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Extractive Industries

A Social Relations of Gender Analysis of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa’s Great Lakes Region

Citation:

Danielsen, Katrine, and Jennifer Hinton. 2020. “A Social Relations of Gender Analysis of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa’s Great Lakes Region.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 54 (1): 17–36.

Authors: Katrine Danielsen, Jennifer Hinton

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Much research on gender and artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) has tended to focus on describing the different roles women undertake in mining, while there has been less attention to how gender relations are constructed, reinforced and challenged in and through ASM. Drawing from desk and field research in the Great Lakes Region of Africa, this paper presents a framework to analyse gender dynamics in ASM along four interrelated dimensions of gender relations: division of labour; access to and control over resources and benefits; decision-making; and gender norms. The authors argue that unequal gender relations in ASM are mainly legitimized by gender norms that produce, and are reinforced by, the varying abilities of women and men to make decisions and control resources. Findings also describe the diversity and instability of gender relations, and demonstrate how gender inequalities can be and are being challenged by women miners.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT
De nombreuses recherches sur le genre et l’exploitation minière artisanale à petite échelle (EMAPE) ont eu tendance à se focaliser sur la description des différents rôles que jouent les femmes dans le secteur minier, alors que moins d’attention a été prêtée à la façon dont les relations entre les genres sont construites, renforcées et remises en question dans et à travers l’EMAPE. À partir de recherches documentaires et de terrain dans la région des Grands Lacs en Afrique, cet article présente un cadre d’analyse de la dynamique de genre dans l’EMAPE, selon quatre dimensions interdépendantes des relations de genre: division du travail; accès aux ressources et aux avantages, et contrôle de ceux-ci; prise de décision; et normes de genre. Les auteurs soutiennent que les relations inégales entre les genres dans l’EMAPE sont principalement légitimées par des normes de genre qui produisent et sont renforcées par les capacités variables des femmes et des hommes à prendre des décisions et à contrôler les ressources. Les résultats décrivent également la diversité et l’instabilité des relations entre les genres, et démontrent comment les inégalités entre les genres peuvent être et sont remises en question par les femmes dans le secteur minier.
 

Keywords: gender, social relations, women, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), Great Lakes Region

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa

Year: 2020

The Role of Gender in the Extractive Industries

Citation:

Macdonald, Catherine. 2017. “The Role of Gender in the Extractive Industries.” Working Paper 2017/52 United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki.

Author: Catherine Macdonald

Annotation:

Summary:
In recognizing that women’s participation and gender equity is a precondition for the achievement of acceptable development outcomes, extractives industry companies are increasingly making public commitments to integrating gender equality, inclusion, and women’s economic empowerment into aspects of their operations.

This paper reviews recent literature on gender and the extractives industries and then considers the following questions that emerged from the scholarship. How is gender understood in the extractives sector and has this changed over time? What are the gendered impacts of the extractives industries? Are women passive victims of the sector rather than active participants or even resisters to industrial expansion? What is the nature of extractives-associated sex-work and gender-based violence in various settings?

In addition, the paper presents available information on women’s participation in the extractives industry, both formal and informal, and how these differ, and evaluates industry efforts towards achieving improved gender balance and equity in the sector. (Summary from UN WIDER)

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods

Year: 2017

Licensing of Artisanal Mining on Private Land in Uganda: Social and Economic Implications for Female Spouses and Women Entrepreneurs

Citation:

Sebina-Zziwa, Abby, and Richard Kibombo.  2020. “Licensing of Artisanal Mining on Private Land in Uganda: Social and Economic Implications for Female Spouses and Women Entrepreneurs.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 54 (1): 101–17.

Authors: Abby Sebina-Zziwa, Richard Kibombo

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Based on research conducted from October 2015 through June 2018, this paper highlights the social and economic implications of licensing artisanal mining on women’s land rights in Uganda. It also brings to the fore how artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) governance is affecting women’s participation in the sector. It examines how women as spouses and as entrepreneurs in the ASM sector are affected by the prevailing local governance structures and land tenure arrangements; the arrangements in place to ensure that female spouses get a share of compensation and other long-term benefits from ASM; and the ramifications of the lacuna between policy and enforcement on spouses and on women engaged in the ASM sector. The results show that the rights of women in the ASM sector are subjugated to social cultural practices, contradictory laws regarding women’s land rights, poor law enforcement, and weak structures for ASM governance.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Basé sur des recherches conduites entre octobre 2015 et juin 2018, cet article met en lumière les implications sociales et économiques de l’octroi de licences d’exploitation minière artisanale sur les droits fonciers des femmes en Ouganda. Il met également en évidence la façon dont la gouvernance de l’exploitation minière artisanale et à petite échelle (EMAPE) affecte la participation des femmes dans le secteur. Il examine comment les femmes, en tant que conjointes et entrepreneures dans le secteur de l’EMAPE sont affectées par les structures de gouvernance locale et les régimes fonciers en vigueur; les dispositions en place pour faire en sorte que les conjointes reçoivent une part de la rémunération et des autres avantages à long terme de l’EMAPE; et les ramifications de la lacune entre la politique et l’application de la loi sur les conjoints et sur les femmes engagées dans le secteur de l’EMAPE. Les résultats montrent que les droits des femmes engagées dans le secteur de l’EMAPE sont soumis aux pratiques socioculturelles, aux lois contradictoires concernant les droits fonciers des femmes, à la mauvaise application des lois et à la faiblesse des structures de gouvernance de l’EMAPE.

Keywords: private registered land, artisanal mining, women's surface rights, legal pluralism, hybrid governance

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land Tenure, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2020

Whose Recovery? IFI Prescriptions for Postwar States

Citation:

Cohn, Carol, and Claire Duncanson. 2020. “Whose Recovery? IFI Prescriptions for Postwar States.” Review of International Political Economy. 27 (6): 1214-34.

Authors: Carol Cohn, Claire Duncanson

Abstract:

In this article we argue that a feminist political economy (FPE) approach is critical in understanding why standard policy prescriptions for postwar economic recovery fail to support the building of sustainably peaceful countries and secure lives for their citizens. Whilst many scholars criticize the IFIs’ policies in war-affected countries, our FPE approach provides two overlooked but crucial insights. First, it reveals the disjunction (indeed, chasm) between a country’s economic recovery from war and the IFIs’ focus on the recovery of the economic system. Second, it locates the conceptual underpinnings of this chasm in the profoundly gendered assumptions of neoclassical economics. That is, we find the IFIs’ failure to prioritize financing the social infrastructure that could repair war’s damages, enhance human security, and support the ecosystems on which human security depends has its roots in the fundamental misconception of human reproductive, caring and subsistence labor, and of nature, as external to the economy rather than as central to the ability of the formal economy to function. We illustrate these points with a focus on one pervasive example of the IFIs’ approach to postwar recovery, their encouragement of the large-scale extraction and export of natural resources. Finally, we show how adopting the work of feminist economists who emphasize care, social reproduction and the value of nature, though not without its challenges, can offer radically new visions for postwar economies.

Keywords: feminist economics, feminist political economy, IFIs, peacebuilding, postwar economic recovery, security, sustaining peace, women, natural resources, extractivism, gender, World Bank, IMF

Topics: Economies, Feminist Economics, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, International Financial Institutions, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, Human Security

Year: 2020

The Question of Gender and Human Security in Africa’s Extractive Industries

Citation:

Andrews, Nathan, and Charis Enns. 2020. "The Question of Gender and Human Security in Africa’s Extractive Industries." In The Palgrave Handbook of African Political Economy, edited by Toyin Falola and Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba, 725-37. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Nathan Andrews, Charis Enns

Abstract:

The growing presence of extractive companies in rural and remote spaces across sub-Saharan Africa has been an important subject of public and academic debate. Yet, these debates have often been ‘gender-free’, neglecting to consider the relationship between the presence of extractive companies and the everyday and structural violence experienced by women in local communities. In this chapter, we argue that the security threats created by intensifying extractive activities in these areas are often gendered. Drawing upon fieldwork data collected in Ghana and Kenya between January 2013 and March 2015, the chapter raises concerns about the lack of adequate policy responses to the gendered implications of resource extraction and associated insecurity, despite growing evidence that extractive activities have differential impacts across gender identities. While many local-level security challenges relating to resource extraction have been elevated into the realm of international security concerns, the real and pressing gendered security threats caused by extractive activities have yet to be widely acknowledged by international actors. Thus, our analysis of the gendered threats to human security created by extractive companies at the local level draws attention to inequalities in the human security agenda at both local and global levels, as well as in both theory and in practice.

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Security, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Kenya

Year: 2020

Ecofeminism and System Change: Women on the Frontlines of the Struggle against Fossil Capitalism and for the Solar Commons

Citation:

Giacomini, Terran. 2016. "Ecofeminism and System Change: Women on the Frontlines of the Struggle against Fossil Capitalism and for the Solar Commons." Canadian Woman Studies 31 (1-2): 95-101.

 

Author: Terran Giacomini

Abstract:

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Plusieurs universitaires et activistes reconnaissent que les femmes sont plus nombreuses à travailler dans les “communes.” Ce texte nous présente une analyse écoféministe des communes, ces mouvements ou réseaux d’actions et de perspectives qui travaillent en commun avec deux mouvements où les femmes sont très présentes: le Réseau des femmes d’action pour la Terre et le climat (wecan) et La Via Campesina. L’analyse démontre les luttes des femmes qui comprennent la coopération comme un contrôle des moyens de survie, elles défient les relations capitalistes et font la promotion des alternatives. Donc, les alliances entre ces communes et celles qui sont intégrées au capitalisme sont essentielles pour transformer le capitalisme anti écologique en capitalisme écologique.
 

Topics: Agriculture, Class, Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women

Year: 2016

Gendering Indigenous Subjects: An Institutional Ethnography of Corporate Social Responsibility in Ecuador

Citation:

Billo, Emily. 2020. “Gendering Indigenous Subjects: An Institutional Ethnography of Corporate Social Responsibility in Ecuador.” Gender, Place & Culture 27 (8): 1134–54.

Author: Emily Billo

Abstract:

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs are institutions of governance and development designed to respond to socio-ecological impacts of resource extraction. I argue that CSR programs are an overlooked tool of the neoliberal project of gendered indigenous subject formation in Ecuador. The article contributes to feminist political ecology through its use of institutional ethnography, a feminist methodology. It advances feminist commitments to everyday, embodied analyses of resource struggles, illustrating how gender and indigeneity are intersectional subjectivities provoked by the socio-spatial relationships of CSR programs. Postcolonial intersectional analysis of CSR programs demonstrates how power expands through gender and indigeneity contributing to indigenous women’s ongoing marginalization in Ecuador.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, Ecuador, gendered indigenous subjects, institutional ethnography, resource governance

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Indigenous, Intersectionality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2020

Formalization of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: An Opportunity for Women in the New Tin, Tantalum, Tungsten and Gold (3TG) Supply Chain?

Citation:

Byemba, Gabriel Kamundala. 2020. “Formalization of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: An Opportunity for Women in the New Tin, Tantalum, Tungsten and Gold (3TG) Supply Chain?” The Extractive Industries and Society 7 (2): 420–7.

Author: Gabriel Kamundal Byemba

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the opportunities, constraints and challenges for women in Tantalum, Tungsten, Tin and Gold (3TG) supply chains in the artisanal and smallscale mining (ASM) sector of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Drawing on empirical qualitative data collected during five months of field research between 2015 and 2018, the paper analyzes the governance structures of, and power relations within, 3TG ASM supply chains in the eastern DRC, with special emphasis on women's roles. The analysis offers clues as to why, in eastern DRC, women's positions in 3TG ASM supply chains changed after formalization.

Topics: Economies, Informal Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2020

Género y despojo: El caso de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí

Citation:

Cortés Cortés, Ramon, Zapata Martelo, Emma María, y Ayala Carrillo María del Rosario. 2019. “Género y despojo: El caso de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí.” La Manzana de la Discordia 14 (1): 7-20.

Authors: Ramon Cortés Cortés, Emma María Zapata Martelo, Ayala Carrillo María del Rosario

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
In this paper, we analyze from a gender perspective the land and identity dispossession, through the occupation of the physical space by the Minera San Xavier mining company in the municipality of Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí. Through semi-structured surveys and feminist ethnography, the results show that the mining extraction had to be supported by previous and current capitalist and patriarchal structures which favored the land dispossession, thus reproducing and spreading a hierarchical gender order, where the power of decision for the settling of the corporation, the leasing of the Cerro de San Pedro ejido, and the displacement of the La Zapatilla community was all in the hands of the men, thus privileging the male experience, while the females experienced a process of minorization and invisibilization. In order to take away the land, capitalism and patriarchy take advantage of the powerless bodies of women.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este trabajo se analiza, desde la perspectiva de género, el despojo territorial e identitario, a través de la ocupación del espacio físico que Minera San Xavier realizó en el municipio de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí. Por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y etnografía feminista, los resultados muestran que el extractivismo minero requirió apoyarse en estructuras capitalistas y patriarcales previas y actuales que facilitaron el despojo territorial, reproduciendo y ampliando un orden jerárquico de género, en donde el poder de decisión para el asentamiento de la corporación, el arrendamiento del ejido Cerro de San Pedro y el desplazamiento de la comunidad La Zapatilla, quedaron en manos de los hombres, privilegiando la experiencia masculina, mientras que la femenina experimentó un proceso de minorización e invisibilización. Para lograr despojar los territorios, capitalismo y patriarcado se aprovecharon de los cuerpos despojados de poder de las mujeres.

Keywords: género y despojo, territorio, extractivismo y género, megaminería y género, minera San Xavier, gender and dispossession, land, extractivism and gender, megamining and gender

Topics: Feminisms, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Grabbing Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2019

Mining and Women in Northwest Mexico: a Feminist Political Ecology Approach to Impacts on Rural Livelihoods

Citation:

Lutz-Ley, América, and Stephanie J. Buechler. 2020. “Mining and Women in Northwest Mexico: a Feminist Political Ecology Approach to Impacts on Rural Livelihoods.” Human Geography 13 (1): 74-84.

Authors: América Lutz-Ley, Stephanie J. Buechler

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Women’s participation in large-scale mining (LSM) has been increasing in Mexico and worldwide; however, few comprehensive studies exist on the socioeconomic effects of mining on women depending on the specific roles they play in this activity. The objective of this study was to analyze, from a feminist political ecology perspective, the effects of mining on women in a rural community in Sonora State, in arid northwest Mexico, a region with important participation of LSM in the country. For this purpose, we developed a mixed methods approach combining literature review on gender and LSM, semistructured indepth interviews, and analysis of secondary government data. Most literature on women and mining treats them conceptually as a homogeneous social group or focuses on only one role women play in mining. We address this gap by identifying several roles women can play in their interactions with the mining sector and then analyzing and comparing the effects of mining associated with these distinctive roles. In doing so, we unravel the gendered complexities of mining and highlight the socioecological contradictions embedded in these dynamics for individual women who are faced with significant trade-offs. Mining can provide economic and professional opportunities for women of varying educational and socioeconomic levels in otherwise impoverished and landless rural households. At the same time, women are unable to, as one interviewee phrased it, “break the glass ceiling even if using a miner’s helmet,” especially in managerial positions. Extraction of natural resources in the community is accompanied by the extraction of social capital and personal lives of miners. We give voice to the social– ecological contradictions lived by women in these multiple roles and offer potential insights both for addressing gender-based inequities in mining and for avenues toward collective action and empowerment.

SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
La participación de las mujeres en la minería de gran escala se ha incrementado en México y alrededor del mundo; sin embargo, existen escasos estudios comprehensivos de los efectos socioeconómicos de la minería sobre las mujeres dependiendo de los roles específicos que ellas juegan en esta actividad. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar, desde la perspectiva de la ecología política feminista, los efectos de la minería sobre mujeres de una comunidad rural del estado de Sonora, en el noroeste árido de México; una región con importante participación de la minería de gran escala en el país. Con este propósito desarrollamos un acercamiento metodológico mixto, combinando el análisis de literatura sobre género y minería de gran escala, con entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de datos secundarios producidos por agencias gubernamentales. La mayoría de los estudios sobre mujeres y minería las concibe conceptualmente como un grupo social homogéneo, o se centran solamente en uno o dos roles de las mujeres en la minería. En este trabajo se cubre esta brecha mediante la identificación de múltiples roles que las mujeres pueden desempeñar en sus interacciones con el sector minero y el análisis comparativo de los efectos de la minería asociados con estos distintos roles. De esta manera, se desentrañan las complejidades de la minería vistas desde el género y se enfatizan las contradicciones socio-ecológicas inmersas en estas dinámicas para mujeres que enfrentan costos individuales significativos. La minería puede proveer oportunidades económicas y profesionales para mujeres de distintos niveles educativos y socioeconómicos en hogares rurales empobrecidos o sin tierras productivas. Al mismo tiempo, las mujeres no han podido, en palabras de una minera, “romper el techo de cristal ni usando un casco minero”, especialmente en posiciones de mando. La extracción de recursos naturales en la comunidad se acompaña de la extracción de capital social y el tiempo de vida personal de las mineras. Se da voz a las contradicciones socio-ecológicas vividas por mujeres que ocupan estos múltiples roles y se ofrecen visiones potenciales para atender estas inequidades basadas en el género en la minería, así como posibles caminos hacia la acción colectiva y el empoderamiento.

Keywords: women in mining, feminist political ecology, rural livelihoods, northwest Mexico, extractivism, mujeres en la minería, ecología política feminista, medios de vida rurales, noroeste de México, extractivismo

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2020

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