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Payments for Environmental Services, Gendered Livelihoods and Forest Management in Vietnam: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective


Tuijnman, Wouter, Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak, Pham Xuan Hung, and Bui Duc Tinh. 2020. “Payments for Environmental Services, Gendered Livelihoods and Forest Management in Vietnam: a Feminist Political Ecology Perspective.” Journal of Political Ecology 27 (1): 317-34.

Authors: Wouter Tuijnman , Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak, Pham Xuan Hung, Bui Duc Tinh


Economic approaches to combat environmental degradation and deforestation have resulted in development initiatives such as the Payment for Environmental Services program (PES). This study deals with the effects of PES on women's livelihoods in Thuong Lo commune, Central Vietnam. Employing a feminist political ecology perspective and adopting a qualitative approach, we analyze the gendered roles, responsibilities and effects of PES on local livelihoods. We found that the women in our study portrayed different preferences and knowledge in relation to PES, forest management and livelihoods. Women are often excluded in PES projects due to a range of various socio-cultural factors.

Les approches économiques pour lutter contre la dégradation de l'environnement ont donné lieu à des initiatives  de développement comme le programme de Paiement des Services Environnementaux (PSE). Cette étude-ci s'agit des effets de PSE sur les moyens de subsistance de femmes dans la communauté Thuong Lo, au Vietnam  central. Utilisant une perspective fondée sur l'écologie politique féministe et une méthode de recherche qualitative, on analyse les rôles sexués, les responsabilités  et les effets de PSE sur les moyens locaux de subsistance. Les femmes dans cette étude ont exprimé des préférences et des connaissances différentes par  rapport au PSE, l'aménagement forestier et les moyens de subsistance. Les femmes souvent sont exclues du PSE à cause d'une variété de facteurs socio-culturels.

Las diferentes estrategias económicas para luchar contra el deterioro ambiental y la deforestación han resultado  en iniciativas de desarrollo como el programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA). Este estudio trata  acerca de los efectos de PSA sobre los medios de sub sistencia locales de las mujeres en la comunidad Thuong  Lo, en Vietnam Central. Utilizando una perspectiva ecología política feminista y un método cualitativo, analizamos las funciones de los géneros, responsabilidades y los efectos de PSA en los medios de subsistencia  locales. En este estudio, alegamos que las mujeres en este estudio reflejaron preferencias y conocimientos  diferentes respecto al PSA, la gestión forestal y los medios de subsistencia. Generalmente las mujeres están  excluidas de PSA debido a una variedad de factores socio-culturales.

Keywords: payments for environmental services, forest management, gender, women's empowerment, livelihoods, Central Vietnam, Co Tu people, paiement des services environnementaux, l'aménagement forestier, sexe émancipation des femmes, moyens de subsistan ce, Vietnam Central, peuple Co Tu, pagos por servicios ambientales, gestión forestal, gênero, empoderamiento femenino, medios de subsistencía, pueblo Co Tu

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Rethinking Gender and Identity in Energy Studies


Ryan, Sarah E. 2014. “Rethinking Gender and Identity in Energy Studies.” Energy Research & Social Science 1: 96–105.

Author: Sarah E. Ryan


Gender and identity should be core concerns for energy researchers and policymakers, because they mediate access to resources, exposure to pollutants, and opportunities to participate in energy resource management, policy, and science. Accordingly, this article suggests four research agendas ripe for further development: eliminating indoor air pollution, strengthening community resource management, developing feminist energy jurisprudence, and increasing women’s representation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and energy fields. This article is a call to action to publish gender and identity research of great consequence in this new journal.

Keywords: gender, identity, feminist theory, Energy

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2014

Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology


Salleh, Ariel, ed. 2009. Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology. New York: Pluto Press.

Author: Ariel Salleh, ed.


As the twenty-first century faces a crisis of democracy and sustainability, this book brings women academics and alternative globalisation activists into conversation.
Through studies of global neoliberalism, ecological debt, climate change, and the ongoing devaluation of reproductive and subsistence labour, these uncompromising essays by women thinkers expose the limits of current scholarship in political economy, ecological economics, and sustainability science.

The book introduces groundbreaking theoretical concepts for talking about humanity-nature links and will be a challenging read for activists and for students of political economy, environmental ethics, global studies, sociology, women's studies, and critical geography.

Table of Contents:
1. The Devaluation of Women’s Labour
Silvia Federici

2. Who is the ‘He’ of He Who Decides in Economic Discourse?
Ewa Charkiewicz

3. The Diversity Matrix: Relationship and Complexity
Susan Hawthorne

4. Development for Some is Violence for Others
Nalini Nayak

5. Nuclearised Bodies and Militarised Space
Zohl de Ishtar

6. Women and Deliberative Water Management
Andrea Moraes and Ellie Perkins

7. Mainstreaming Trade and Millennium Development Goals?
Gig Francisco and Peggy Antrobus

8. Policy and the Measure of Woman
Marilyn Waring

9. Feminist Ecological Economics in Theory and Practice
Sabine U. O’Hara

10. Who Pays for Kyoto Protocol? Selling Oxygen and Selling Sex
Ana Isla

11. How Global Warming is Gendered
Meike Spitzner

12. Women and the Abuja Declaration for Energy Sovereignty
Leigh Brownhill and Terisa E. Turner

13. Ecofeminist Political Economy and the Politics of Money
Mary Mellor

14. Saving Women: Saving the Commons
Leo Podlashuc

15. From Eco-Sufficiency to Global Justice
Ariel Salleh

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Globalization, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods

Year: 2009

Homelessness, Nature, and Health: Toward a Feminist Political Ecology of Masculinities


Rose, Jeff, and Corey Johnson. 2017. “Homelessness, Nature, and Health: Toward a Feminist Political Ecology of Masculinities.” Gender, Place & Culture 24 (7): 991–1010.

Authors: Jeff Rose, Corey Johnson


Engaging with feminist political ecology and leveraging experiences from a 16-month critical ethnography, this research explores ways in which masculinities served as both a rationale and an outcome of men facing homelessness living in the margins of an urban municipal public park – a space known as ‘the Hillside.’ Ethnographic narratives point to Hillside residents making their home in nature, connecting experiences in nature with various masculinities, and the gendered eschewing of social services. These portrayals further highlight the perceived feminization of social services within a context of rapidly neoliberalizing urban environments, and illustrate the ways participants positioned and engaged with social services. Entanglements of health and nonhuman nature prompt a feminist political ecological engagement with masculinity. Experiences from the Hillside add textured richness to discourses concerning the ways in which contemporary landscapes are constructed, perceived, experienced, and co-constituted through and with gender.

Keywords: landscape, social services, gender, urban, wildland

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2017

Feminist Political Ecologies: Grounded, Networked and Rooted on Earth


Rocheleau, Dianne, and Padini Nirmal. 2015. “Feminist Political Ecologies: Grounded, Networked and Rooted on Earth.” In The Oxford Handbook on Transnational Feminist Movements, edited by Rawwida Baksh and Wendy Harcourt, 793–814. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Dianne Rocheleau, Padini Nirmal


This chapter examines how feminist political ecology (FPE) emerged as a feminist critique of sustainable development and a poststructural feminist critique and expansion of political ecology. It looks at how FPE brought together intellectual and political conversations among feminist scholars/practitioners working in geography, anthropology, women’s/gender studies, critical development studies, environmental science/studies, environmental justice, and agrarian studies. The chapter traces early work that looked at the gendered nature of environmental knowledges, access to/control over resources, spaces/places, organizations, and social movements and gendered authority in all of them. It shows how in the 1990s FPE engaged in poststructural/postcolonial/decolonial turns in theory, politics, and social movements. The chapter discusses how FPE scholars have enriched analyses of the material world and everyday life through place-based thinking/research/writing and practice.

Keywords: decolonial, feminist, political ecology, sustainable development, social movements

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology

Year: 2015

Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences


Rocheleau, Dianne E., Barbara P. Thomas-Slayter, and Esther Wangari, eds. 1996. Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Dianne E. Rocheleau, ed., Barbara P. Thomas-Slayter, ed., Esther Wangari, ed.


Feminist Political Ecology explores the gendered relations of ecologies, economies and politics in communities as diverse as the rubbertappers in the rainforests of Brazil to activist groups fighting racism in New York City.

Women are often at the centre of these struggles, struggles which concern local knowledge, everyday practice, rights to resources, sustainable development, environmental quality, and social justice.

The book bridges the gap between the academic and rural orientation of political ecology and the largely activist and urban focus of environmental justice movements.

Table of Contents:
1. Gender and Environment: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective
Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, and Esther Wangari

2. Out on the Front Lines but Still Struggling for Voice: Women in the Rubber Tappers’ Defense of the Forest in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil
Connie Campbell with the Women’s Group of Xapuri

3. Feminist Politics and Environmental Justice: Women’s Community Activism in West Harlem, New York
Vernice Miller, Moya Hallstein, Susan Quass

4. Protecting the Environment Against State Policy in Austria: From Women’s Participation in Protest to New Voices in Parliament
Doris Wastl-Walter

5. Spanish Women Against Industrial Waste: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Grassroots Movements
Josepa Brú-Bistuer

6. Gender Visions for Survival: Semi-arid Regions in Kenya
Esther Wangari, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Dianne Rocheleau

7. Developing and Dismantling Social Capital: Gender and Resource Management in the Philippines
M. Dale Shields, Cornelia Butler Flora, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Gladys Buenavista

8. “Our Lives are No Different from that of our Buffaloes”: Agricultural Change and Gendered Spaces in a Central Himalayan Valley
Manjari Mehta

9. Gendered Knowledge: Rights and Space in Two Zimbabwe Villages: Reflection on Methods and Findings
Louise Fortmann

10. From Forest Gardens to Tree Farms: Women, Men, and Timber in Zamrana-Chacuey, Dominican Republic
Dianne Roucheleau, Laurie Ross, Julio Morrobel (with Ricardo Hernandez, Critobalina Amparo, Cirilo Brito, Daniel Zevallos, the staff of ENDA-Caribe and the Rural Federation of Zambrana-Chaceu)

11. Where Kitchens and Laboratory Meet: The “Tested Food for Silesia” Program
Anne C. Bellows

12. “Hysterical Housewives” and Other Mad Women: Grassroots Environmental Organizing in the United States
Jonie Seager

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women

Year: 1996

Gender and Environment from ‘Women, Environment, and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology


Ressureción, Bernadette P. 2017. “Gender and Environment from ‘Women, Environment, and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology.” In Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, 71-84. Oxon: Routledge.

Author: Bernadette P. Ressureción


“This chapter provides an overview of gender, environment, and development scholarship that explains how early ideas and debates that have shaped subsequent work. My aim is to demonstrate how this field has evolved over time and how it has now come to understand two of the most pressing challenges of this century: climate change and disaster risk. While there remains a number of different approaches to studying gender-environment connections, in the discussion that follows I focus on feminist political ecology (FPE). FPE has evolved as a loose platform of ideas that seeks to theorize differentiated forms of power and resource access primarily but not exclusively in developing county contexts. FPE grew out of a desire to foreground the political aspects of earlier frameworks, as well as to analyze the growing neoliberalization of nature in capitalist development processes. It draws on feminist poststructuralist theory in order to criticize the domination of techno-scientific solutions to environmental change that sidestep more holistic and grounded approaches. I argue that at a time when there is a dire need to address the exigent features of climate change and disaster policy discourses, FPE offers valuable insights into human-nature relations that can contribute to more grounded analyses and better solutions. Understanding how women and men, as embodied and emotional beings, have complex and shifting relationships to the natural world that are embedded in place and shaped by intersections of gender, race, class, caste, culture, age (and so on) is central to the search for environmental and social justice. An FPE lens provides tools for envisioning transformative changes that are much needed in these troubling times” (Resurrección 2017, 71).

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles

Year: 2017

Women, Ecology and Economics: New Models and Theories


Perkins, Ellie. 1997. “Women, Ecology and Economics: New Models and Theories.” Ecological Economics, Women, Ecology and Economics 20 (2): 105–106.

Author: Ellie Perkins


“In envisioning a special issue of this journal which would focus on the connections between women, ecology and economics, our initial goal was to provide a forum for discussion around very concrete examples of why women are (and should be!) concerned with ecological economics. Flowing from my initial discussions with several colleagues and students, who all thought such a forum was a great idea and long overdue, a number of specific suggestions emerged.

The Call for Papers mentioned such possible topics as "The parallels between women's work, environmental services and natural resource use with regard to valuation, status as 'externalities,' sustainability, complementarity with financial capital, incorporation in national accounts, etc.; the role of women in creating the conditions for sustainable economies and sustainable trade; women's health as an environmental and economic issue; the economic implications of women's position as environmental stewards, especially in the South; and the impact of globalization on women, from an ecological economics perspective." The journal's editors suggested an additional topic of interest which we listed as 'women and population policy.'

…the degree of complementarity and balance in the work of authors from all over the globe is astounding. While the models differ somewhat in emphasis and form, all those we received take as a starting point the unpaid work which is vitally necessary to build and maintain homes, human relationships, and communities -- and without which there is no 'economy'. ~ Whether her paper is theoretical or empirical, however, each author chooses a unique focus for her inquiry, tracing different ecological connections” (Perkins 1997, 105).

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women

Year: 1997

Visualizing Politics: A Feminist Political Ecology and Participatory GIS Approach to Understanding Smallholder Farming, Climate Change Vulnerability, and Seed Bank Failures in Northern Ghana


Nyantaki-Frimpong, Hanson. 2019. “Visualizing Politics: A Feminist Political Ecology and Participatory GIS Approach to Understanding Smallholder Farming, Climate Change Vulnerability, and Seed Bank Failures in Northern Ghana.” Geoforum 105: 109-21.

Author: Hanson Nyantaki-Frimpong


Over the past three decades, seeds banks have emerged as a major strategy for building seed systems resilience to climate change. Often initiated and funded by non-governmental organizations, seeds banks have grown prolifically, but questions remain concerning their long-term sustainability. Despite their precipitous rise, and effectives during initial years, many seed banks cut back on activities or stop altogether once external NGO funding is withdrawn. This rise and fall of seed banks raise three questions worthy of examination: (1) What factors shape the sustainability of community seed banks? (2) Do community seed banks function as they are designed to be? (3) How well do seed banks target farmers based upon true underlying need? Drawing upon insights from feminist political ecology (FPE) and Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS), this paper examines these questions with data collected from drought-prone northern Ghana. The empirical research includes participant-observations; 144 in-depth interviews; participatory geospatial data analysis; gender-disaggregated data validation workshops; and analyses of seed bank inventory, lending, and payment records. Contrary to previous work emphasizing the role of climate variability and crop failure, this paper highlights the centrality of rural politics in the sustainability of seed banks. Specifically, the findings show that the lack of respect for indigenous knowledge, pseudo seed borrowing, and local elite capture, all work together to undermine the sustainability of seed banks. When seed banks do not meet farmers’ needs, the paper also demonstrates how farmers covertly resist such projects. Finally, the paper shows how through a repertoire of gender politics, village men undermine seed banks’ vision of ensuring equitable and democratic access to seeds. Overall, the paper contributes to existing research by demonstrating how FPE and PGIS could be used in parallel to permit a more rigorous testing of claims of village and gender politics on the ground.

Keywords: seed banks, smallholder agriculture, climate vulnerability, feminist political ecology, participatory GIS, Ghana

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, NGOs Regions: Africa, West Africa

Year: 2019

New Directions in Women, Peace and Security


Basu, Soumita, Paul Kirby, and Laura Shepherd, eds. 2020. New Directions in Women, Peace and Security. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

Authors: Soumita Basu, Paul Kirby, Laura Shepherd


What does gender equality mean for peace, justice, and security? At the turn of the 21st century, feminist advocates persuaded the United Nations Security Council to adopt a resolution that drew attention to this question at the highest levels of international policy deliberations.
Today the Women, Peace and Security agenda is a complex field, relevant to every conceivable dimension of war and peace. This groundbreaking book engages vexed and vexing questions about the future of the agenda, from the legacies of coloniality to the prospects of international law, and from the implications of the global arms trade to the impact of climate change. It balances analysis of emerging trends with specially commissioned reflections from those at the forefront of policy and practice. (Summary from Bristol University Press)
Table of Contents:
United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security
Foreword: Toward Strategic Instrumentalism ~ Anne Marie Goetz
1. Women, Peace and Security: A Critical Cartography ~ Soumita Basu, Paul Kirby and Laura J. Shepherd
Part I: Encounters
2. South Sudanese Women on the Move: An Account of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda~ Rita M. Lopidia and Lucy Hall
3. The Price of Peace? Frictional Encounters on Gender, Security and the ‘Economic Peace Paradigm’ ~ Nicole George
4. Difficult Encounters with the WPS Agenda in South Asia: Re- scripting Globalized Norms and Policy Frameworks for a Feminist Peace ~ Rita Manchanda
5. Best Practice Diplomacy and Feminist Killjoys in the Strategic State: Exploring the Affective Politics of Women, Peace and Security ~ Minna Lyytikäinen and Marjaana Jauhola
6. Between Protection and Participation: Affect, Countering Violent Extremism and the Possibility for Agency ~ Elizabeth Pearson
7. Lessons Lived in Gender and International Criminal Law ~ Patricia Viseur Sellers and Louise Chappell
8. Holding Feminist Space ~ sam cook and Louise Allen
Part II: Horizons
9. Global Racial Hierarchies and the Limits of Localization via National Action Plans ~ Toni Haastrup and Jamie J. Hagen
10. Towards a Postcolonial, Anti- Racist, Anti- Militarist Feminist Mode of Weapons Control ~ Anna Stavrianakis
11. The Privatization of War: A New Challenge for the Women, Peace and Security Agenda ~ Marta Bautista Forcada and Cristina Hernández Lázaro
12. Human Trafficking, Human Rights and Women, Peace and Security: The Sound of Silence ~ Gema Fernández Rodríguez de Liévana and Christine Chinkin
13. Addressing Future Fragility: Women, Climate Change and Migration ~ Briana Mawby and Anna Applebaum
14. Feminist Challenges to the Co-optation of WPS: A Conversation with Joy Onyesoh and Madeleine Rees ~ Joy Onyesoh, Madeleine Rees and Catia Cecilia Confortini

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Law, International Organizations, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2020


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