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Femininity/ies

Renegotiating Gender Roles and Cultivation Practices in the Nepali Mid-Hills: Unpacking the Feminization of Agriculture

Citation:

Spangler, Kaitlyn, and Maria Elisa Christie. 2019. "Renegotiating Gender Roles and Cultivation Practices in the Nepali Mid-Hills: Unpacking the Feminization of Agriculture." Agriculture and Human Values 37: 415-32.

Authors: Kaitlyn Spangler, Maria Elisa Christie

Abstract:

The feminization of agriculture narrative has been reproduced in development literature as an oversimplified metric of empowerment through changes in women’s labor and managerial roles with little attention to individuals’ heterogeneous livelihoods. Grounded in feminist political ecology (FPE), we sought to critically understand how labor and managerial feminization interact with changing agricultural practices. Working with a local NGO as part of an international, donor-funded research-for-development project, we conducted semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and participant observation with over 100 farmers in Mid-Western Nepal in 2017. Household structure and headship are dynamic in the context of male out-migration, pushing women to take on new agricultural duties and increasing household labor responsibilities. In this context, decision-making processes related to agricultural management and new cultivation practices illustrate ongoing renegotiations of gender and cultivation practices within and beyond the household. We contend that the heterogeneity of household power dynamics muddies the empowering impacts of migration and emphasize the importance of community spaces as a locus of subjectivity formation and social value. We conclude that FPE can illuminate complexities of power, space, and individual responses to socio-ecological conditions that challenge the current feminization of agriculture framework.

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Femininity/ies, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Gendered Preferences: How Women’s Inclusion in Society Shapes Negotiation Occurrence in Intrastate Conflicts

Citation:

Nagel, Robert Ulrich. 2020. “Gendered Preferences: How Women’s Inclusion in Society Shapes Negotiation Occurrence in Intrastate Conflicts.” Journal of Peace Research (April): 1-16.

Author: Robert Ulrich Nagel

Abstract:

To what extent do gender relations in society influence the likelihood of negotiations during intrastate disputes? A substantial body of literature recognizes gendered inequalities as integral to understanding conflict, yet they have received little attention in systematic studies of conflict management. I argue that patriarchal gender relations that reflect a preference for masculinity over femininity influence states’ propensity to negotiate with rebels. I draw on the concept of practices to explain how gender relations shape government preferences for negotiations. Specifically, I contend that practices of excluding women from fully participating in public life institutionalize violence as the preferred way of managing conflict. The implication is that countries with more patriarchal gender relations are less likely to engage in negotiations during intrastate conflicts. I test this argument on all civil conflict dyads between 1975 and 2014. The analyses show that countries that marginalize women’s participation in public life are significantly less likely to engage in negotiations. The results provide strong support for my theoretical argument and offer systematic evidence in support of core claims of the feminist peace theory.

Keywords: conflict, negotiation, gender inequality

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Femininity/ies, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Peace Processes

Year: 2020

Género, grupos domésticos y derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra

Citation:

Meza, Laura Elena Ruiz. 2006. "Género, grupos domésticos y derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra." El Cotodiano 21 (139): 7-19.

Author: Laura Elena Ruiz Meza

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las construcciones culturales de masculinidad y feminidad que orientan las pautas culturales en la familia y en la comunidad han jugado un papel significativo en restringir el derecho de las mujeres a la propiedad de la tierra, así como su participación en espacios públicos. Igualmente, la residencia patrilocal tiene implicacio- nes en la condición y posición de las mujeres al colocarlas en una situación de vulnerabilidad. El reducido poder de negociación que suelen tener en esta etapa de su vida, su posición subordinada en el sistema de parentesco y su limitado acceso a los bienes y recursos se expresan en inequidades de género que afectan notablemente su calidad de vida. 

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2006

Feminism and Ecological Communities: An Ethic of Flourishing

Citation:

Cuomo, Christine. 1998. Feminism and Ecological Communities: An Ethic of Flourishing. London: Routledge.

Author: Christine Cuomo

Annotation:

Summary:
Feminism and Ecological Communities presents a bold and passionate rethinking of the ecofeminist movement. It is one of the first books to acknowledge the importance of postmodern feminist arguments against ecofeminism whilst persuasively preseenting a strong new case for econolocal feminism. Chris J.Cuomo first traces the emergence of ecofeminism from the ecological and feminist movements before clearly discussing the weaknesses of some ecofeminist positions. Exploring the dualisms of nature/culture and masculing/feminine that are the bulwark of many contemporary ecofeminist positions and questioning traditional traditional feminist analyses of gender and caring, Feminism and Ecological Communities asks whether women are essentially closer to nature than men and how we ought to link the oppression of women, people of colour, and other subjugated groups to the degradation of nature. Chris J.Cuomo addresses these key issues by drawing on recent work in feminist ethics as well as the work of diverse figures such as Aristotle, John Dewey, Donna Haraway adn [sic] Maria Lugones. A fascinating feature of the book is the use of the metaphor of the cyborg to highlight the fluidity of the nature/culture distinction and how this can enrich econfeminist ethics and politics.

An outstanding new argument for an ecological feminism that links both theory and practice, Feminism and Ecological Communities bravely redraws the ecofeminist map. It will be essential reading for all those interested in gender studies, environmental studies and philosophy. (Summary from Amazon)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Race

Year: 1998

Technology Change = Gender Change? Androcentric Construction of Engineering as Symbolic Resource in the German-Speaking Area of Renewable Energies

Citation:

Prietl, Bianca. 2017. “Technology Change = Gender Change? Androcentric Construction of Engineering as Symbolic Resource in the German-Speaking Area of Renewable Energies.” Engineering Studies 9 (1): 3–23.

Author: Bianca Prietl

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with how engineers working in renewable energies in Germany and Austria position themselves and their professional activity within this relatively new field of engineering occupation by mobilizing a specific androcentric construction of engineering as a symbolic resource. Drawing on qualitative interviews, the argument unfolds in three steps: First, the paper reconstructs how engineers draft an image of their professional activity by symbolically aligning it with established understandings of engineering in traditional areas of engineering occupation and by simultaneously distancing it from allegedly ‘other’ notions of engineering practice that are framed as ‘alternative’. The discursive distinction between professional engineering and its alleged ‘alternative’ counterpart constitutes the former as hard, sincere, structured, and reliable activity based on an instrumental rationality. Second, it is shown how the professional/alternative distinction is gendered with ‘the alternative’ being devaluated and feminized. Consequently, it is argued that there is an implicit association between the discursively constituted idea of professional engineering and masculinity. Third, this discursive construction of engineering is interpreted as a symbolic resource in the engineers’ claim to be recognized as professional actors within renewable energies and, thus, in their struggle for favourable positions within this social field of power.

Keywords: renewable energies, discursive struggle for power, implicit masculinity construction, engineering

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Western Europe Countries: Austria, Germany

Year: 2017

Wounds: Militarized Nursing, Feminist Curiosity, and Unending War

Citation:

Enloe, Cynthia. 2019. "Wounds: Militarized Nursing, Feminist Curiosity, and Unending War." International Relations 33 (3): 393-412.

Author: Cynthia Enloe

Abstract:

Taking wartime nurses – and post-war nursing – seriously makes one think more politically about the wounds endured in wartime and what counts as a wartime ‘wound’. Thinking about wounds and the wounded, in turn, reveals how war-waging officials, and militarizers more generally, have tried in the past, and today still try, to shrink citizens’ awareness of militarism’s negative consequences. Nursing, nurses, wounds, and the wounded each continues to be gendered, influencing the workings of both masculinities and femininities in past and current wartimes and post-war politics. Feminist analysts have expanded the ‘political’ and multiplied ‘political thinkers’. Failing to absorb these feminist theoretical insights fosters the trivialization of nurses and other caretakers of the wartime wounded and their diverse political thinking. It is a failing with serious implications. Overlooking nurses and others who provide wartime care, combined with a lack of curiosity about wounds, perpetuates militarization and war.
 

Keywords: masculinities, militarization, nurses, post-war, war, women, wounds

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Militarization, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict

Year: 2019

Gender and Drone Warfare: A Hauntological Perspective

Citation:

Clark, Lindsay C. 2019. Gender and Drone Warfare: A Hauntological Perspective. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Lindsay C. Clark

Annotation:

Summary:
This book investigates how drone warfare is deeply gendered and how this can be explored through the methodological framework of ‘Haunting’.
 
Utilising original interview data from British Reaper drone crews, the book analyses the way killing by drones complicates traditional understandings of masculinity and femininity in warfare. As their role does not include physical risk, drone crews have been critiqued for failing to meet the masculine requirements necessary to be considered ‘warriors’ and have been derided for feminising war. However, this book argues that drone warfare, and the experiences of the crews, exceeds the traditional masculine/feminine binary and suggests a new approach to explore this issue. The framework of Haunting presented here draws on the insights of Jacques Derrida, Avery Gordon, and others to highlight four key themes – complex personhood, in/(hyper)visibility, disturbed temporality and power – as frames through which the intersection of gender and drone warfare can be examined. This book argues that Haunting provides a framework for both revealing and destabilising gendered binaries of use for feminist security studies and International Relations scholars, as well as shedding light on British drone warfare.
 
This book will be of interest to students of gender studies, sociology, war studies, and critical security studies. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Theorising Military Technologies
 
2. Haunting
 
3. H(a)unting the Warrior
 
4. Grim Reapers - Narratives of Masculinity and Killing
 
5. The Spectral Screwdriver - On Watching and Being Watched
 
6. Eroded Souls - Operational Challenges to Masculinity
 
Conclusion

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

When the Disaster Strikes: Gendered (Im)mobility in Bangladesh

Citation:

Ayeb-Karlsson, Sonja. 2020. "When the Disaster Strikes: Gendered (Im)mobility in Bangladesh." Climate Risk Management 29.

Author: Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson

Abstract:

Gender influences people’s behaviour in various ways. This study investigates gendered (im) mobility during cyclone strikes in Bangladesh. During such strikes people have described being unable to move away from environmentally high-risk locations and situations. The Q-based Discourse Analysis used by this study shows how and why gender-roles (im)mobilised people in three coastal locations during the cyclones. People (and especially women) explained that failing to evacuate to the cyclone shelters when a disaster strikes was not uncommon. Gender, or feminine and masculine social roles, played a significant role in these evacuation decisions while facilitating or constraining their mobility. The gendered subjectivities presented different accepted social behaviours and spaces for women and men. In this way, immobility (social, psychological, and geographical) was strongly gendered. Masculine roles were expected to be brave and protective, while female ‘mobility’ could be risky. Women’s mobility therefore ended up being constrained to the home. In other words, when the disaster strikes, everyone did not have the same ability to move. These empirical insights are important to inform climate policy in a way that it better supports vulnerable populations worldwide as they confront global environmental changes today and in the future.

Keywords: disaster, (im)mobility, non-evacuation behaviour, trapped populations

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Achieving Gender Equality in Humanitarian Assistance: A Contest of Athena and Poseidon

Citation:

Rathnamalala, Hasini. 2016. "Achieving Gender Equality in Humanitarian Assistance: A Contest of Athena and Poseidon." Sri Lanka Journal of International Law 25.

Author: Hasini Rathnamalala

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to analyze the legal protection of gender equality in humanitarian assistance. The objective of the research is to examine the adequacy of applicable legal framework that governs humanitarian assistance, particularly, that which is applicable to Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) while engaged in humanitarian assistance. The analysis of the aforesaid area of law is carried out in order to identify and clarify the nature of the accountability measures for NGOs while identifying the gaps both in theoretical legal framework as well as in its practical applicability. As to how gender in humanitarian assistance can be described as a contest between Athena, representing wisdom and the feminine and God Poseidon who represents the strength and power of masculinity, the author frames the discussion of humanitarian assistance within the myth of the founding of Athens. This story contrasts Poseidon's salt water spring with the sustainability of Athena's olive tree. In the same manner, when providing humanitarian assistance, NGOs should recognize and incorporate a gender equality dimension in order to achieve a holistic and qualitative outcome from their services.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs

Year: 2016

Gender-Biased Street Naming in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa: Influential Factors, Features and Future Recommendations

Citation:

Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas, and Liora Bigon. 2020. "Gender-Biased Street Naming in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa: Influential Factors, Features and Future Recommendations." Journal of Asian and African Studies. doi:10.1177/0021909620934825.

Authors: Dorcas Zuvalinyenga, Liora Bigon

Abstract:

This article explores the present-day problematic of gender-biased street names as prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa’s cityscapes. That is, the abundance of masculine street names as opposed to feminine ones in the urban environments of this region. The article first provides a comparative view on the scope of this toponymic phenomenon in other geographic regions with relation to sub-Saharan Africa. It also identifies few decisive factors in the creation of the gender-biased urban landscapes in sub-Saharan Africa. These factors consist of: recent tendencies in critical toponymy studies; colonial and post-colonial cultures of governmentality; and inadequate urban planning legislation and vision as pertained by post-colonial states. This toponymic problematic is then exemplified in a site-specific analysis of the city of Bindura in north-eastern Zimbabwe. The article concludes with recommendations for designing a more socially inclusive urban management policy in the region, pointing to future research directions of this under-studied phenomenon in critical place-name studies.

Keywords: gender-biased street names, Sub-Saharan Africa, Bindura/Zimbabwe, urban planning, urban management, Critical toponymy studies

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Governance, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2020

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