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Environmental Disasters

Rural Male Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2012. “Rural Male Suicide in Australia.” Social Science & Medicine 74 (4): 515-22.

Author: Margaret Alston

Abstract:

The rate of suicide amongst Australia’s rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men.

Keywords: Australia, suicide, men, rural, gender relations, masculinity, climate, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Mental Health Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2012

Material Feminisms

Citation:

Alaimo, Stacy, and Susan Hekman, eds. 2008. Material Feminisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Authors: Stacy Alaimo, Susan Hekman

Annotation:

Summary:
Harnessing the energy of provocative theories generated by recent understandings of the human body, the natural world, and the material world, Material Feminisms presents an entirely new way for feminists to conceive of the question of materiality. In lively and timely essays, an international group of feminist thinkers challenges the assumptions and norms that have previously defined studies about the body. These wide-ranging essays grapple with topics such as the material reality of race, the significance of sexual difference, the impact of disability experience, and the complex interaction between nature and culture in traumatic events such as Hurricane Katrina. By insisting on the importance of materiality, this volume breaks new ground in philosophy, feminist theory, cultural studies, science studies, and other fields where the body and nature collide. (Summary from Indiana University Press)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Emerging Models of Materiality in Feminist Theory
Stacy Alaimo and Susan Hekman
 
1. Darwin and Feminism: Preliminary Investigations for a Possible Alliance
Elizabeth Grosz
 
2. On Not Becoming Man: The Materialist Politics of Unactualized Potential
Claire Colebrook
 
3. Constructing the Ballast: An Ontology for Feminism
Susan Hekman
 
4. Posthumanist Performativity: Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter
Karen Barad
 
5. Otherworldly Conversations, Terran Topics, Local Terms
Donna J. Haraway
 
6. Viscous Porosity: Witnessing Katrina
Nancy Tuana
 
7. Natural Convers(at)ions: Or, What if Culture Was Really Nature All Along?
Vicki Kirby
 
8. Trans-Corporeal Feminisms and the Ethical Space of Nature
Stacy Alaimo
 
9. Landscape, Memory, and Forgetting: Thinking through (My Mother's) Body and Place
Catriona Mortimer-Sandilands
 
10. Disability Experience on Trial
Tobin Siebers
 
11. How Real Is Race? 
Michael Hames-García
 
12. From Race/Sex/Etc. to Glucose, Feeding Tube, and Mourning: The Shifting Matter of Chicana Feminism
Suzanne Bost
 
13. Organic Empathy: Feminism, Psychopharmaceuticals and the Embodiment of Depression
Elizabeth A. Wilson
 
14. Cassie's Hair
Susan Bordo

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Gender, Race

Year: 2008

Challenges and Possibilities for Achieving Household Food Security in the Western Sudan Region: The Role of Female Farmers

Citation:

Ibnouf, Fatma Osman. 2011. “Challenges and Possibilities for Achieving Household Food Security in the Western Sudan Region: The Role of Female Farmers.” Food Security 3 (2): 215-31.

Author: Fatma Osman Ibnouf

Abstract:

This paper investigates the role of women in achieving household food security in the Western Region of Sudan, an area much affected by the impacts of drought and civil conflicts. The study is based on a quantitative survey and qualitative focus group discussions, supported by personal observations made during fieldwork. Additionally, the study draws upon secondary data that is publicly available. Results demonstrate that women play a major role in producing and providing food for their households in this high-risk climate and conflict area, while men are more likely to migrate seasonally and even permanently. In addition, women are responsible for food preparation, processing, and food preservation and are wholly responsible for attending to household garden plots. They therefore contribute more to household food security than men, though this contribution is not recognized in official statistics. The study findings indicate that the main problems women face as food producers and providers are a lack of access to the full package of improved production methods (improved seeds, fertilizers, modern farming methods, credit services, pesticides, appropriate technologies, and marketing facilities), in addition to gender disparities and gender-biased traditions. The impacts of natural crises and civil conflicts are gendered and therefore the responses to these crises must be gender responsive. Holistic and strategic policies and plans that take gender issues into account are thus needed in order to achieve food security.

Keywords: Sudan, women, gender, migration, food security

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2011

Bushfires Are "Men’s Business": The Importance of Gender and Rural Hegemonic Masculinity

Citation:

Tyler, Meagan, and Peter Fairbrother. 2013. “Bushfires Are ‘Men’s Business’: The Importance of Gender and Rural Hegemonic Masculinity.” Journal of Rural Studies 30 (April): 110–19.

Authors: Meagan Tyler, Peter Fairbrother

Abstract:

This paper offers a critical review of the international literature on gender, disaster and rural masculinities. Empirical reference is made to bushfires in Australia, offering new evidence from the State of Victoria. Bushfires loom large in the Australian imagination and there is an increasing amount of research now being conducted in relation to bushfire events. A significant gap remains, however, with regard to the issue of gender. Despite increasing evidence that gender plays a significant role with reference to disaster risk assessment, preparation and response, a gendered analysis of bushfire preparation and response has not been a sustained research priority. Building on the writing of others, a critical assessment is provided of the concept of a specifically Australian, rural hegemonic masculinity as a possible way of better understanding the social dimensions of gender, and bushfire preparation and response in the Australian context. This conceptual consideration is extended to draw attention to the process whereby alternative conceptions of masculinities may emerge. This recognition provides a basis for further research on gender and disaster internationally.

Keywords: gender, masculinity, bushfire, wildfire, community fireguard

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2013

The Fallen Hero: Masculinity, Shame and Farmer Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Bryant, Lia, and Bridget Garnham. 2015. “The Fallen Hero: Masculinity, Shame and Farmer Suicide in Australia.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (1): 67–82.

Authors: Lia Bryant, Bridget Garnham

Abstract:

The drought-stricken Australian rural landscape, cultures of farming masculinity and an economy of value, moral worth and pride form a complex matrix of discourses that shape subjective dynamics that render suicide a possibility for distressed farmers. However, the centrality of a ‘mental health’ perspective and reified notions of ‘stoicism’ within this discursive field operate to exclude consideration of the ways in which cultural identity is linked to emotions. To illuminate and explore complex connections between subjectivity, moral worth and affect in relation to understanding farmer suicide, this article draws on theory and literature on agrarian discourses of masculine subjectivity and shame to analyze empirical data from interviews with farmers during times of environmental, social and economic crisis. The idealized notion of the farming man as ‘Aussie battler’ emerges from romantic agrarian mythology in which pride and self-worth are vested in traditional values of hard work, struggle and self-sacrifice. However, the structural context of agriculture, as it is shaped by the political economy of neoliberalism, threatens farm economic viability and is eroding the pride, self-worth and masculine identity of farmers. The article suggests that the notion of the ‘fallen hero’ captures a discursive shift of a masculinity ‘undone’, a regress from the powerful position of masculine subjectivity imbued with pride to one of shame that is of central importance to understanding how suicide emerges as a possibility for farmers.

Keywords: masculinity, rurality, suicide, farmer, shame

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, Political Economies Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2015

Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration

Citation:

Rothe, Delf. 2017. "Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration." Global Policy 8 (1): 40-7.

Author: Delf Rothe

Abstract:

The research article critically investigates recent European policy proposals that promote migration as an adaptation strategy to increase the resilience of communities vulnerable to the environmental crisis. Such proposals have been welcomed for breaking with alarmist discourses that framed climate-induced migration as a threat to national or international security. The present article seeks to contribute to this ongoing debate by bringing in a fresh perspective that has so far been neglected: the perspective of gender. Drawing on a poststructuralist perspective on gender the article reveals that policy debates on climate-induced migration take place within highly gendered discourses. Applying this perspective to recent policy reports on climate change, migration and resilience, the article helps to paint a more nuanced picture of the highly criticized notion of resilience. The analysis shows that, on the one hand, resilience thinking helped overcoming a masculinized discourse of security as control. On the other hand, it reproduces a series of ‘gender myths’ about the role of women in the so-called Global South.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Discourses

Year: 2017

Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations

Citation:

Tanyag, Maria. 2018. “Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations.” Review of International Studies 44 (4): 654-71. 

Author: Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

In a crisis-prone world, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) uprooted by both armed conflicts and environmental disasters has drastically increased and displacement risks have intensified. Despite the growing attention within global security and development agendas to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), there remain striking gaps in addressing SRHR in crisis situations, particularly among IDP women and girls. This article examines the continuum between social reproduction in times of crisis and the material and ideological conditions that restrict women’s bodily autonomy in everyday life. Using the case of the Philippines where millions of people are routinely affected by conflict and disaster-induced displacements, it argues that the failure to recognise the centrality of women’s health and bodily autonomy not only hinders the sustainable provision of care and domestic labour during and after crisis, but also fundamentally constrains how security is enacted within these spaces. Thus, the article highlights an urgent need to rethink the gendered political economy of crisis responses as a building block for stemming gendered violence and depletion of social reproductive labour at the household, state, and global levels.

Keywords: feminist political economy, social reproduction, depletion, Crisis, global health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Political Economies Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Effects of Drought on Livelihoods and Gender Roles: A Case Study of Meghalaya

Citation:

Singh, Ram, S.M. Feroze, and Lala I.P. Ray. 2013.“Effects of Drought on Livelihoods and Gender Roles: A Case Study of Meghalaya.” Indian Journal of Gender Studies 20 (3): 453–67.

Authors: Ram Singh, S.M. Feroze, Lala I.P. Ray

Abstract:

Climate change has serious repercussions on food security, availability, accessibility and utilisation and food system stability. Women farmers currently account for 45–80 per cent of all food production in developing countries depending on the region. When climate change-related disasters strike, women are more vulnerable than men, and the workload of women and girls increases. In India, women are actively engaged in agricultural activities, including paddy cultivation and fishing, which are both affected by changing weather patterns. Loss of livelihood increases women’s vulnerability and marginalisation. The current study was conducted in 10 villages of Meghalaya, a north-eastern state in India. It concluded that extreme climate variability affects both the sexes but with different consequences as they are subjected to different roles and responsibilities. We suggest empowering women with requisite knowledge of their rights, relevant information and skills, and also by being helped with adequate resources to enable them to act and make their own decisions.

Keywords: drought, women's livelihoods, north-east India, Meghalaya, climate change, women

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Food Security, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Gender and Climate Change: Impacts, Science, Policy

Citation:

Nagel, Joane. 2015. Gender and Climate Change: Impacts, Science, Policy. New York: Routledge.

Author: Joane Nagel

Annotation:

Summary: 
Does gender matter in global climate change? This timely and provocative book takes readers on a guided tour of basic climate science, then holds up a gender lens to find out what has been overlooked in popular discussion, research, and policy debates. We see that, around the world, more women than men die in climate-related natural disasters; the history of science and war are intimately interwoven masculine occupations and preoccupations; and conservative men and their interests drive the climate change denial machine. We also see that climate policymakers who embrace big science approaches and solutions to climate change are predominantly male with an ideology of perpetual economic growth, and an agenda that marginalizes the interests of women and developing economies. The book uses vivid case studies to highlight the sometimes surprising differential, gendered impacts of climate changes. (Summary from CRC Press)
 
Table of Contents:
1. What is Global Climate Change? 
 
2. Gender and Global Warming
 
3. Gender and Sea Level Rise
 
4. Gender and Climate Change Science
 
5. Gender and the Military-Science Complex
 
6. Gender and Climate Change Skepticism 
 
7. Gender and Climate Change Policy 
 
8. Conclusion: Engendering Global Climate Change

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization

Year: 2015

Intersecting Identities and Global Climate Change

Citation:

Nagel, Joane. 2012. “Intersecting Identities and Global Climate Change.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 19 (4): 467–76.

Author: Joane Nagel

Abstract:

This article explores the place of race, class, gender, sexual and national identities and cultures in global climate change. Research on gendered vulnerabilities to disasters suggests that women are more vulnerable than men to many meteorological disasters related to climate change, specifically flooding and drought. This is because of their relative poverty, economic activities (especially subsistence agriculture) and the moral economies governing women's modesty in many cultures. Research on historical and contemporary links between masculinity and the military in environmental politics, polar research and large-scale strategies for managing risk, including from climate change, suggests that men and their perspectives have more influence over climate change policies because of their historical domination of science and government. I expect that masculinist identities, cultures and militarised institutions will tend to favour large-scale remedies, such as geoengineering, minimise mitigation strategies, such as reducing energy use, and emphasise ‘security’ problems of global climate change.

Keywords: gender, masculinity, climate change, militarism, identity

Topics: Class, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Race, Security, Sexuality

Year: 2012

Pages

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