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Environmental Disasters

Ecofeminism and Natural Disasters: Sri Lankan Women Post-Tsunami

Citation:

Banford, Alyssa, and Cameron Kiely Froude. 2015. “Ecofeminism and Natural Disasters: Sri Lankan Women Post-Tsunami.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 16 (2): 170–87.

Authors: Alyssa Banford, Cameron Kiely Froude

Abstract:

Women experience a host of negative consequences during and after a natural disaster. A variety of feminist theories have been used to explore this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to posit the need for an ecofeminist perspective on analyzing women’s vulnerabilities post- natural disaster. The authors will discuss the history and branches of ecofeminism, highlighting their utility in exploring the intersection of race, class, and gender in the aftermath of disaster. An ecofeminist analysis of Sri Lankan women’s vulnerability in the wake of the 2004 tsunami will be used to illustrate the utility of the theory. Implications of using ecofeminism in natural disaster research will be discussed.

Keywords: ecofeminism, natural disaster, tsunami, Sri Lanka

Topics: Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Race Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2015

Representing Disaster with Resignation and Nostalgia: Japanese Men's Responses to the 2011 Earthquake

Citation:

Kambe, Naoki. 2017. “Representing Disaster with Resignation and Nostalgia: Japanese Men’s Responses to the 2011 Earthquake.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 15–22.

Author: Naoki Kambe

Annotation:

Summary:
Naoki Kambe explores the masculinist rhetoric of Japanese male intellectuals’ reactions to the 2011 earthquake. Through an analysis of several responses by Japanese male intellectuals and writers, Kambe explores how, in times of disaster, these intellectuals and writers express the cultural and masculine ideals of akirame, or resignation—which is linked to mujō, or the impermanence of nature—and of nostalgia for the remote past. In doing so, Kambe makes observations about the connections between masculinity and nation in the Japanese context. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Nationalism Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2017

Rural Male Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2012. “Rural Male Suicide in Australia.” Social Science & Medicine 74 (4): 515-22.

Author: Margaret Alston

Abstract:

The rate of suicide amongst Australia’s rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men.

Keywords: Australia, suicide, men, rural, gender relations, masculinity, climate, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Mental Health Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2012

In the Aftermath of Earth, Wind, and Fire: Natural Disasters and Respect for Women’s Rights

Citation:

Detraz, Nicole, and Dursun Peksen. 2017. “In the Aftermath of Earth, Wind, and Fire: Natural Disasters and Respect for Women’s Rights.” Human Rights Review 18 (2): 151–70.

Authors: Nicole Detraz, Dursun Peksen

Abstract:

Though much research has been devoted to a range of socioeconomic and political consequences of natural disasters, little is known about the possible gendered effects of disasters beyond the well-documented immediate effects on women’s physical well-being. This paper explores the extent to which natural disasters affect women’s economic and political rights in disaster-hit countries. We postulate that natural disasters are likely to contribute to the rise of systematic gendered discrimination by impairing state capacity for rights protection as well as instigating economic and political instability conducive to women’s rights violations. To substantiate the theoretical claims, we combine data on women’s economic and political rights with data on nine different natural disaster events—droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, extreme temperatures, floods, slides, volcanic eruptions, windstorms, and wildfires. Results from the data analysis for the years 1990–2011 suggest that natural disasters have a detrimental effect on the level of respect for both women’s economic and political rights. One major policy implication of our findings is that disasters could be detrimental to women’s status beyond the immediate effects on their personal livelihoods, and thus, policymakers, relief organizations, and donors should develop strategies to prevent gendered discrimination in the economy and political sphere in the affected countries.

Keywords: women's rights, gendered discrimination, natural disasters, human rights

Topics: Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2016

Women, Vulnerability, and Humanitarian Emergencies

Citation:

Ni Aoláin, Fionnuala. 2011. “Women, Vulnerability and Humanitarian Emergencies.” Michigan Journal of Gender & Law 18 (1): 1–23.

Author: Fionnuala Ni Aoláin

Annotation:

Summary:
"Part I of this Article seeks to explore the particular vulnerabilities experienced by women in the context of humanitarian emergencies. Drawing on Fineman's theoretical framework describing the inevitability of vulnerability, I set out the way in which a shift in thinking about inevitable dependencies in the international context of humanitarian emergencies might realign our understanding of and response to gendered vulnerabilities. Part II identifies the structural limitations and biases inherent in prevailing humanitarian crisis responses and maps them onto the masculinities inherent in the standard operating procedures employed by international organizations and the cadre of experts that typically offer solutions to the society in crisis. Part III outlines the importance of realizing security in the context of humanitarian crisis and articulates a vision of gendered security that may be capable of superseding the inherent limitations of current constructions. The conclusion reflects on the limits of current international legal obligations in addressing women's harms and needs in the context of humanitarian crises" (Ni Aoláin 2011, 3-4).

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Security

Year: 2011

A Gender Perspective on the Impact of Flood on the Food Security of Households in Rural Communities of Anambra State, Nigeria

Citation:

Ajaero, Chukwuedozie K. 2017. “A Gender Perspective on the Impact of Flood on the Food Security of Households in Rural Communities of Anambra State, Nigeria.” Food Security 9 (4): 685–95.

Author: Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero

Abstract:

This research examined gender perspectives of the implications of the severe 2012 flood on household food security in rural Anambra state, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty flood-affected migrant households, made up of 120 maleheaded households (MHHs) and 120 female-headed households (FHHs) in four rural local government areas (LGAs) were interviewed using a questionnaire. In addition, 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the LGAs. Data analysis was by descriptive statistics, use of a food security index, and binary logistic regression. Before the flood, 89% of FHHs and 84% of MHHs reported they had been food secure, but after the flood only 34% of MHHs and 22% of FHHs remained food secure. The regression results identified higher incomes, marital status, and larger household sizes as significant predictors of food security for both MHHs and FHHs after the flood. Engagement in other occupations apart from farming and severity of damage from the flood prior to migration were the most important factors that predicted the food security status of MHHs after the flood, while an increase in the age of household head and higher levels of education were significant predictors of food security among FHHs after the flood. These results show that the diversification of income away from a reliance on agriculture, early warning systems for disasters, and improvement in the educational status of women could help households to remain food secure after future floods in Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, 2012 flood, food security, Nigeria, migration, rural communities

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2017

Biopolitics, Climate Change and Water Security: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Issues for Women

Citation:

Tandon, Nidhi. 2007. “Biopolitics, Climate Change and Water Security: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Issues for Women.” Agenda 21 (73): 4-17.

Author: Nidhi Tandon

Abstract:

This article is not intended to be alarmist but its message is urgent. Its observations are fairly straightforward – it examines how climate change will impact on water security1, from both the supply and the demand side and how the African continent is especially vulnerable. Its core premise is that one important factor is to ensure that women have the necessary information, tools and resources to plan and take decisions around water security as it pertains to current and future needs. The paper’s focus is the African continent, with examples drawn from other developing countries. Its recommendations are extracted from workshop experiences in the field. 

Keywords: climate change, water security, drought, poverty

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2007

Gender Role in Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security in the Sahel Belt of West Africa: Application of Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression

Citation:

Oyekale, Abayomi S. 2013. “Gender Role in Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security in the Sahel Belt of West Africa: Application of Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression.” Gender & Behavior 11 (2): 5499-511.

Author: Abayomi S. Oyekale

Abstract:

The Sahel belt of West Africa is high vulnerability to poverty and hunger, especially during periods of drought and other climatic adversities. This paper analyzed the impacts of gender role in agriculture and climate change exposure on monthly food shortages. The data were collected by the the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) from 281 farmers from Burkina Faso and Mali using multi-stage sampling procedures. Descriptive statistics, Poisson regression and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analysis. The results show that average food cropland owned were 9.0227 and 2.8266 hectares in Mali and Burkina Faso respectively while 58.87 percent and 24.29 percent of the farmers indicated that men did most of the works in raw food production. Also, 24.11 percent and 43.57 percent of the households noticed more erratic rainfall in Mali and Burkina Faso, respectively, while 16.31 percent and 36.43 percent reported less overall rainfall. The regression results showed that owned grazing land, more frequent flood, reduction in ground water level, men dominances in cash crop production, fruit production and vegetable production significantly increased the log of months with shortage due to cash (p<0.10), while community grazing land, more overall rainfall, household size, business cash income, men dominances in fodder and large livestock production significantly reduced it (p<0.10). It was concluded that recognition of the contributions of women to food production in the Sahel can facilitate a process for understanding and devising livelihood strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change. 

Keywords: food security, Poisson regression, Negative binomial regression, Sahel belt, West Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Mali

Year: 2013

Material Feminisms

Citation:

Alaimo, Stacy, and Susan Hekman, eds. 2008. Material Feminisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Authors: Stacy Alaimo, Susan Hekman

Annotation:

Summary:
Harnessing the energy of provocative theories generated by recent understandings of the human body, the natural world, and the material world, Material Feminisms presents an entirely new way for feminists to conceive of the question of materiality. In lively and timely essays, an international group of feminist thinkers challenges the assumptions and norms that have previously defined studies about the body. These wide-ranging essays grapple with topics such as the material reality of race, the significance of sexual difference, the impact of disability experience, and the complex interaction between nature and culture in traumatic events such as Hurricane Katrina. By insisting on the importance of materiality, this volume breaks new ground in philosophy, feminist theory, cultural studies, science studies, and other fields where the body and nature collide. (Summary from Indiana University Press)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Emerging Models of Materiality in Feminist Theory
Stacy Alaimo and Susan Hekman
 
1. Darwin and Feminism: Preliminary Investigations for a Possible Alliance
Elizabeth Grosz
 
2. On Not Becoming Man: The Materialist Politics of Unactualized Potential
Claire Colebrook
 
3. Constructing the Ballast: An Ontology for Feminism
Susan Hekman
 
4. Posthumanist Performativity: Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter
Karen Barad
 
5. Otherworldly Conversations, Terran Topics, Local Terms
Donna J. Haraway
 
6. Viscous Porosity: Witnessing Katrina
Nancy Tuana
 
7. Natural Convers(at)ions: Or, What if Culture Was Really Nature All Along?
Vicki Kirby
 
8. Trans-Corporeal Feminisms and the Ethical Space of Nature
Stacy Alaimo
 
9. Landscape, Memory, and Forgetting: Thinking through (My Mother's) Body and Place
Catriona Mortimer-Sandilands
 
10. Disability Experience on Trial
Tobin Siebers
 
11. How Real Is Race? 
Michael Hames-García
 
12. From Race/Sex/Etc. to Glucose, Feeding Tube, and Mourning: The Shifting Matter of Chicana Feminism
Suzanne Bost
 
13. Organic Empathy: Feminism, Psychopharmaceuticals and the Embodiment of Depression
Elizabeth A. Wilson
 
14. Cassie's Hair
Susan Bordo

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Gender, Race

Year: 2008

Feminist Political Ecology and the Economics of Care: In Search of Economic Alternatives

Citation:

Bauhardt, Christine, and Wendy Harcourt, eds. 2018. Feminist Political Ecology and the Economics of Care: In Search of Economic Alternatives. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Christine Bauhardt, Wendy Harcourt

Annotation:

Summary:
This book envisages a different form of our economies where care work and care-full relationships are central to social and cultural life. It sets out a feminist vision of a caring economy and asks what needs to change economically and ecologically in our conceptual approaches and our daily lives as we learn to care for each other and non-human others.
 
Bringing together authors from 11 countries (also representing institutions from 8 countries), this edited collection sets out the challenges for gender aware economies based on an ethics of care for people and the environment in an original and engaging way. The book aims to break down the assumed inseparability of economic growth and social prosperity, and natural resource exploitation, while not romanticising social-material relations to nature. The authors explore diverse understandings of care through a range of analytical approaches, contexts and case studies and pays particular attention to the complicated nexus between re/productivity, nature, womanhood and care. It includes strong contributions on community economies, everyday practices of care, the politics of place and care of non-human others, as well as an engagement on concepts such as wealth, sustainability, food sovereignty, body politics, naturecultures and technoscience.
 
Feminist Political Ecology and the Economics of Care is aimed at all those interested in what feminist theory and practice brings to today’s major political economic and environmental debates around sustainability, alternatives to economic development and gender power relations. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction: Conversations on Care in Feminist Political Economy and Ecology
Wendy Harcourt and Christine Bauhardt
 
2. Nature, Care and Gender: Feminist Dilemmas
Christine Bauhardt 
 
3. White Settler Colonial Scientific Fabulations on Otherwise Narratives of Care
Wendy Harcourt 
 
4. Environmental Feminisms: A Story of Different Encounters
Karijn Van Den Berg
 
5. Climate Change, Natural Disasters and the Spillover Effects of Unpaid Care: The Case of Super-typhoon Haiyan
Maria S. Floro and Georgia Poyatzis
 
6. Care-full Community Economies
Kelly Dombroski, Stephen Healy and Katharine McKinnon 
 
7. Care as Wellth: Internalising Care by Democratising Money
Mary Mellor 
 
8. Diverse Ethics for Diverse Economies: Considering the Ethics of Embodiment, Difference and Inter-corporeality at Kufunda
Pamela Richardson-Ngwenya and Andrea J. Nightingale 
 
9. Striving Towards What We Do Not Know Yet: Living Feminist Political Ecology in Toronto’s Food Network
Carla Wember 
 
10. ‘The Garden has Improved My Life’: Agency and Food Sovereignty of Women in Urban Agriculture in Nairobi
Joyce-Ann Syhre and Meike Brückner 
 
11. Transnational Reconfigurations of Re/Production and the Female Body: Bioeconomics, Motherhoods and the Case of Surrogacy in India
Christa Wichterich
 
12. Menstrual Politics in Argentina and Diverse Assemblages of Care
Jacqueline Gaybor 
 
13. Bodies, Aspirations and the Politics of Place: Learning from the Women Brickmakers of La Ladrillera Azucena
Gollaz Morán 
 
14. Towards an Urban Agenda from a Feminist Political Ecology and Care Perspective

Pages

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