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Environment

Green Intersections: Caring Masculinities and the Environmental Crisis

Citation:

Requena-Pelegrí, Teresa. 2017. “Green Intersections: Caring Masculinities and the Environmental Crisis.” In Masculinities and Literary Studies: Intersections and New Directions, edited by Josep M. Armengol, Marta Bosch Vilarrubias, Àngels Carabí, and Teresa Requena, 143–52. New York: Routledge.

Author: Teresa Requena-Pelegrí

Abstract:

This chapter addresses the issues raised by the interrelation between the studies on men and masculinities with environmental concerns and care. In the first one, "Raw Water" by Wells Tower, the aggressive domination of nature is coupled with the development of a hypermasculinity that proves to be ultimately destructive to both others and the environment. In the second case, Scott Russell Sander's nonfiction text Hunting for Hope, which constitutes a manifesto for engagement and responsibility for the world we live in, a meditation on the ways to build a masculine identity upon the foundations of care and restoration. The weight of the destructive responsibility men have historically had in their relationship with nature remains paramount in the shape of the impending economic, social, and environmental issues. The particular intersection between two different areas, gender and ecocriticism, has been accomplished by the field of ecofeminism, thus revealing the ways in which patriarchal attitudes have historically exploited both women and nature. (Taylor and Francis)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2017

Ecology and Environmental Studies

Citation:

Pulé, Paul. 2007. “Ecology and Environmental Studies.” In International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, edited by Michael Flood, Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease, and Keith Pringle, 158–62. London: Routledge.

Author: Paul Pulé

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Unlike feminism, the masculinities discourse is not currently 'ecologised'. I introduce an 'ecomasculinity' personal praxis to encourage relationship building between these conceptual frameworks. To achieve strengthened relationships requires the acceptance of conceptual differences throughout the discourse. To achieve acceptance requires the virtues of patience, understanding, humility, trust, loving-kindness, empathy and compassion. To achieve these virtues requires the personal internalisation of an ethics of caring. 'Ecomasculinity' offers a path towards this internalisation, doing so by emphasising relationality and points of convergence between the conceptual frameworks within the masculinities discourse" (Pulé 2007, 160).

Topics: Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses

Year: 2007

Coming Back Across the Fence: Masculinity and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture*

Citation:

Peter, Gregory, Michael Mayerfeld Bell, Susan Jarnagin, and Donna Bauer. 2000. “Coming Back Across the Fence: Masculinity and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture*.” Rural Sociology 65 (2): 215–33.

Authors: Gregory Peter, Michael Mayerfeld Bell, Susan Jarnagin, Donna Bauer

Abstract:

In this paper we explore the social construction of agricultural masculinity and its role in the transition to sustainable agriculture. We draw our evidence from a participatory qualitative study comparing members of the sustainable agriculture group Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI) with their non-PFI neighbors. On the non-PFI farms, men more often rep- resented what we call monologic masculinity, a conventional masculinity with rigid and polarized gender expectations and strictly negotiated performances that make a clear distinction between men's and women's activities. The male farmers belonging to PFI, on the other hand, more often represented what we call dialogic masculinity, characterized by different measures for work and success than in monologic masculinity, less need for control over nature, and greater social openness. Although both are present to some extent in all male participants, we argue that acceptance of a more dialogic masculinity helps promote the transition to sustainable agriculture.

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2000

Recreating Men’s Relationship with Nature: Toward a Profeminist Environmentalism

Citation:

Pease, Bob. 2019. “Recreating Men’s Relationship with Nature: Toward a Profeminist Environmentalism.” Men and Masculinities 22 (1): 113–23.

Author: Bob Pease

Abstract:

While feminist and profeminist scholars are increasingly in agreement with the thesis that hegemonic and destructive forms of masculinity are the source of current environmental crises, there is less agreement on how to address this issue or on the way forward for ecologically conscious and profeminist men. Some forms of ecofeminism essentialize women as being closer to nature than men, while arguing that men are closer to culture. There seems little capacity for men to change in this view. In a parallel development, some ecomasculinity theorists argue that the problem is not with the nature of masculinity per se but with the separation of men’s natural maleness from forms of masculinity that suppress their infinite capacity to care. It will be argued that such latter approaches espouse either an ecofeminine or ecomasculinist perspective rather than a social ecofeminist view. This article will explore the implications of the social ecofeminist critique (or what some writers refer to as feminist environmentalism) for understanding socially constructed masculinism, and what men can do about it, in the context of the social divisions between men across the world.

Keywords: environmental crises, ecofeminism, hegemonic masculinity, ecological masculinities, profeminist environmentalism

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism

Year: 2019

Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest

Citation:

Loomis, Erik. 2017. “Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 37–44.

Author: Erik Loomis

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Summary: 
In this paper, Erik Loomis explores the connections between natural resource workers, industrialized nature, and masculinity as constructed by the logger working class in the US Pacific Northwest. In the industrial forest, different ideas of masculinity and nature were formed and performed. Loomis argues that the working class histories of natural resource workers need to be included in sustainable economies and environmental history. This way, environmental activists can develop more sophisticated strategies for creating coalitions with natural resource workers. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Cool Dudes in Norway: Climate Change Denial among Conservative Norwegian Men

Citation:

Krange, Olve, Bjørn P. Kaltenborn, and Martin Hultman. 2019. “Cool Dudes in Norway: Climate Change Denial among Conservative Norwegian Men.” Environmental Sociology 5 (1): 1–11.

Authors: Olve Krange , Bjørn P. Kaltenborn, Martin Hultman

Abstract:

In their article ‘Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States’ the authors state: ‘Clearly the extent to which the conservative white male effect on climate change denial exists outside the US is a topic deserving investigation.’ Following this recommendation, we report results from a study in Norway. McCright and Dunlap argue that climate change denial can be understood as an expression of protecting group identity and justifying a societal system that provides desired benefits. Our findings resemble those in the US study. A total of 63 per cent of conservative males in Norway do not believe in anthropogenic climate change, as opposed to 36 per cent among the rest of the population who deny climate change and global warming. Expanding on the US study, we investigate whether conservative males more often hold what we term xenosceptic views, and if that adds to the ‘cool dude-effect’. Multivariate logistic regression models reveal strong effects from a variable measuring ‘xenosceptic cool dudes’. Interpreting xenoscepticism as a rough proxy for right leaning views, climate change denial in Norway seems to merge with broader patterns of right-wing nationalism.

Keywords: climate change denial, public opinion, xenoscepticism, political ideology, gender, Norway

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Men, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Norway

Year: 2019

Representing Disaster with Resignation and Nostalgia: Japanese Men's Responses to the 2011 Earthquake

Citation:

Kambe, Naoki. 2017. “Representing Disaster with Resignation and Nostalgia: Japanese Men’s Responses to the 2011 Earthquake.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 15–22.

Author: Naoki Kambe

Annotation:

Summary:
Naoki Kambe explores the masculinist rhetoric of Japanese male intellectuals’ reactions to the 2011 earthquake. Through an analysis of several responses by Japanese male intellectuals and writers, Kambe explores how, in times of disaster, these intellectuals and writers express the cultural and masculine ideals of akirame, or resignation—which is linked to mujō, or the impermanence of nature—and of nostalgia for the remote past. In doing so, Kambe makes observations about the connections between masculinity and nation in the Japanese context. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Nationalism Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2017

Ecological Masculinities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Guidance

Citation:

Hultman, Martin, and Paul Pulé. 2018. Ecological Masculinities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Guidance. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Martin Hultman, Paul Pulé

Annotation:

Summary:
Around the globe, unfettered industrialisation has marched forth in unison with massive social inequities. Making matters worse, anthropogenic pressures on Earth’s living systems are causing alarming rates of thermal expansion, sea-level rise, biodiversity losses in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and a sixth mass extinction. As various disciplines have shown, rich white men in the Global North are the main (although not the only) perpetrators of this slow violence. This book demonstrates that industrial/breadwinner masculinities have come at terrible costs to the living planet and ecomodern masculinities have failed us as well, men included.
 
This book is dedicated to a third and relationally focused pathway that the authors call ecological masculinities. Here, they explore ways that masculinities can advocate and embody broader, deeper and wider care for the global through to local (‘glocal’) commons. Ecological Masculinities works with the wisdoms of four main streams of influence that have come before us. They are: masculinities politics, deep ecology, ecological feminism and feminist care theory. The authors work with profeminist approaches to the conceptualisations and embodiments of modern Western masculinities. From there, they introduce masculinities that give ADAM-n for Earth, others and self, striving to create a more just and ecologically viable planet for all of life.
 
This book is interdisciplinary. It is intended to reach (but is not restricted to) scholars exploring history, gender studies, material feminism, feminist care theory, ecological feminism, deep ecology, social ecology, environmental humanities, social sustainability, science and technology studies and philosophy. (Summary from Routledge) 
 
Table of Contents: 
Prologue: Separate Paths Towards A Common Future
 
1. Introduction: Interrogating Masculinities 
 
2. Masculine Ecologisation: From Industrial/Breadwinner and Ecomodern to Ecological Masculinities 
 
3. Men and Masculinities: A Spectrum of Views
 
4. Connecting Inner and Outer Nature: A Deeper Ecology for the Global North 
 
5. Lessons from Ecological Feminism
 
5. Caring for the 'Glocal' Commons 
 
6. Headwaters: Previous Research on Men, Masculinities and Earth 
 
7. Ecological Masculinities: Giving ADAM-n

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2018

Natures of Masculinities: Conceptualising Industrial, Ecomodern and Ecological Masculinities

Citation:

Hultman, Martin. 2017. “Natures of Masculinities: Conceptualising Industrial, Ecomodern and Ecological Masculinities.” In Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations, edited by Susan Buckingham and Virginie Le Masson, 87-103. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Martin Hultman

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This chapter takes this knowledge to further conceptualise historically situated and contemporary enacted forms of masculinities in rich, western countries with high per capita emissions. It introduces the configurations of ‘industrial masculinities’, ‘ecological masculinities’ and ‘ecomodern masculinities’. I will discuss how industrial masculinities portray Nature as bits and pieces and work with it accordingly as well as how ecomodern masculinities are able to depict nature as alive and in need of care, but only if it fits with neoliberal market mechanisms and end-of-pipe technologies. Then, I discuss the possibility of ecological masculinities enacted with care, interconnectedness and the need for small-scale and localization of resources. These configurations of masculinities display the entanglements of discourses in actors, and of actors in discourses of contemporary environmental politics. Exploring different configurations of masculinities might shed further light on how gender identities are constructed. In so doing, this text both elaborates on new concepts of masculinities and broadens our understanding of material cultural formations in the present form of global politics” (Hultman 2017, 87).

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Exploring Industrial, Ecomodern, and Ecological Masculinities

Citation:

Hultman, Martin. 2017. “Exploring Industrial, Ecomodern, and Ecological Masculinities.” In Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, edited by Sherilyn MacGregor, 239-53. London: Routledge.

Author: Martin Hultman

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This chapter introduces, and endeavours to situate historically, the study of masculinities in environmental politics. I discuss three concepts – ‘industrial masculinities’, ‘ecomodern masculinities’, and’ ecological masculinities’ – and illustrate them by drawing on findings from empirical research that I have developed at length elsewhere (Hultman 2013, 2014b, 2015; Anshelm and Hultman 2014a; Hultman and Pulé forthcoming). Examples from the discourse of climate change scepticism in the United States and Sweden, from mainstream American politics, and from sustainable transitions in New Zealand provide insights into how different forms of masculinities are performed against the backdrop of political, social, and environmental change. This empirical research enables me to theorize how three distinct discourses have been co-constructed with figurations (or types) of masculinities that have developed within environmental politics. Exploring these different figurations and their discursive construction opens up space for further research on how masculinities shape and are shaped by environmental politics” (Hultman 2017, 239). 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2017

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