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Environment

Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences

Citation:

Rocheleau, Dianne, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, and Esther Wangari, eds. 1996. Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 

Authors: Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Esther Wangari

Annotation:

Summary: 
Feminist Political Ecology explores the gendered relations of ecologies, economies and politics in communities as diverse as the rubbertappers in the rainforests of Brazil to activist groups fighting racism in New York City. Women are often at the centre of these struggles, struggles which concern local knowledge, everyday practice, rights to resources, sustainable development, environmental quality, and social justice.
 
The book bridges the gap between the academic and rural orientation of political ecology and the largely activist and urban focus of environmental justice movements. (Summary from Google Books) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Gender and Environment: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective 
Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Esther Wangari 
 
2. Out on the Front Lines But Still Struggling for Voice: Women in the Rubber Tappers' Defense of the Forest in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil 
Connie Campbell with the Women's Group of Xapuri
 
3. Feminist Politics and Environmental Justice: Women's Community Activism in West Harlem, New York
Vernice Miller, Moya Hallstein, Susan Quass
 
4. Protecting the Environment Against State Policy in Austria: From Women's Participation in Protest to New Voices in Parliament
Doris Wastl-Walter
 
5. Spanish Women Against Industrial Waste: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Grassroots Movements 
Josepa Brú-Bistuer
 
6. Gendered Visions for Survival: Semi-Arid Regions in Kenya 
Esther Wangari, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Dianne Rocheleau
 
7. Developing and Dismantling Social Capital: Gender and Resource Management in the Philippines 
M. Dale Shields, Cornelia Butler Flora, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Gladys Buenavista
 
8. "Our Lives are No Different from That of Our Buffaloes": Agricultural Change and Gendered Spaces in a Central Himalayan Valley 
Manjari Mehta
 
9. Gendered Knowledge: Rights and Space in Two Zimbabwe Villages: Reflections on Methods and Findings
Louise Fortmann
 
10. From Forest Gardens to Tree Farms: Women, Men, and Timer in Zambrana-Chaucey, Dominican Republic 
Dianne Rocheleau, Laurie Ross, Julio Morrobel, (with Ricardo Hernandez, Cristobalina Amparo, Cirilo Brito, Daniel Zevallos, the staff of ENDA-Caribe and the Rural Federation of Zambrana-Chaucey) 
 
11. Where Kitchen and Laboratory Meet: The "Tested Food for Silesia" Program
Anne C. Bellows
 
12. "Hysterical Housewives" and Other Mad Women: Grassroots Environmental Organizing in the United States
Joni Seager
 
13. Feminist Political Ecology: Crosscutting Themes, Theoretical Insights, Policy Implications 
Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Esther Wangari, Dianne Rocheleau

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Justice, Political Participation

Year: 1996

Feminist Ecological Economics and Sustainability

Citation:

Perkins, Patricia E. 2007. "Feminist Ecological Economics and Sustainability." Journal of Bioeconomics 9 (3): 227-44. 

Author: Patricia E. Perkins

Keywords: feminist economics, ecological economics, sustainable development, unpaid work, economic valuation, caring labor, material throughput, economic growth, gender equity, social reproduction, local economies, social change, sustaining services, social sustainability, feminism, provisioning, sustainable livelihoods, service sector, quality of life, work time, multi-tasking, discourse-based valuation, community economies, social resilience

Annotation:

Summary:
New developments in feminist ecological economics and ecofeminist economics are contributing to the search for theories and policy approaches to move economies toward sustainability. This paper summarizes work by ecofeminists and feminist ecological economists which is relevant to the sustainability challenge and its implications for the discipline of economics. Both democracy and lower material throughputs are generally seen as basic principles of economic sustainability. Feminist theorists and feminist ecological economists offer many important insights into the conundrum of how to make a democratic and equity-enhancing transition to an economy based on less material throughput. These flow from feminist research on unpaid work and caring labor, provisioning, development, valuation, social reproduction, non-monetized exchange relationships, local economies, redistribution, citizenship, equity-enhancing political institutions, and labor time, as well as creative modeling approaches and activism-based theorizing. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Citizenship, Democracy / Democratization, Economies, Ecological Economics, Informal Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2007

Feminism, Ecology and the Philosophy of Economics

Citation:

Nelson, Julie A. 1997. "Feminism, Ecology and the Philosophy of Economics." Ecological Economics 20 (2): 155-62.

Author: Julie A. Nelson

Abstract:

The contemporary discipline of economics pays little heed to either the natural environment or to the work of women. A review of the literature on the historical development of western concepts of self and science shows that this is not coincidental. Rather than suggesting that ecological economics reinforce the identification of women with nature, however, feminist thought suggests that dualistic thinking about men and women, humans and nature can be should be replaced with a fuller picture of human identity and knowledge.

Keywords: feminism, economics, ecology, philosophy

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Gender

Year: 1997

Ecofeminist Political Economy and the Politics of Money

Citation:

Mellor, Mary. 2009. "Ecofeminist Political Economy and the Politics of Money." In Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology, edited by Ariel Salleh, 251-67. London: Pluto Press.

Author: Mary Mellor

Annotation:

Summary:
"So how can the capitalist market be challenged in a way that provides a feasible alternative at a systematic level? As the exploration of externalities shows, the market system places a boundary around certain limited activities and functions that are defined by their value in money terms. Ecofeminist political economy points to the dualist construction of the modern market economy and the way in which economic valuing and the social dominance of men are directly connected. This chapter will explore first the basis of that dualism and then explore the critical question of money issue and circulation that has largely been ignored by both radical and conventional economists" (Mellor 2009, 252).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Economy, Political Economies

Year: 2009

Women, Nature and the Social Construction of ‘Economic Man'

Citation:

Mellor, Mary. 1997. “Women, Nature and the Social Construction of ‘Economic Man’.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 129–40.

Author: Mary Mellor

Abstract:

This paper argues that the social construction ‘economic man’ is the product of a hierarchical dualism in western society that has also created ‘rational man’ and ‘scientific man’. Women and the natural world form the subordinated half of these dualisms. Central to this paper is the claim that this dualism is not only a cultural/theoretical one, but also a material one. The social construction of ‘economic man’ is the product of a bifurcated knowledge system and a materially divided society. ‘Economic man’ reflects a society in which the embeddedness and embodiedness of humanity is hidden by the division of mind from body, and science/culture from the natural world. For this reason it is not possible to incorporate women and nature into the ‘economy’ through the commodity form by according them a value as price. It is argued that the economic system can only exist if women and nature remain externalised, as women form the bridge between an autonomous individualised ‘man’ and the biological/ecological underpinning of his existence. Central to this analysis is the distinction between social and natural/biological time. ‘Economic’ man lives in social time (clock time) while women are responsible for biological time. This is not because women are closer to nature/biology in an essential sense. Rather, this relationship is imposed upon them by a male-dominated society.

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations

Year: 1997

Toward a Sustaining Production Theory

Citation:

O’Hara, Sabine U. 1997. “Toward a Sustaining Production Theory.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 141–54.

Author: Sabine O’Hara

Abstract:

Production is commonly described as the root of wealth creation, growth and progress. Mainline production theory ascribes this wealth generating ability to a limited number of inputs transformed into equally narrowly defined goods and services. Output which is not part of the official economy's market exchange, or inputs not employed in their production process remain external and unaccounted for. Many of these unaccounted for goods and inputs are provided in households, gardens, subsistence production, or ecological and biophysical systems through the ‘free’ services of women or nature. Thus an alternative view of production is suggested, one which views production itself as linked to the social and bio-physical contexts within which it takes place. This context first makes the generation of input streams, the receiving of output streams and the processing of inputs by means of fund factors (Georgescu-Roegen) possible. As production is contextualized it becomes evident that processes which sustain input generation, waste absorption and material transformation are critical to the production process. These are referred to as sustaining services. A sustaining production process is one which maintains sustaining services instead of destroying them. It is further argued that steps toward the implementation of a sustaining production concept require a move from abstraction to material concreteness. Three areas of concreteness are discussed as moving from solely monetary to physical valuation criteria, moving from methodological homogeneity to diversity, and moving from a mystified and distanced decision making process about quantity and quality of production to one of informed, participatory discourse.

Keywords: production theory, sustainability, ecosystem services, social sustainability, flow/ fund factors, feminist theory

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Informal Economies, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles

Year: 1997

The Triangle of the Human Economy: Household - Cultivation - Industrial Production An Attempt at Making Visible the Human Economy in Toto

Citation:

Pietilä, Hilkka. 1997. “The Triangle of the Human Economy: Household - Cultivation - Industrial Production An Attempt at Making Visible the Human Economy in Toto.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 113–27.

Author: Hilkka Pietilä

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt at outlining a comprehensive framework within which it would be possible to perceive that the totality of the human economy consists of three distinct components: household, cultivation and industrial production. Each one of these components operates according to its own particular logic. Therefore, the logic of one cannot be imposed on the logic of another without serious consequences — as is now already seen, when the logic of industrial production has hitherto been imposed upon the whole human economy. It is to be hoped that establishing a new, more comprehensive and relevant perception of the human economy as a whole would help humanity to adopt a lifestyle which will provide the prerequisites for a dignified quality of life for all people, with due respect to the ecological boundaries of the biosphere. In this process, a recognition of the economic, social and cultural contribution of women is decisive, as well as a respect for the values and priorities set within women's culture and way of life.

Keywords: women's work, gender and economics, cultivation economy, alternative economics, new theory of economics, economy versus ecology, the human economy, unpaid work and production, household as basic economy

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Women, Households

Year: 1997

Making the Hidden Visible: The Importance of Caring Activities and Their Principles for Any Economy

Citation:

Jochimsen, Maren, and Ulrike Knobloch. 1997. “Making the Hidden Visible: The Importance of Caring Activities and Their Principles for Any Economy.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 107–12.

Authors: Maren Jochimsen, Ulrike Knobloch

Abstract:

In this paper we emphasize the interrelation of the monetary, free-enterprise sector of the economy and its maintaining basis. The current discussion on sustainability has so far placed too little attention on this circumstance. To us this interrelation is fundamental; it is one important key to understanding present day economics and economies. By concentrating on this interrelation we question the widely accepted dualism between the public and the private, between the officially acknowledged economic and the invisible economic. By this we create our own specific approach to the question of how to reform economic thought and action in order to achieve a naturally and socially sustainable living.

Keywords: feminist economics, discoursive ethics, ecological economics, sustainable development, caring economy

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Feminisms

Year: 1997

From the Ground up: Ecofeminism and Ecological Economics

Citation:

McMahon, Martha. 1997. “From the Ground up: Ecofeminism and Ecological Economics.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 163–73.

Author: Martha McMahon

Abstract:

Speaking from the margins, ecofeminist analysis exposes many of the assumptions of neoclassical economics as gender biased and as anti-ecological. It identifies the abstract individual of neoclassical economics as a privileged male individual whose apparent ‘autonomy’ is predicated on the oppression of women, marginal people and nature. Thus ecofeminists tell a different story about economic man — from the grounds of others' experience up. Ecofeminism points to the limits of models of sustainability built on extending market rationality to non-market spheres of life. Ecofeminist economics contains a creative tension between a commitment to social justice and a determination not to colonize the wild.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Justice

Year: 1997

Intersectionality and the Changing Face of Ecofeminism

Citation:

Kings, A.E. 2017. “Intersectionality and the Changing Face of Ecofeminism.” Ethics & the Environment 22 (1): 63-87.

Author: A.E. Kings

Abstract:

With its longstanding commitment to intersectional analysis, ecofeminism has always concerned itself with understanding the unique experiences of those who face discrimination, but it is only recently that ecofeminists have come to label their work as explicitly intersectional. This paper will examine the changing nature of ecofeminism and the importance of continuing to work within an intersectional framework. I will begin by reviewing the genealogy of intersectionality and ecofeminism, before exploring the current directions which intersectional ecofeminism is taking and the limitations which challenge intersectional theorisation. I will demonstrate the importance of an intersectional Indian ecofeminist approach, by exploring the complex circumstances surrounding the management of menstrual hygiene amongst young women in rural India: an issue which if approached non-intersectionally, would effectively silence their struggle.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Intersectionality

Year: 2017

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