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Femininity/ies

War and Gender Performance

Citation:

Stephan, Rita. 2014. “War and Gender Performance.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (2): 297–316. doi:10.1080/14616742.2013.849969.

Author: Rita Stephan

Abstract:

The 2006 war in Lebanon that erupted between Hezbollah and Israel marked the largest evacuation of Americans abroad since World War II. This article captures the experiences of Lebanese-American women and investigates how gender identity was expressed during these evacuations. Presented from the point of view of a participant-observer and personal interviews, findings show that gender became a master identity that influenced these women's choices regarding how to escape the country and return to the United States. Some embraced dependency upon masculinist exercises of power while others claimed agency as they determined their own fate and carried out their own evacuation without waiting to be rescued by the state or male kin members. The evacuation stories in this article confirm and illuminate the complexity of ethnic citizenship and gendered agency.

Keywords: Lebanon, 2006 Lebanon Israeli war, women's agency, evacuation, gender identity, women and children, feminine vulnerability, patriarchy and militarism, kinship, gender performance

Topics: Citizenship, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Girls, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Post-Conflict Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 2014

Normative, Agitated, and Rebellious Femininities among East and Central African Refugee Women

Citation:

Jaji, Rose. 2015. “Normative, Agitated, and Rebellious Femininities among East and Central African Refugee Women.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (4): 494–509. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2014.885886.

 

Author: Rose Jaji

Abstract:

This article discusses femininities among East and Central African refugee women self-settled in Nairobi, Kenya. It argues that while normative approaches to refugee studies depict a homogeneous refugee femininity inherently synonymous with vulnerability and ‘victimhood,’ femininity among refugee women in Nairobi is heterogeneous, fluid, and complex. It is premised on individual refugee women's marital statuses in relation to economic situation. The article argues that femininity is a constraint in some instances and a resource in others, such that what exists among the refugee women is not a single femininity but a continuum of femininities. Specifically, the article conceptualizes femininity under three categories, namely: normative, agitated, and rebellious femininities.

Keywords: femininity, refugee women, vulnerability, self-policing, resistance, opportunities

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Femininity/ies Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2015

Gender, Race, Militarism and Remembrance: The Everyday Geopolitics of the Poppy

Citation:

Basham, Victoria M. 2016. “Gender, Race, Militarism and Remembrance: The Everyday Geopolitics of the Poppy.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (6): 883–96. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2015.1090406.

 

Author: Victoria M. Basham

Abstract:

This article offers a feminist analysis of how British military violence and war are, in part, made possible through everyday embodied and emotional practices of remembrance and forgetting. Focusing on recent iterations of the Royal British Legion’s Annual Poppy Appeal, I explore how the emotionality, and gendered and racial politics of collective mourning provide opportunities for the emergence of ‘communities of feeling’, through which differently gendered and racialised individuals can find their ‘place’ in the national story. I aim to show that in relying on such gendered and racial logics of emotion, the Poppy Appeal invites communities of feeling to remember military sacrifice, whilst forgetting the violence and bloodiness of actual warfare. In so doing, the poppy serves to reinstitute war as an activity in which masculinised, muscular ‘protectors’ necessarily make sacrifices for the feminised ‘protected’. The poppy is thus not only a site for examining the everyday politics of contemporary collective mourning, but its emotional, gendered and racialised foundations and how these work together to animate the geopolitics of war.

Keywords: gender, race, everyday militarism, rememberance, emotion

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Race Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2016

The Present Tense of Afghanistan: Accounting for Space, Time and Gender in Processes of Militarisation

Citation:

Hyde, Alexandra. 2016. “The Present Tense of Afghanistan: Accounting for Space, Time and Gender in Processes of Militarisation.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (6): 857–68. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2015.1058759.

 

Author: Alexandra Hyde

Abstract:

Based on ethnographic research among women married to servicemen, this article explores the diffusion of militarisation across time as well as social space. The study setting is a garrison town in Germany during the deployment of women's husbands to Afghanistan. Rather than prioritising the grand narratives of linear time prevalent in IR and military history, however, this article takes into account cyclical and everyday modes of temporality that have traditionally been associated (and undervalued) as feminised ‘zones’, including reproduction, the domestic sphere and local social space. The article explores the temporal register of an operational tour and demonstrates the material, discursive and emotional labour undertaken by military wives in smoothing and converting this rupture into stability through everyday practices. Accounting for the diffusion of militarisation over time as well as space in this way provides further evidence that its causes and effects are intricately gendered.

Keywords: militarisation, temporality, contingency, war, home

Topics: Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Germany

Year: 2016

Engendering Genocide: Gender, Conflict and Violence

Citation:

Gangoli, Geetanjali. 2006. “Engendering Genocide: Gender, Conflict and Violence.” Women’s Studies International Forum 29 (5): 534–8.

Author: Geetanjali Gangoli

Abstract:

Thematic connections between gender, conflict and violence are significant areas of enquiry in recent times. Engendering conflict has been of some concern to academics, given the context of national and international conflict in areas as diverse as Bosnia, Iraq, India, the UK and the USA. The conflicts have taken forms as varied as internal conflicts between religious and ethnic communities in different parts of the world, acts of aggression against sovereign states, terrorist attacks and the global 'war against terror', the stigmatisation and demonisation of the Muslim community. All these factors impact on, and are impacted by gender.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gender-Based Violence, Genocide, Violence

Year: 2006

Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial (In)securities, and Gender(ed) Representations in South Asia's Nuclear Policies

Citation:

Das, Runa. 2010. “Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial (In)securities, and Gender(ed) Representations in South Asia’s Nuclear Policies.” Social Identities 16 (6): 717–40.

Author: Runa Das

Abstract:

Through a comparative study of India and Pakistan's national security discourses, this article explores the linkages between post-colonial India and Pakistan's nationalist/communalist identities, configurations of masculinities, and gendered representations underpinning their nuclear (in)securities. This paper contends that the colonial politics of place-making in the sub-continent has not only inscribed a process of ‘othering’ between these states but has also facilitated the rise of divergent visions of post-colonial nationalisms, which, at each of their phases and with particular configurations of masculinities, have used women's bodies to re-map India-Pakistan's borders and national (in)securities. This article particularly draws attention to a new form of gendered manipulation in South Asian politics in the late 1990s, whereby both states, embedded in colonial notions of religious/cultural masculinities, have relied on discourses of Hindu/Indian and Muslim/Pakistani women's violence and protection from the ‘other’ to pursue aggressive policies of nuclearization. It is at this conjectural moment of a Hinduicized and Islamicized nationalism (flamed by the contestations of a Hindu versus an Islamic masculinity) that one needs to provide a feminist re-interpretation of India-Pakistan's nationalist identities, gendered imaginaries, and their re-articulation of national (in)securities – that represents a religious/gendered ‘otherness’ in South Asia's nuclear policies.

Keywords: nationalism, communalism, gender, representations, nuclear insecurity, South Asian politics

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2010

Women and State Military Forces

Citation:

Cohn, Carol, ed. 2012. "Women and State Military Forces." Chap. 6 in Women and Wars. Malden, MA: Polity Press.  

Author: Jennifer Mathers

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Violence

Year: 2012

Clamor for Justice: Sexual Violence, Armed Conflict and Violent Land Dispossession

Citation:

Méndez Gutiérrez, Luz and Amanda Carrera Guerra. 2015. Clamor for Justice: Sexual Violence, Armed Conflict, and Violent Land Dispossession. Equipo de Estudios Comunitarios y Acción Psicosocial - ECAP.

 

Authors: Luz Méndez Gutiérrez, Amanda Carrera Guerra

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
I. The Social Context
The current context
Historical contexts of the two episodes of sexual violence analyzed in this book
 
II. Indigenous women: oppression and emancipation
Land dispossession-rape: a recurring dyad throughout history
Resistance and rebellion
 
III. The women protagonists of this study in their space and time
 
IV. The Women of Sepur Zarco
Human Rights Violations
The consequences
The Sepur Zarco women’s struggles for justice
 
V. The Women of Lote Ocho
Human rights violations
The Lote Ocho women’s struggle for justice 
 
VI. Q’eqchí women’s perceptions of community justice
Comparing community justice with state justice
Community justice: affected by unequal gender relations
 
VII. Conclusions

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Health, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against women Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2015

Gender, War, and Conflict

Citation:

Sjoberg, Laura. 2014. Gender, War, and Conflict. Cambridge: Polity Press. 

 

Author: Laura Sjoberg

Annotation:

"From Pakistan to Chechnya, Sri Lanka to Canada, pioneering women are taking their places in formal and informal military structures previously reserved for, and assumed appropriate only for men. Women have fought in wars, either as women or covertly dressed as men, throughout the history of warfare, but only recently have they been allowed to join state militaries, insurgent groups, and terrorist organizations in unprecedented numbers. This begs the question - how useful are traditional gendered categories in understanding the dynamics of war and conflict? And why are our stories of gender roles in war typically so narrow? Who benefits from them? In this illuminating book, Laura Sjoberg explores how gender matters in war-making and war-fighting today. Drawing on a rich range of examples from conflicts around the world, she shows that both women and men play many more diverse roles in wars than either media or scholarly accounts convey. Gender, she argues, can be found at every turn in the practice of war; it is crucial to understanding not only 'what war is', but equally how it is caused, fought and experienced."

(WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, LGBTQ

Year: 2014

Pages

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