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Environment

Climate Technology, Gender, and Justice: The Standpoint of the Vulnerable

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2019. Climate Technology, Gender, and Justice: The Standpoint of the Vulnerable. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Tina Sikka

Annotation:

Summary:
This book is the first to undertake a gendered analysis of geoengineering and alternative energy sources. Are either of these technologies sufficiently attendant to gender issues? Do they incorporate feminist values as articulated by the renowned social philosopher Helen Longino, such as empirical adequacy, novelty, heterogeneity, complexity and applicability to human needs? The overarching argument in this book contends that, while mitigation strategies like solar and wind energy go much further to meet feminist objectives and virtues, geoengineering is not consistent with the values of justice as articulated in Longino's feminist approach to science. This book provides a novel, feminist argument in support of pursuing alternative energy in the place of geoengineering. It provides an invaluable contribution for academics and students working in the areas of gender, science and climate change as well as policy makers interested in innovative ways of taking up climate change mitigation and gender. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
 
1. Geoengineering
 
2. FCE and Empirical Adequacy
 
3. Ontological Heterogeneity
 
4. Novelty
 
5. Mutuality of Interaction
 
6. Diffusion of Power
 
7. Applicability to Human Needs
 
8. Conclusion

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice

Year: 2019

Technology, Gender, and Climate Change: A Feminist Examination of Climate Technologies

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2018. “Technology, Gender, and Climate Change: A Feminist Examination of Climate Technologies.” Societies 8 (4): 109.

Author: Tina Sikka

Abstract:

In this article, I examine the subject of justice as it relates to gender and climate change by focusing on two specific strategies, namely, the geoengineering strategy of ocean fertilization, and renewable energy as a means of mitigation (where mitigation is understood as the adoption of technologies and practices that aim to slow the rise of greenhouse gas emissions). My overarching argument is that iron fertilization geoengineering is not consistent with the feminist values of justice embedded in feminist standpoint theory and feminist contextual empiricism. Alternative mitigation strategies, on the other hand, go much further in meeting these objectives and virtues. 

Keywords: feminism, climate change, gender, geoengineering, environment, standpoint

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Justice

Year: 2018

Technofeminism and Ecofeminism: An Analysis of Geoengineering Research

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2017. "Technofeminism and Ecofeminism: An Analysis of Geoengineering Research." In Ecofeminism in Dialogue, edited by Douglas A. Vakoch and Sam Mickey. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Author: Tina Sikka

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2017

Smallholder Farmers and Climate Smart Agriculture: Technology and Labor-Productivity Constraints amongst Women Smallholders in Malawi

Citation:

Murray, Una, Zewdy Gebremedhin, Galina Brychkova, and Charles Spillane. 2016. "Smallholder Farmers and Climate Smart Agriculture: Technology and Labor-Productivity Constraints amongst Women Smallholders in Malawi." Gender, Technology and Development 20 (2): 117-48. 

Authors: Una Murray, Zewdy Gebremedhin, Galina Brychkova, Charles Spillane

Abstract:

Climate change and variability present a major challenge to agricultural production and rural livelihoods, including livelihoods of women small- holder farmers. There are significant efforts underway to develop, deploy, and scale up Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices and technologies to facilitate climate change adaptation for farmers. However, there is a need for gender analysis of CSA practices across different farming and cultural systems to facilitate adoption by, and livelihood improvements for, women smallholder farmers. Climate change poses challenges for maintaining and improving agricultural and labor productivity of women smallholder farmers. The labor productivity of many women smallholders is constrained by lack of access to labor-saving technologies and the most basic of farm tools. Poorer smallholders face a poverty trap, due to low agricultural and labor productivity, from which they cannot easily escape without access to key resources such as rural energy and labor- saving technologies. In Malawi, the agricultural system is predominantly rainfed and largely composed of smallholders who remain vulnerable to climate change and variability shocks. Despite the aspirations of women smallholders to engage in CSA, our research highlights that many women smallholders have either limited or no access to basic agricultural tools, transport, and rural energy. This raises the question of whether the future livelihood scenarios for such farmers will consist of barely surviving or “hanging in”; or whether such farmers can “step up” to adapt better to future climate constraints; or whether more of these farmers will “step out” of agriculture. We argue that for women smallholder farmers to become more climate change resilient, more serious attention to gender analysis is needed to address their constraints in accessing basic agricultural technologies, combined with participatory approaches to develop and adapt CSA tools and technologies to their needs in future climates and agro-ecologies.

Keywords: climate change, women smallholders, labor productivity, participatory technology design, agriculture, economic growth

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2016

Gender and Geoengineering

Citation:

Buck, Holly Jean, Andrea R. Gammon, and Christopher J. Preston. 2014. "Gender and Geoengineering." Hypatia 29 (3): 651-69.

Authors: Holly Jean Buck, Andrea R. Gammon, Christopher J. Preston

Abstract:

Geoengineering has been broadly and helpfully defined as “the intentional manipulation of the earth’s climate to counteract anthropogenic climate change or its warming effects” (Corner and Pidgeon 2010, 26). Although there exists a rapidly growing literature on the ethics of geoengineering, very little has been written about its gender dimensions. The authors con- sider four contexts in which geoengineering appears to have important gender dimensions: (1) the demographics of those pushing the current agenda, (2) the overall vision of control it involves, (3) the design of the particular technologies, and (4) whom geoengineering will most affect and benefit. After detailing these four gender dimensions, we consider three ways in which the geoengineering discourse could be enriched if it became more sensitive to issues of gender. These include increasing the focus on the concrete other, recognizing the socially transformative potential of geoengineering technologies, and engaging in value-sensitive design. Although ultimately remaining agnostic on the desirability of geoengineering, the paper brings gender considerations into a discussion from which they have been conspicuously absent.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender

Year: 2014

What is 'Green' in the Green New Deal - Criteria from Ecofeminist and Post-Keynesian Economics

Citation:

Kesting, Stefan. 2011. "What is 'Green' in the Green New Deal - Criteria from Ecofeminist and Post-Keynesian Economics."International Journal of Green Economics 5 (1): 49-64.

Author: Stefan Kesting

Abstract:

This article aims in general at further fulfilling the ambition of green economics to be a holistic paradigm synthesising and integrating a diverse set of heterodox economic approaches and philosophies. In particular, it addresses the current lack of macroeconomic and more specifically post-Keynesian short run theories in green economies. This new paradigm is in its essence a radical ecofeminist approach to economics. From this vantage point, the ecofeminist framework of (re)productivity developed by Biesecker and Hofmeister is indeed very congruent with green economies. Moreover, the goal of the article is to develop normative (ecofeminist) criteria for green stimulus packages. This could improve green economic policy formulation and real-world implementation [Turk,(2008), p.267].

Keywords: green stimulus, (re)productivity, post-keynesian economics, ecofeminism

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2011

Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction

Citation:

Cenamor, Rubén, and Stefan L. Brandt, eds. 2019. Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 

Authors: Rubén Cenamor, Stefan L. Brandt

Annotation:

Summary: 
While there exist numerous studies on ecocriticism and ecofeminism, much less has been written about ecomasculinities. This volume contributes to filling this gap by examining models of fictional ecomasculinity in and through contemporary U.S. literature and cinema. Our study examines ecomasculinities as practices of masculinity which are deeply conservationist and can embrace non-masculine traits. In this line of thought, a main goal of the volume is to interrogate the potential of ecomasculinities to elicit in men a desire to become engage in other practices of masculinity that are counter-hegemonic and have as main goal to achieve equality on different strata of society. Bridging the gap between the Social Sciences and the Humanities, the book interrogates intersections between ecomasculinities and masculinities beyond capitalism, ecomasculinities and aging, and ecomasculinities and queerness, among others. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction
Stefan L. Brandt and Rubén Cenamor
 
1. The Wild Ones: Ecomasculinities in the American Literary Imagination
Stefan L. Brandt 
 
2. Men in Nature: A Critical Analysis of the Mythopoetic Men’s Movement
Paul M. Pulé and Martin Hultman 
 
3. Eco-men from the Outer Space? Mars and Utopian Masculinities in Fin de Siècle Literature
Alessandra Calanchi
 
4. A New Man Emerges : Masculinities Beyond Capitalism and the Eco-Man in 1950’s America
Rubén Cenamor
 
5. Gender Blending and Psychic Phenomena: Forming Ecomasculinities in Gravity’s Rainbow 
Victoria Addis 
 
6. Cormac McCarthy’s Eco-men: The Loss of the Natural World in the Twentieth Century American Landscape
Layla Hendow 
 
7. Aging Men in Nature: Jane Smiley’s Ecocritical Exploration of Masculinities Across the Life Course in A Thousand Acres 
Teresa Requena 
 
8. The Film Star as Eco-Warrior: Harrison Ford Saves the Planet (and this Time It is for Real)
Virginia Luzón 
 
9. True Detective: Not Flourishing Yet, but Maybe Germinating
Bill Phillips 
 
10. Polar Bears and Electric Plugs: Green Shopping and Twenty-First Century Queer American Masculinity
Evangeline M. Heiliger 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Ecofeminism, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Environmental Movement Participation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998–2007: ‘Women Always Clean up the Mess'

Citation:

Stoddart, Mark C. J., and D. B. Tindall. 2011. “Ecofeminism, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Environmental Movement Participation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998–2007: ‘Women Always Clean up the Mess.’” Sociological Spectrum 31 (3): 342–68.

Authors: Mark C.J. Stoddart, D.B. Tindall

Abstract:

This article draws upon two waves of interviews with environmental movement members in British Columbia, Canada, in order to examine participants' interpretations of the relationship between gender and environmental politics. Four claims emerge from this analysis. First, our results support the notion that there is an affinity between environmental politics and feminism. Second, despite recent critiques of ecomaternalism and the dual subjugation of nature and women within ecofeminism, these discourses remain useful as interpretive resources for research participants. Third, while ecomaternalism is a recurrent theme, it appears to be declining in relative importance as a discursive resource. Finally, notions of hegemonic masculinity are becoming more salient as an interpretive framework. While the first two claims emphasize continuity in participants' interpretive framework, the latter findings describe shifts in participants' understandings of gender and environmental politics.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2011

Real Men Don’t Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat Consumption

Citation:

Rothgerber, Hank. 2013. “Real Men Don’t Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat Consumption.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity 14 (4): 363–75. 

Author: Hank Rothgerber

Abstract:

As arguments become more pronounced that meat consumption harms the environment, public health, and animals, meat eaters should experience increased pressure to justify their behavior. Results of a first study showed that male undergraduates used direct strategies to justify eating meat, including endorsing pro-meat attitudes, denying animal suffering, believing that animals are lower in a hierarchy than humans and that it is human fate to eat animals, and providing religious and health justifications for eating animals. Female undergraduates used the more indirect strategies of dissociating animals from food and avoiding thinking about the treatment of animals. A second study found that the use of these male strategies was related to masculinity. In the two studies, male justification strategies were correlated with greater meat consumption, whereas endorsement of female justification strategies was correlated with less meat and more vegetarian consumption. These findings are among the first to empirically verify Adams’s (1990) theory on the sexual politics of meat linking feminism and vegetarianism. They suggest that to simply make an informational appeal about the benefits of a vegetarian diet may ignore a primary reason why men eat meat: It makes them feel like real men. 

Keywords: vegetarianism, meat eating, masculinity, meat justification

Topics: Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Religion

Year: 2013

Beasts, Burgers, and Hummers: Meat and the Crisis of Masculinity in Contemporary Television Advertisements

Citation:

Rogers, Richard A. 2008. “Beasts, Burgers, and Hummers: Meat and the Crisis of Masculinity in Contemporary Television Advertisements.” Environmental Communication 2 (3): 281–301.

Author: Richard A. Rogers

Abstract:

This paper examines three recent television advertisements that symbolically link meat not only with masculinity, but specifically with the “crisis in masculinity.” Using an ecofeminist lens, I engage in an intersectional analysis of these advertisements to demonstrate how they articulate the eating of meat with primitive masculinities as a response to perceived threats to hegemonic masculinity. These advertisements demon- strate that scholars interested in the status of masculinity must pay attention to the “threats” to masculinity posed by environmental and animal rights movements, and that scholars interested in environmental movements must pay attention to the role of masculinity in resisting moves toward sustainability. This analysis demonstrates the utility of ecofeminism in understanding the relationship between hegemonic masculinity and environmentalism while also pointing to the need for ecofeminism to continue to explore the implications of intersectionality for ecofeminist theory and criticism.

Keywords: ecofeminism, environmentalism, intersectionality, masculinity, meat

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Intersectionality

Year: 2008

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