natural resources and women status under the legal system and the traditional law. This analysis used documental sources of information and observations made in East Timor in 2000 and 2003. The contribution of East Timorese women to the development is heavy constrained by the gender inequality present in traditional/customary law, in which unequal access to natural resources, in special land access, is relevant. The HRBA seems to be the best approach to a full integration of women in the development process, once it vindicates the right to equality and non discrimination and advocates training and empowerment as means to make women exercise their rights.


Keywords: gênero, direitos à terra, desenvolvimento rural, Timor-Leste, gender, land rights, rural development, East Timor

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2008

Jeito de mulher rural: a busca de direitos sociais e da igualdade de gênero no Rio Grande do Sul


Van Der Schaaf, Alie. 2003. "Jeito de mulher rural: a busca de direitos sociais e da igualdade de gênero no Rio Grande do Sul." Sociologias, 5 (10): 412-42.

Author: Alie Van Der Schaaf


Este trabalho trata de processos emancipatórios de mulheres, em especial de pequenas agricultoras no sul do Brasil, no Movimento de Mulheres Trabalhadoras Rurais do Rio Grande do Sul – MMTR-RS. A vida diária das agricultoras nos providencia elementos cruciais para entender a sua ação social, sendo o âmbito em que se produzem os significados culturais. Além disso, o enfoque na vida diária revela o impacto dos contextos históricos, econômicos, religiosos e políticos específicos em que a ação social acontece e nos ajuda a entender como as participantes chegam a problematizar demandas coletivas e a desafiar a arena política.

Keywords: movimentos sociais, gênero, cidadania, agricultura, Brasil

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation, Religion, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2003


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