Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children: Refugee Camp Situation


Pascual, María Jesús Vega. 2003. “Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children: Refugee Camp Situation.” Revista Española de Educación Comparada 9: 225–60.

Author: María Jesús Vega Pascual

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Girls, Boys

Year: 2003

Gender Imbalance in Secondary Schools


Mugisha, Catherine Howgego. 2005. “Gender Imbalance in Secondary Schools.” Forced Migration Review 22: 32–33.

Author: Catherine Howgego Mugisha


Significantly fewer girls than boys attend schools in refugee camps. As the level of education increases, there is a corresponding decrease in the numbers of female participants. This has resulted in a severe gender imbalance in refugee secondary schools.

Topics: Education, Gender, Girls, Boys, Gender Balance

Year: 2005

Education, Diversity, and Inclusion in Burmese Refugee Camps in Thailand


Oh, Su-Ann, and Marc van der Stouwe. 2008. “Education, Diversity, and Inclusion in Burmese Refugee Camps in Thailand.” Comparative Education Review 52 (4): 589–617.

Authors: Su-Ann Oh, Marc van der Stouwe

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Nationalism, NGOs Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2008

The Sada Says 'We Women Have Our Rights': A Gender Analysis of an ICT Initiative in Afghanistan


Sengupta, Ami, Esther G. Long, Arvind Singhal, and Corinne L. Shefner-Rogers. 2007. "The Sada Says 'We Women Have Our Rights': A Gender Analysis of an ICT Initiative in Afghanistan." International Communication Gazette 69 (4): 335-53. 

Authors: Ami Sengupta, Esther G. Long, Arvind Singhal, Corinne L. Schefter-Rogers


This study analyses Voice for Humanity's (VFH) Sada initiative to promote women's rights, citizen participation and civic education during the Afghan parliamentary elections in 2005. A qualitative assessment was conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of how Afghan women, in particular, utilized the Sada device. This research, positioned within current literature on information communication technology (ICT) and gender, views the Sada device — a solar-powered digital audio player (similar to an MP3 player) — as an ICT. Universally, women have unequal access to ICTs, yet the findings of this study suggest that projects such as this one in Afghanistan can play a powerful role in promoting women's rights. The findings reiterate that information dissemination, spurred by a suitable technology, can lead to family and community dialog. Such dialog, coupled with a more enabling environment for women's concerns, can contribute to women's empowerment and realization of women's human rights.

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2007

Do Schooling and Work Empower Women in Developing Countries? Gender and Domestic Decisions in Sri Lanka


Malhotra, Anju, and Mark Mather. 1997. “Do Schooling and Work Empower Women in Developing Countries? Gender and Domestic Decisions in Sri Lanka.” Sociological Forum 12 (4): 599–630.

Authors: Anju Malhotra, Mark Mather


Our work challenges and points out the limitations of the theoretical presumptions underlying the relationship between empowerment, education, and employment that have been emphasized in both the exiting literature and the current rhetoric to "empower" women in developing countries. We use survey, life history, and focus group data to empirically examine the relationship between schooling, paid work, and power in domestic decision making for young, married women in Sri Lanka. We argue that the relationship between education, work, and women's control of household decisions is conditioned by the larger social context, and as such, it is likely to reflect the extent to which the division of labor and access to information and economic resources are the bases of domestic power in the society under consideration. Our results make a strong case for the need to move away from broad-based conceptualizations of women's empowerment to a consideration of the specific arenas and dimensions along which women can have power. In focusing on the domestic arena alone, we find that there are important differences in both the nature and determinants of the financial as opposed to the social and organizational dimension of power in Sri Lankan households. Women who control one of these aspects of family decisions do not necessarily control the other, and while education and employment play an important role in determining women's input in financial decisions, they are largely immaterial in determining household decisions related to social and organizational matters. Our results also demonstrate the importance of going beyond simplistic and limited measures of schooling and work to consider more fundamental structural factors involving family, social, and economic organization.

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 1997

Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone


Maclure, Richard, and Myriam Denov. 2009. “Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone.” International Journal of Educational Development 29 (6): 612–20. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2008.11.001.

Authors: Richard Maclure, Myriam Denov


In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched within mainstream schooling and in the broader social context. Yet the capacity of education to contribute to gender-based change has not been entirely muted. Several women’s associations are supporting girls’ education as integral to economic and political actions aimed at challenging the hegemony of patriarchy and gendered violence. What remains to be seen is whether these discrete efforts can foster a women’s movement capable of altering the structures of patriarchal power in Sierra Leone.

Keywords: Girls' education, Sierra Leone, post-conflict reconstruction, gender equity

Topics: Development, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equity, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2009

Iraq’s Excluded Women


Hunt, Swanee, and Cristina Posa. 2004. “Iraq’s Excluded Women.” Foreign Policy, no. 143, 40-5.

Authors: Swanee Hunt, Cristina Posa

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2004

What Is Your Research Program? Some Feminist Answers to International Relations Methodological Questions


Tickner, J. Ann. 2005. “What Is Your Research Program? Some Feminist Answers to International Relations Methodological Questions.” International Studies Quarterly 49 (1): 1–22.

Author: J. Ann Tickner


Methodological issues have constituted some of the deepest sources of misunderstanding between International Relations (IR) feminists and IR theorists working in social scientific frameworks. IR theorists have called upon feminists to frame their research questions in terms of testable hypotheses. Feminists have responded that their research questions cannot be answered using social science explanatory frameworks. Deep epistemological divisions about the construction and purpose of knowledge make bridging these methodological divides difficult. These epistemological standards lead feminists to very different methodological perspectives. Asking different questions from those typically asked in IR, many IR feminists have drawn on ethnographic, narrative, cross-cultural, and other methods that are rarely taught to students of IR, to answer them. Drawing on a range of interdisciplinary scholarship on feminist methodologies and some recent IR feminist case studies, this article analyzes and assesses how these methodological orientations are useful for understanding the gendering of international politics, the state and its security-seeking practices and its effects on the lives of women and men.

Topics: Education, Feminisms, Gender

Year: 2005

Engendering Grassroots Democracy: Research, Training, and Networking for Women in Local Self-Governance in India


Sekhon, Joti. 2006. “Engendering Grassroots Democracy: Research, Training, and Networking for Women in Local Self-Governance in India.” NWSA Journal 18 (2): 101–22. doi:10.1353/nwsa.2006.0041.

Author: Joti Sekhon


The author discusses efforts to promote women's effective participation in electoral politics in rural India as an illustration of feminist politics and participatory democracy. She argues that feminist rethinking of politics and democracy can catalyze women's effective participation and challenge the structures of patriarchy that limit political action and social mobility. The opportunity for women's widespread participation in local elections came as a result of the 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution in 1993, reserving 33 percent of elected seats in village councils for female candidates. That alone, however, is not enough, as women are limited by a variety of social, cultural, economic, and political factors, such as traditional gendered expectations of the role and position of women in the family and community, caste and class inequalities, lack of education, and lack of knowledge of the laws. In this article, the author analyzes the role of social movement organizations engaged in participatory action research, training, advocacy, and networking with and for women at the grassroots level. Detailed exposition of the work of Aalochana, a feminist organization in the western Indian state of Maharashtra, provides insight into the possibilities and challenges of feminist politics to engender grassroots democracy.

Keywords: feminist politics, grassroots democracy, participatory democracy, women in politics, women's community-based activism, women and political participation in India, women in panchayati raj or local self-governance in India, feminist networks, gender and grassroots politics

Topics: Caste, Class, Democracy / Democratization, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2006

Revisiting Gender Training - The Making and Remaking of Gender Knowledge: A Global Sourcebook


Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee, and Franz Wong. 2007. Revisiting Gender Training - The Making and Remaking of Gender Knowledge: A Global Sourcebook (Gender, Society and Development Series). Oxford: Oxfam Publishing.

Authors: Maitrayee Mukhopadhyay, Franz Wong


Gender training proliferated in the 1990s and gained ground with the emphasis on gender mainstreaming, a strategy adopted at the 1995 Fourth World Conference of Women in Beijing. At present gender training is increasingly being questioned as a tool and as a concept to engender development due to its disappointing performance to contribute to gender equality.

Bringing together case studies and analyses of gender training from different country and regional contexts, this book revisits much of the thinking behind gender education and training. Together, the book’s authors explore the explicit and, more often, implicit assumptions in gender training about the nature of knowledge (epistemology), imparting knowledge (pedagogy) and knowing (cognition).

This book, the tenth in the Gender, Society and Development: Global Sourcebooks Series, features case studies and an extensive and up-to-date annotated bibliography of international resources, in print and online, making it a truly global sourcebook on the topic.

Topics: Development, Education, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2007


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