War and Climate Change

Dr. Neta Crawford

October 18, 2023

Hybrid - Ballroom A (U03-3550A Campus Center), University of Massachusetts Boston. For in-person attendance:

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Armed Conflict, Gender and the Rights of Nature

Keina Yoshida

March 30, 2023

Snowden Auditorium, W01-0088 Wheatley Hall & Zoom webinar

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Rethinking Climate-Smart Agriculture Adoption for Resilience-Building Among Smallholder Farmers: Gender-Sensitive Adoption Framework


Khoza, Sizwile, Dewald van Niekerk, and Livhuwani Nemakonde. 2021. “Rethinking Climate-Smart Agriculture Adoption for Resilience-Building Among Smallholder Farmers: Gender-Sensitive Adoption Framework.” In African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation, edited by Walter Leal Filho, Nicholas Ogugu, Lydia Adelake, Izael da Silva, 1-22. Cham: Springer Nature. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Sizwile Khoza, Dewald van Niekerk, Livhuwani Nemakonde


This study identifies the need for holistic understanding of gender-differentiated climate-smart agriculture (CSA) adoption by smallholder farmers who are at the frontline of climate-related hazards and disasters in Africa. CSA adoption is predominantly informed by a parochial linear approach to farmers’ decision-making processes. Resilience-building and adaptation, which forms the second pillar of CSA and can enhance understanding of the CSA adoption nuances at farmer level, often receives less attention in adoption investigations. To appreciate CSA adoption from a resilience perspective, this study focused on resilience-building based on the interlinkage between CSA and disaster risk reduction and applied a resilience perspective in a gendered approach to CSA adoption by smallholder farmers. Through primary data collected in an exploratory sequential mixed method design, the study presents a proposed normative gender-sensitive CSA adoption framework to guide CSA implementation strategies and policies. The framework is anchored in resilience thinking, and some of its key components include gender-sensitive CSA technology development, risk-informed decision-making by heterogeneous smallholder farmers, gender-sensitive enabling factors, resilience strategies, gender equitable and equal ownership, and control of and access to resilience capitals. The proposed framework can be used to improve CSA adoption by smallholder farmers by addressing gendered vulnerability and inequality that influence low adoption. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, disaster risk reduction, gender, adoption, resilience, framework

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Balance

Year: 2020

Community-Based Monitoring of Indigenous Food Security in a Changing Climate: Global Trends and Future Directions


Lam, Steven, Warren Dodd, Kelly Skinner, Andrew Papadopoulos, Chloe Zivot, James Ford, Patricia J. Garcia, IHACC Research Team, and Sherilee L. Harper. 2019. “Community-Based Monitoring of Indigenous Food Security in a Changing Climate: Global Trends and Future Directions.” Environmental Research Letters 14 (7).

Authors: Steven Lam, Warren Dodd, Kelly Skinner, Andrew Papadopoulos, Chloe Zivot, James Ford, Patricia J. Garcia, IHACC Research Team, Sherilee L. Harper


Climate change is expected to exacerbate existing food security challenges, especially in Indigenous communities worldwide. Community-based monitoring (CBM) is considered a promising strategy to improve monitoring of, and local adaptation to climatic and environmental change. Yet, it is unclear how this approach can be applied in food security or Indigenous contexts. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) review and synthesize the published literature on CBM of Indigenous food security; and, (2) identify gaps and trends in these monitoring efforts in the context of climate change. Using a systematic search and screening process, we identified 86 published articles. To be included, articles had to be published in a journal, describe a CBM system, describe any aspect of food security, and explicitly mention an Indigenous community. Relevant articles were thematically analyzed to characterize elements of CBM in the context of climate change. Results show that the number of articles published over time was steady and increased more than two-fold within the last five years. The reviewed articles reported on monitoring mainly in North America (37%) and South America (28%). In general, monitoring was either collaborative (51%) or externally-driven (37%), and focused primarily on tracking wildlife (29%), followed by natural resources (16%), environmental change (15%), fisheries (13%), climate change (9%), or some combination of these topics (18%). This review provides an evidence-base on the uses, characteristics, and opportunities of CBM, to guide future food security monitoring efforts in the context of climate change. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: community-based monitoring, climate change, adaptation, gender, food security, indigenous, systematic review methodology

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Indigenous, Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, North America, South America

Year: 2019

Green Revolution: Impact on Gender


Sobha, I. 2007. “Green Revolution: Impact on Gender.” Journal of Human Ecology 22(2): 107-113.

Author: I. Sobha


Women of third world countries, or in the developing countries, play a major role in managing natural resources. Women have always had a close relationship with the trees and the forests and traditionally they have gathered products, which have provided them with the basic three ‘Fs’ of fuel, food and fodder and for a variety of other uses. While men consider the forest more in terms of commercial possibilities, women see it as a source of basic domestic need. They have a profound knowledge of the plants, animals and ecological processes around them. Their role in agriculture and animal husbandry as well as in the household activities makes them the daily managers of the living environment. Third world peasants, who were mainly women, for over centuries have innovated in agriculture and the methods they used have been lasting and sustainable, this knowledge which was acquired for over centuries began to be eroded and erased with western model of green revolution. Globally, the major threat to the environment, in terms of promoting agricultural exports, has been through the replacement of traditional food crops by hybrid cash crops. Degradation of land, pollution through pesticides and fertilizers and loss of biodiversity has been some of the more disturbing environmental impacts. Because of the unchecked pollution women are the worst affected, they have also caused health problems among children and men. The present paper examines the impact of such changes on women with the help of a few research studies. 

Keywords: displacement, environment, Green Revolution, poverty, strategy

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Gender, Gender Roles

Year: 2007

‘‘Si No Comemos Tortilla, No Vivimos:’’ Women, Climate Change, and Food Security in Central Mexico


Bee, Beth A. 2014. "'Si No Comemos Tortilla, No Vivimos:' Women, Climate Change, and Food Security in Central Mexico." Agriculture & Human Values 30: 607–620.

Author: Beth A. Bee


In recent years, it has become clear that food security is intimately related to complex environmental, social, political, and economic issues. Even though several studies document the impact of climate on food production and agriculture, a growing segment of research examines how climate change impacts food systems and associated livelihoods. Furthermore, while women play a crucial role in providing food security for their families, little research exists that examines the nexus among gender relations, climate change, and household food security. This study investigates these relationships by asking: (1) how is the production and reproduction of knowledge about food security and climate change shaped by gender and lived experience, and (2) how does this knowledge influence attitudes and strategies for maintaining food security in a changing climate? Drawing on the results of research in two communities in central Mexico, I argue that women’s perceptions of and strategies for maintaining food security are derived from their socio-political, environmental, and economic contexts. This study contributes to both the growing literature on the gender dynamics of climate change, as well as debates about the role of bioengineered seeds in helping farmers to adapt to a changing climate.

Keywords: food security, gender, climate change, adaptive capacity, mexico, Knowledge

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2014

Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana Through an Intersectional Framework


Wood, Alexa L., Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III and Arika Ligmann-Zielinska. 2019. “Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana Through an Intersectional Framework.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 48 (2): 329-348.

Authors: Alexa Wood, Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, Arika Ligmann-Zielinska


As the effects of climate change intensify, subsistence farmers in Ghana are expected to face increased food insecurity, due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture. Within households, young women are expected to support all aspects of household food security, and will experience a more burdensome load of labor, as a dwindling stock of natural resources will make daily tasks more time consuming. The intersection of age, gender, and location inhibits young women's decision-making responsibilities and wage-earning potential. Climate change exacerbates this dynamic, which restricts opportunities to acquire sufficient food and places increased stress on household food systems. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, food security, intersectionality, Ghana, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019


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