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Extractive Industries

Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest

Citation:

Loomis, Erik. 2017. “Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 37–44.

Author: Erik Loomis

Annotation:

Summary: 
In this paper, Erik Loomis explores the connections between natural resource workers, industrialized nature, and masculinity as constructed by the logger working class in the US Pacific Northwest. In the industrial forest, different ideas of masculinity and nature were formed and performed. Loomis argues that the working class histories of natural resource workers need to be included in sustainable economies and environmental history. This way, environmental activists can develop more sophisticated strategies for creating coalitions with natural resource workers. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Women, Mining and Power in Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: The Case of Kisengo

Citation:

Bashwira, Marie-Rose, and Jeroen Cuvelier. 2019. "Women, Mining and Power in Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: The Case of Kisengo." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.02.010

Authors: Marie-Rose Bashwira, Jeroen Cuvelier

Abstract:

Recent decades have witnessed a growing scholarly interest in women’s involvement in ASM, with many authors drawing attention to two frequently occurring trends: the fact that women move to mining areas to escape oppressive gender rules and norms, and the remarkable efforts of women miners to exercise agency in the typically complex and unstable socio-political environments of artisanal mining sites. An important gap in the existing literature is the lack of attention for the differences in agency and the power relations between these women. This article seeks to fill this gap by presenting an ethnographic case study on the so-called mamans moutrousses, a group of women assisting artisanal miners with the drying and cleaning of minerals in coltan mines close to Kisengo, a locality situated in the Congolese Tanganyika province. Drawing inspiration from Vigh’s navigation theory, the work of Honwana, and the spatial approach advanced by Watts and Korf, the article argues that the less successful women in Kisengo’s mining business have only been able to display ‘tactic agency’, while the more successful ones have succeeded in demonstrating ‘strategic agency’.

Keywords: ASM (artisanal and small-scale mining), gender, women, Democratic Republic of Congo, governance, social navigation, agency

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2019

Women Miners’ Exclusion and Muslim Masculinities in Tajikistan: A Feminist Political Ecology of Honor and Shame

Citation:

Behzadi, Negar Elodie. 2019. "Women Miners’ Exclusion and Muslim Masculinities in Tajikistan: A Feminist Political Ecology of Honor and Shame." Geoforum 100: 144-52.

Author: Negar Elodie Behzadi

Abstract:

This article explores the gendered process that leads to women informal miners’ restricted access to natural resources, their exclusion and their stigmatization in one village in the Muslim post-Soviet space. Drawing on eight months of ethnographic work in the village of Kante in Northern Tajikistan, this article seeks to understand how and why this process is mediated through notions of honor and shame traditionally seen as anchored in Muslim religion. A focus on changing masculinities and their relationship with women miners’ exclusion in this extractive landscape where informal coal mining developed alongside male migration and the setting up of a Sino-Tajik coal mine after the fall of the Soviet Union, allows us to develop a feminist political ecology of honor and shame. Here, I reveal how these cultural notions are mobilized in the wake of embodied and emotional work and resource struggles and the gendered impacts of broader politico-ecological changes. I particularly link women miners’ exclusion and its mediation through notions of honor and shame to men’s loss of sense of self since the fall of the Soviet Union and the reconfiguration of masculinities with new work and resource struggles. By doing so, this article challenges the idea of Muslim men as fixed into codes of honor and patriarchy anchored in religion. Instead, it develops a re-theorization of Muslim masculinities which highlights instances where men oppress women at the same time as it challenges culturalist readings of gender and Muslimness that overemphasize culture/religion to the detriment of the economic/ecological.

Keywords: muslim masculinities, honor-and-shame, feminist political ecology, emotions, mining, resource extraction, women miners, post-Soviet Central Asia

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Religion Regions: Asia, Central Asia Countries: Tajikistan

Year: 2019

The Gendered Dimensions of Resource Extractivism in Argentina’s Soy Boom

Citation:

Leguizamón, Amalia. 2019. "The Gendered Dimensions of Resource Extractivism in Argentina's Soy Boom." Latin American Perspectives 46 (2): 199-216.

Author: Amalia Leguizamón

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Analyzing resource extractivism as a gendered structure is important for understanding the complex social processes that create and perpetuate environmental injustice—both social inequality and environmental degradation—and for visualizing gendered resistances and opportunities for transformation. Applying Risman’s approach to Argentina’s soy model, six causal mechanisms at the institutional, individual, and interactional levels can be identified that serve either to maintain or to challenge the status quo: (1) resource distribution, (2) ideology, (3) identity work, (4) cognitive bias, (5) status expectations, and (6) state paternalism.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Analizar el extractivismo de los recursos como una estructura de género es importante para comprender los complejos procesos sociales que crean y perpetúan la injusticia ambiental—tanto la desigualdad social como la degradación ambiental—y para visualizar las resistencias de género y las oportunidades de transformación. Aplicando el enfoque de Risman al modelo de soja en la Argentina, se pueden identificar seis mecanismos causales a nivel institucional, individual y de interacción que sirven para mantener o desafiar el status quo: (1) distribución de recursos, (2) ideología, (3) trabajo de identidad, (4) per- juicio cognitivo, (5) expectativas de posición social, y (6) paternalismo estatal.

Keywords: Argentina, environmental justice, gender, extractivism, soybeans

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Gender, Justice Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina

Year: 2019

Revisiting Transnational Corporations and Extractive Industries: Climate Justice, Feminism, and State Sovereignty

Citation:

Seck, Sara L. 2017. "Revisiting Transnational Corporations and Extractive Industries: Climate Justice, Feminism, and State Sovereignty." Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 26: 383-413.

Author: Sara L. Seck

Annotation:

Summary:
"This Article explicitly examines the relationship between climate justice, gender, and transnational fossil fuel extractive industries by drawing upon feminist theoretical insights. First, I provide an overview of the differential impacts of climate change on women and briefly review insights from select international legal scholars who have considered gender and climate change. Second, I describe the Philippines climate Petition, a novel attempt to seek an investigation into the accountability of transnational fossil fuel companies for climate harms. Third, I examine three sets of issues arising in the Philippines climate Petition and draw explicitly upon Karen Knop’s Re/Statements: Feminism and State Sovereignty in International Law. Here, I consider how feminist approaches to international legal theory might enrich the analysis of legal doctrines fundamental to framing the issues and outcome of the Philippines Petition. Specifically, I consider three different sets of claims that emerge from a critique of the bounded, autonomous, and unified liberal subject that informs implicit understandings of state and sovereignty at international law. In conclusion, I argue that climate justice demands we take up a relational view of the state, dissolve boundaries between public and private sectors, and embrace visions of overlapping sovereignties" (Seck 2017, 385).

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Law, Justice

Year: 2017

Diversity of Livelihoods and Social Sustainability in Established Mining Communities

Citation:

Segerstedt, Eugenia, and Lena Abrahamsson. 2019. "Diversity of Livelihoods and Social Sustainability in Established Mining Communities." The Extractive Industries and Society 6 (2): 610-9. 

Authors: Eugenia Segerstedt, Lena Abrahamsson

Abstract:

The challenges for any community that seeks to maintain a healthy and thriving social life around an operating mine have been considered at some length in research, but the picture is still far from complete. In order to pinpoint some of the gaps in research, the literature on social sustainability as applied to established mining communities in developed countries is here reviewed, and the general understanding of the social sustainability of such communities is touched on. Diversity of livelihoods is explored as an analytical lens which can be used to approach social sustainability challenges without essentializing the preferences of social groups. Extensive literature searches with keywords such as mining, work, gender, organization, social, sustainability, community, town, area, cohesion and inclusion were conducted. The results of our review show a research gap between studies of mining companies and studies of wider mining communities. We conclude that considering diversity of livelihoods can be a productive analytical tool when approaching aspects of social sustainability such as social cohesion and inclusion, gender equality, managed migration, demographics, and housing infrastructure. Continued research is recommended to further bridge the gap between studies of mining companies and studies of mining communities from the perspective of social sustainability.

Keywords: social sustainability, mining, gender, diversity, Community planning

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea

Citation:

I-Chang, Kuo. 2019. "Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.03.016

Author: Kuo I-Chang

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between environmental impacts and changing masculinities, and shows how large mining projects change men’s ‘ways of being’. Towards this goal, it reports a study carried out in Mindre village adjacent to the Basamuk refinery, in the Madang province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). First, I outline two broad strands in current arguments regarding the study of the environmental impacts of mining activities in PNG. Then I illustrate the reasons why both of these arguments can be applied in the context of Mindre. I then explain the ways in which some Mindre young men, particularly those who have been excluded from the benefits and employment of the Ramu Nickel project and have experienced environmental impacts, have struggled with coming to terms with their masculinities, and how these experiences have threatened their masculinities. Finally, this article offers suggestions regarding future studies of gendered impacts of extractive industries.

Keywords: environmental impacts, the mining industry, masculinities, Papua New Guinea

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2019

Between Pachamama and Mother Earth: Gender, Political Ontology and the Rights of Nature in Contemporary Bolivia

Citation:

Tola, Miriam. 2018. "Between Pachamama and Mother Earth: Gender, Political Ontology and the Rights of Nature in Contemporary Bolivia." Feminist Review 118 (1): 25-40.

Author: Miriam Tola

Abstract:

Focusing on contemporary Bolivia, this article examines promises and pitfalls of political and legal initiatives that have turned Pachamama into a subject of rights. The conferral of rights on the indigenous earth being had the potential to unsettle the Western ontological distinction between active human subjects who engage in politics and passive natural resources. This essay, however, highlights some paradoxical effects of the rights of nature in Bolivia, where Evo Morales’ model of development relies on the intensification of the export-oriented extractive economy. Through the analysis of a range of texts, including paintings, legal documents, political speeches and activist interventions, I consider the equivocation between the normatively gendered Mother Earth that the state recognises as the subject of rights, and the figure of Pachamama evoked by feminist and indigenous activists. Pachamama, I suggest, has been incorporated into the Bolivian state as a being whose generative capacities have been translated into a rigid gender binary. As a gendered subject of rights, Pachamama/Mother Earth is exposed to governmental strategies that ultimately increase its subordination to state power. The concluding remarks foreground the import of feminist perspectives in yielding insights concerning political ontological conflicts.

Keywords: rights of nature, Pachamama, extractivism, decolonial feminism, indigenous political ontology, Bolivia

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2018

"Soft, Airy Fairy Stuff"? Re-evaluating 'Social Impacts' in Gendered Processes of Natural Resource Extraction

Citation:

Ey, Melina. 2018. "'Soft, Airy Fairy Stuff'? Re-evaluating 'Social Impacts' in Gendered Processes of Natural Resource Extraction." Emotion, Space and Society 27: 1-8.

Author: Melina Ey

Abstract:

Within the global extractive industry, emotions continue to the subject of regulation and erasure. In recent years, the dismissal of emotion within much of the extractive sector has been underpinned by particular hegemonic forms of masculinity which position emotions as ‘irrational’ and ‘irrelevant’. The ramifications for the way in which this form of masculinity dismisses and erases emotion have been critiqued primarily within the context of those working within the sector (Mayes and Pini 2010, 2014; Pini et al 2010). However, this intervention has yet to take place to the same extent for those outside the sector, who are navigating its consequences for their communities and places. This paper argues that dismissing emotion has particular implications for the ways in which ‘social impact assessments’ are conducted, and for what is counted or classified as a ‘social impact’ by the sector. Drawing on women's experiences of opposition to the development of extractive projects throughout the New South Wales (NSW) Hunter Valley, this paper uses emotional geographies to emphasise the ways in which the masculinist regulation and erasure of emotion within the extractive sector also facilitates the dismissal of the distinctly emotional consequences of resource extraction for people and place.

Keywords: extractive sector, emotions, gender, place, social impact assessment

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis

Year: 2018

Social Licence, Gender and Mining: Moral Conviction and Perceived Economic Importance

Citation:

Measham, Thomas G., and Airong Zhang. 2019. "Social Licence, Gender and Mining: Moral Conviction and Perceived Economic Importance." Resources Policy 61: 363-8. 

Authors: Thomas G. Measham, Airong Zhang

Abstract:

Gender has been recognised as an important dimension when it comes to how the public is affected by, and responds to, the mining sector. This paper investigates the way that gender differences play out in relation to social licence and extractive industries. We seek to advance understanding of social licence in extractive industries by building on early work on the link between gender and social licence in other contexts. We address this objective through testing how women and men respond to the information presented to them in the initial notification for a hypothetical mine from a fictitious mining company (NMC Mining). The letter was informed by previous research on the pre-conditions of social licence including information about company commitments to community engagement, compliance with environmental legislation and consideration of residents' views regarding the proposed development. The results show different patterns for female and male participants in terms of perceived procedural fairness and trust in the mining company, as well as behavioural intentions in terms of complaining to others about the project and seeking to work with the mining company to make the proposed project a success. More importantly, the gender differences in attitudes toward the hypothetical mining company were mediated through differences between women and men regarding perceived personal benefits from the mining industry, the importance of mining for the economy, and overall moral conviction against the mining sector in general. The paper concludes that women and men do perceive the value of mining differently and that this translates into different behavioural intentions, differences in trust and perceived procedural fairness. 

Keywords: social licence to operate, trust, gender, mining, community engagement, social acceptance

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender

Year: 2019

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