Elections

"Ellen Is Our Man:" Perceptions of Gender in Postconflict Liberian Politics

Citation:

Garnett, Tanya Ansahta. 2016. “‘Ellen Is Our Man:’ Perceptions of Gender in Postconflict Liberian Politics.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 18 (1): 99–118. doi:10.1080/14616742.2015.1125648.

Author: Tanya Ansahta Garnett

Abstract:

This article examines the nature of shifting gender roles in Liberia's postconflict reconstruction process. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which political authority is gendered and the agency that women in politics employ to justify their participation as they attempt to reduce gender inequalities at the institutional level. I argue that the intervention of the international community has been instrumental in providing space and resources for gender mainstreaming, however in the absence of more in-depth intersectional analyses of gender dynamics, the unintended consequences of peacebuilding policies could hinder the sustainability of long-term peace. This article is based on a qualitative research country study conducted by the author in rural and urban Liberia following the election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. A discussion of key findings is exemplified with excerpts from key informant interviews and focus group discussions that seek to give voice to a cross-section of Liberians, so that they can contribute to the ongoing debate on gender mainstreaming in postconflict societies and bridge the gap between local and international discourses.

Keywords: Liberia, Gender, postconflict, women;s political representation, peacebuilding

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2016

Engineering Elections: The Experiences of Women in 'Panchayati Raj' in Karnataka, India

Citation:

Kudva, Neema. 2003. “Engineering Elections: The Experiences of Women in ‘Panchayati Raj’ in Karnataka, India.” International Journal of Politics, Culture & Society

Author: Neema Kudva

Abstract:

Engineering elections through gender quotas is a crucial component of strategies that seek to empower women through increased participation in the political system. In the south Indian state of Karnataka, this experiment has seen mixed results: it has made women more visible, decreased levels of corruption in Panchayati Raj institutions, and increased self-efficiency of women representatives. It is more difficult, however, to claim a substantive change in institutional priorities and state accountability. As important is the fact that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) often provide significant training and support in successful cases. Engineering elections thus highlights possibilities for change through increased participation by women.

Keywords: women, politics, Panchayati Raj, Karnataka, quotas, NGOs

Topics: Civil Society, Corruption, Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2003

Women’s Political Participation and Economic Empowerment in Post-Conflict Countries

Citation:

Sow, Ndeye. 2012. ‘Women’s Political Participation and Economic Empowerment in Post-Conflict Countries: Lessons from the Great Lakes Region in Africa’. London: International Alert. http://www.international-alert.org/resources/publications/womens-political-participation-and-economic-empowerment-post-conflict.

Author: Ndeye Sow

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Elections, Post-Conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Uganda

Year: 2012

Gender and Consociational Power-Sharing in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Hayes, Bernadette C. and Ian McAllister. 2012. “Gender and Consociational Power-Sharing in Northern Ireland.” International Political Science Review 34 (2): 123-139.

Authors: Bernadette C. Hayes, Ian McAllister

Abstract:

Designing political arrangements is the most viable approach to resolving inter-communal divisions in post-conflict societies. Yet women are frequently ill-served by such peace settlements, since gender equality is often sacrificed in an effort to resolve conflicts over national identity. Northern Ireland is no exception to this trend. Although the 1998 Northern Ireland Agreement made specific provision for gender equality, it was primarily framed in terms of national identity. This article examines to what extent this focus on inter-communal ethnic division undermined support for the Agreement among women. Using data from the 2010 Northern Ireland Election Survey, we examine gender differences in attitudes towards the consociational institutions of government. The results show a significant gender gap in support for the institutional arrangements that were established by the Agreement. We propose and test three explanations to account for this gender gap. 

Keywords: post-conflict, consociationalism, Gender, national identity, power-sharing

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-Conflict Governance, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Nationalism, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2012

Masculine Republicans and Feminine Democrats: Gender and American's Explicit and Implicit Images of the Political Party

Citation:

Winter, Nicholas J.G. 2010. “Masculine Republicans and Feminine Democrats: Gender and American’s Explicit and Implicit Images of the Political Party.” Political Behavior 32 (4): 587-618. 

Author: Nicholas J.G. Winter

Abstract:

During the past three decades Americans have come to view the parties increasingly in gendered terms of masculinity and femininity. Utilizing three decades of American National Election Studies data and the results of a cognitive reaction-time experiment, this paper demonstrates empirically that these connections between party images and gender stereotypes have been forged at the explicit level of the traits that Americans associate with each party, and also at the implicit level of unconscious cognitive connections between gender and party stereotypes. These connections between the parties and masculinity and femininity have important implications for citizens' political cognition and for the study of American political behavior

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2010

Gender Role and Political Office: Effects of Perceived Masculinity/Femininity of Candidate and Political Office

Citation:

Rosenwasser, S.M. and Norma Dean. 1989. “Gender Role and Political Office: Effects of Perceived Masculinity/Femininity of Candidate and Political Office.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 13 (1). 

Authors: S.M. Rosenwasser, Norma Dean

Abstract:

Women are less represented in prestigious national political offices than they are in state and local offices. How this underrepresentation may be related to perceived characteristics of office and candidate are explored in the two studies described here. In Study 1, the “masculinity/femininity” of local, state, and national offices was analyzed; all levels of office were rated as more “masculine” than “feminine.” In Study 2, the sex as well as the gender role of a hypothetical presidential candidate was varied. “Masculine” and male candidates were evaluated as being more competent on presidential tasks such as dealing with terrorism; “feminine” and female candidates were rated higher on tasks such as solving problems in our educational system. Men, regardless of gender role, were perceived as being more likely to win a presidential election, and “masculine” tasks were evaluated as being more important than “feminine” presidential tasks. Implications for future female politicians are discussed.

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1989

'Subtle Sexism?': Examining Vote Preferences When Women Run Against Men for the Presidency

Citation:

Paul, David and Jessi L. Smith. 2008. “’Subtle Sexism?’: Examining Vote Preferences When Women Run Against Men for the Presidency.” Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy 29 (4): 451-476. 

Authors: David Paul, Jessi L. Smith

Abstract:

This article examines the influence of the gender of presidential candidates on perceptions of candidate qualifications and vote choice through polling data of likely Ohio voters using five candidates: Hillary Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, John Edwards, Rudy Giuliani, and John McCain. In its examination, this study better mirrors the real‐world presidential selection process than other studies which use hypothetical or generic candidates. We found that women presidential candidates were viewed as significantly less qualified to be president when compared to male candidates with similar credentials. Although results showed that Democratic women candidates were not at a disadvantage in hypothetical primary nominee match‐ups, evidence of gender bias appeared in general election match‐ups. Candidates who were men beat the women candidates in every general election match‐up, and what is more, voters frequently switched their votes to the candidate who was a man when the opposition candidate was a woman. Implications for women running for president are discussed.

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

Phallocracies and Gynocratic Transgressions: Gender, State Power, and Kenyan Public Life

Citation:

Musila, G. 2009. “Phallocracies and Gynocratic Transgressions: Gender, State Power and Kenyan Public Life.” Africa Insight 39 (1). 

Author: G. Musila

Abstract:

This article explores the role of hegemonic masculinities in shaping patterns of authority in Kenya, a context in which state power has historically been framed as a male affair, with the foregrounding of the phallus as a symbol for power and leadership. It argues that, beyond ethnicity and class, gender—and specifically masculinities—provides a compelling lens through which to understand the Kenyan post-election crisis and its attendant elements: the deadlock between Mwai Kibaki and Raila Odinga; the mobilisation of militaristic masculinities and the violence inflicted on men and women’s bodies during the conflict.

Topics: Class, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2009

Drawing Politics in Pink and Blue

Citation:

Edwards, Janis L. 2007. “Drawing Politics in Pink and Blue.” PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (2): 249-53. 

Author: Janis L. Edwards

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2007

Accruing Masculinity Capital: Dominant and Hegemonic Masculinities in the 2004 Political Conventions

Citation:

Cunningham, Sheryl, David Domke, Kevin Coe, Anna Fahey, and Nancy Van Leuven. 2013. “Accruing Masculinity Capital: Dominant and Hegemonic Masculinities in the 2004 Political Conventions.” Men and Masculinities 16 (5): 499-516.

Authors: Sheryl Cunningham , David Domke, Kevin Coe, Anna Fahey, Nancy Van Leuven

Abstract:

Scholarship in political communication and gender studies notes that concepts of presidential leadership and masculinity are deeply entwined in one another. Work is needed, though, on how performances of masculinity allow for the accrual of what we call masculinity capital, a linguistic form of masculinity that seems to become particularly significant and useful during times of threat and crisis in the United States. With this in mind, we undertook a content analysis to examine speeches from the 2004 presidential conventions of the Republican and Democratic parties in order to see how masculinity was discursively constructed as well as strategically employed. Our analysis indicates that public constructions of dominant masculinity were used by both political parties in order to shape party identity, and that a construction of hegemonic masculinity, which emasculated opponents by connecting them to femininity, was used by the Republican Party.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Elections Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2013

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