Elections

Big Men and Ballots: The Effects of Traditional Leaders on Elections and Distributive Politics in Zambia

Citation:

Baldwin, Kate. 2010. "Big Men and Ballots: The Effects of Traditional Leaders on Elections and Distributive Politics in Zambia." PhD. Diss. Columbia University. 

Author: Kate Baldwin

Abstract:

This dissertation examines an inconsistency in the literature on African politics. Most scholars accept that African politics is "patrimonial"; politicians stay in power by building relationships with local big men, such as traditional chiefs, who can mobilize support for them. However, the vast majority of governments in Africa are now elected, and when voters choose their government in the secrecy of the ballot box, it is not clear that traditional chiefs can influence how they vote. An "institutionalist" perspective would suggest that chiefs' political views are irrelevant once the secret ballot has been instituted.

Topics: Gender, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Elections, Tribe Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zambia

Year: 2010

Work and Power: The Connection Between Female Labor Force Participation and Female Political Representation

Citation:

Iversen, Torben, and Frances Rosenbluth. 2008. “Work and Power: The Connection Between Female Labor Force Participation and Female Political Representation.” Annual Review of Political Science 11 (1): 479–95.

Authors: Torben Iversen, Frances Rosenbluth

Abstract:

Mainstream political economy has tended to treat the family as a unit when examining the distributional consequences of labor market institutions and of public policy. In a world with high divorce rates, we argue that this simplification is more likely to obscure than to instruct. We find that labor market opportunities for women, which vary systematically with the position of countries in the international division of labor and with the structure of the welfare state, affect women’s bargaining power within the family and as a result, can explain much of the cross country variation in the gender division of labor as well as the gender gap in political preferences.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Balance, Governance, Elections, Households, Political Participation

Year: 2008

Gender, Political Ideology, and Climate Change Beliefs in an Extractive Industry Community

Citation:

Davidson, Debra J., and Michael Haan. 2012. “Gender, Political Ideology, and Climate Change Beliefs in an Extractive Industry Community.” Population and Environment 34 (2): 217–34.

Authors: Debra J. Davidson, Michael Haan

Abstract:

This paper presents results from a survey on attitudes toward climate change in Alberta, Canada, home to just 10% of Canada's population, but the source of 35% of the country's greenhouse-gas emissions (Environment Canada 2011). Results show high levels of awareness, but much lower levels of perceived climate change impacts for one's self or region. Women expressed significantly greater awareness and sense of perceived impacts about climate change than men; however, gender differences appear predominantly associated with socioeconomic factors. Indeed, in all, political ideology had the strongest predictive value, with individuals voting for the conservative party significantly less likely to anticipate significant societal climate change impacts. This finding, in turn, is strongly associated with beliefs regarding whether climate change is human induced. Particularly notable is the finding that the gender gap in climate change beliefs and perceived impacts is not attributed to gendered social roles, as indicated by occupational and familial status. Instead, gender distinctions appear to be related to the lower tendency for women to ascribe to a conservative political ideology relative to men.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2012

Good Governance from the Ground Up: Women’s Roles in Post-Conflict Cambodia

Citation:

McGrew, Laura, Kate Frieson, and Sambath Chan. 2004. Good Governance from the Ground Up: Women’s Roles in Post-Conflict Cambodia. Cambridge, MA: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

Authors: Laura McGrew, Kate Frieson, Sambath Chan

Abstract:

Women are spearheading Cambodia’s transformation to democracy. During the years when the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia watched over the nation’s progress, women jumped at the chance to aid in reconstruction. They aimed to make the process of drafting a new constitution more inclusive, and they rallied to help ensure peaceful elections following violent campaign periods. Today, women compose the majority of Cambodians with experience in conflict management and peace building.

This publication traces women’s contributions to governance and peace through local and national politics as well as civil society; examines the significance of gender perspectives to the promotion of good governance; and reflects on mechanisms enhancing women’s participation in the political arena. (Institute for Inclusive Security)

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Elections, Post-Conflict Governance, International Organizations, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2004

Burkina Faso: Recruiting Women for the Legislative Elections

Citation:

Compaoré, Nestorine. 2005. “Burkina Faso: Recruiting Women for Legislative Elections.” In Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, edited by Julie Ballington and Azza Karam, 132-138. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.

Author: Nestorine Compaoré

Abstract:

As in the other countries of francophone Africa, women are under-represented in the power structures of Burkina Faso. This case study addresses the issue of women’s political participation in Burkina Faso, and in particular their access to the national legislature and the recruitment of women candidates by political parties when elections to the legislature are approaching. It emphasizes the impact of the electoral system and quotas on women’s representation, the stages of the recruitment process, and the constraints women face in being elected to the legislature.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso

Year: 2005

Our Mothers Have Spoken: Synthesizing Old and New Forms of Women’s Political Authority in Liberia

Citation:

Moran, Mary. 2012. “Our Mothers Have Spoken: Synthesizing Old and New Forms of Women’s Political Authority in Liberia.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 13 (4): 51–66.

Author: Mary Moran

Abstract:

This paper argues that the 2005 election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf to the Liberian presidency is best understood in the historical and cultural context of pre-war authority-bearing positions available to women, rather than as an outcome of the Liberian civil war itself. Against a literature that tends to view “traditional” African societies as hostile to both democracy and women’s rights, I contend that gender, conflict, and democracy are inter-twined in more complex relationships. Post-conflict societies such as Liberia are interesting not only as sites of intervention by international organizations seeking to capitalize on the “window of opportunity” available to re-make gender relations, but as places where truly innovative discourses of women’s political participation are likely to emerge.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Governance, Elections, International Organizations, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2012

Women and Peace-Building in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Citation:

Sadie, Yolanda. 2010. “Women and Peace-Building in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Strategic Review for Southern Africa 32 (1): 31–57.

Author: Yolanda Sadie

Abstract:

Mobuto's fall from power in 1997 ended a repressive dictatorship of 30 years in the Congo. However, 'The War of Partition and Plunder' followed, and lasted from 1998 to 2003. Despite the signing of a Peace Agreement in 2003, the implementation of a new constitution in February 2006, and subsequent multi-party presidential and legislative elections that took place in the same year, fighting in the eastern part of the Congo has escalated since 2007. The devastating effects of the war and the resulting humanitarian crisis resulted in both the international community as well as the Congolese engaging in peace-building efforts in the country. This article explores the nature of the involvement of Congolese women in peace-building. Peace-building, or Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development as it is termed by the African Union, is a multi-dimensional approach, which, according to the African Union's Post Conflict Reconstruction and Development strategy, encompasses six indicative elements. These serve as the framework for analysis.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Women, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2010

The Impact of Feminist Civil Society Movements and NGOs on Gender Policies in Mexico

Citation:

Stevenson, Linda. 2004. “The Impact of Feminist Civil Society Movements and NGOs on Gender Policies in Mexico.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, September 2.

Author: Linda Stevenson

Abstract:

Is Mexico's democratization, including increased party competition and electoral reforms, helping women to gain more gender equality? Are women's advances in Mexico's institutional politics strengthening Mexico's democracy? This work shows that the procedural forms of democratization over the last three decades have indeed provided more political opportunities for policymaking on gender issues. And likewise, the response to the second question is also affirmative – women leaders in institutional politics and civil society have applied pressure to reduce presidentialist politics in Mexico, as well as spearheaded demands for change in multiple policy areas. However, the policy analysis presented here, which interrogates more complex political and policy processes related to the depth of democratization, reveals that the achievements of advocates of gender equality are limited primarily to symbolic gains in institutional politics. This has resulted in a growing discord between feminist ideals of equality, fair gender representation and broad citizens' participation, and the reality of a slow and uneven process of democratization in Mexico.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2004

Proportional Representation, Political Violence and the Participation of Women in the Political Process in Sri Lanka

Citation:

Pinto-Jayawardena, Kishali. 2003. “Proportional Representation, Political Violence and the Participation of Women in the Political Process in Sri Lanka.” In Can Democracy Be Designed?: The Politics of Institutional Choice in Conflict Torn Societies, edited by Sunil Bastain and Robin Luckham, 170–95. New York: Zed Books.

Author: Kishali Pinto-Jayawardena

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2003

Against All Odds : Women Candidates in Jordan’s 1997 Elections

Citation:

Amawi, Abla. 2007. “Against All Odds : Women Candidates in Jordan’s 1997 Elections.” In From Patriarchy to Empowerment: Women’s Participation, Movements, and Rights in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia, edited by Valentine M. Moghadam, 40–57. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Abla Amawi

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Elections Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan

Year: 2007

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