Gender Equality and Social Justice: The Limits of 'Transformative Accomodation'


Baumeister, Andrea T. 2006. “Gender Equality and Social Justice: The Limits of 'Transformative Accomodation'.” Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 9 (3): 399–417.

Author: Andrea T. Baumeister


Although Shachar’s model of joint governance is well placed to address many of the tensions between gender equality and cultural justice in the family and personal law arena, she is mistaken to assume that the principles of ‘transformative accommodation’ can be applied equally well to questions of criminal justice and disputes regarding the education and upbringing of the young. While a system of joint governance may well be one of the most effective means of resolving conflicts between cultural justice and gender equality, the difficulties inherent in Shachar’s approach point towards the need for a sophisticated theoretical framework that recognises the distinctions between different social arenas, identifies the considerations that are pertinent to each, and establishes the fundamental principles that should govern the allocation of jurisdictional authority in each social setting.

Topics: Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance

Year: 2006

Halfway to Nowhere: Liberian Former Child Soldiers in a Ghanaian Refugee Camp


Woodward, Lucinda, and Peter Galvin. 2009. “Halfway to Nowhere: Liberian Former Child Soldiers in a Ghanaian Refugee Camp.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99 (5): 1003–11.

Authors: Lucinda Woodward, Peter Galvin


This study utilizes Kunz's kinetic model of refugee displacement to interpret the placelessness experienced by Liberian former child soldiers in the Buduburam refugee camp in Ghana. From August to December 2007, a clinical psychologist and a geographer interviewed ten Liberian former child soldiers to determine spatial and social barriers to successful resettlement and the prospects for overcoming these obstacles. Based on the interviews, five areas of intervention were suggested: (1) geographic desegregation and relocation, (2) education and employment, (3) psychological counseling, (4) societal acceptance and reintegration, and (5) security and protection.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Girls, Boys, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Liberia

Year: 2009

Power Structure, Agency, and Family in a Palestinian Refugee Camp


Rosenfeld, Maya. 2002. “Power Structure, Agency, and Family in a Palestinian Refugee Camp.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34 (3): 519–51.

Author: Maya Rosenfeld


This article seeks to explain the generation, spread, and reproduction of post-secondary education in a Palestinian refugee camp in the West Bank since the inception of this process in the 1950s and into the 1990s, with a focus on the period of Israeli military occupation. It is based on the findings, qualitative and quantitative, of extended socio-anthropological field research that was carried out in Dheisheh camp in the years 1992–95. The conceptual framework that instructed the research methodology and the interpretation of the findings sought to combine a political-economy approach, which accords centrality to the determinants of the “system” of power relationships—in this case, primarily those of the military-occupation regime—with an analysis of “human agency” or praxis, particularly the reorganization of the division of labor in the refugee family household over the years and generations. Accordingly, the article explores and traces the inter-relationships among (1) “system-imposed” barriers and obstacles to the acquisition of education by Dheisheh refugees and to their education-related job mobility; (2) family-based patterns of organization that developed around the education and employment opportunities of second- and third-generation refugees in the face of impeding structural conditions; (3) the long-range consequences of the resultant “education and labor process” for the transformation of socio-economic relationships within the family and the community.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Political Economies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2002

Education under Radical Change: Education Policy and the Youth Program of the United States in Postwar Germany


Fuessl, Karl-Heinz, and Gregory Paul Wegner. 1996. “Education under Radical Change: Education Policy and the Youth Program of the United States in Postwar Germany.” History of Education Quarterly 36 (1): 1–18.

Authors: Karl-Heinz Fuessl, Gregory Paul Wegner

Topics: Age, Youth, Education, Gender, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany, United States of America

Year: 1996

Education, Violence, and Schools: The Human Security of Girls in Afghanistan


Breyer, Chloe. 2010. “Education, Violence, and Schools: The Human Security of Girls in Afghanistan.” In The Gender Imparative: Human Security Vs State Security, edited by Betty A. Reardon and Asha Hans, 230–54. New York: Routledge.

Author: Chloe Breyer

Topics: Armed Conflict, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security, Human Security, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2010

Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace


Wessells, Michael. 2005. “Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace.” Theory Into Practice 44 (4): 363-69.

Author: Michael Wessells


Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an essential element in a holistic approach to the reintegration of former child soldiers and to the prevention of youth's engagement in violence and terrorism. In the post-conflict context, effective peace education has a stronger practical than didactic focus, and it stimulates empathy, cooperation, reconciliation, and community processes for handling conflict in a nonviolent manner. These processes play a key role also in the prevention of children's engagement in violence and terrorism.

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, DDR, Education, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2005

The Differential Experience of Mozambican Refugee Women and Men


Ager, Alastair, Wendy Ager, and Lynellyn Long. 1995. “The Differential Experience of Mozambican Refugee Women and Men.” Journal of Refugee Studies 8 (3): 265–87.

Authors: Alastair Ager, Wendy Ager, Lynellyn Long


This study examines differences in the experience of Mozambican women and men in refuge in Malawi in late 1990, with particular regard to the differential impact of assistance policies and programmes. Data collection was through a survey of 420 households and intensive qualitative interviews and daily schedule analysis with a representative focal sample of 20 individual refugees. Sample sites spanned both refugee camps and integrated settlement patterns. Data on educational activity indicated that established gender inequalities in schooling were perpetuated in the refugee setting. Programmed vocational training activities had little impact on income generation for either men or women. Whilst incomes were generally very low, the median income for women was zero. Work burden was generally heavier on women. Whilst the health status of men and women was similar, there was evidence of poorer health in female-headed households. Discussion focuses on the inter-relationship between these findings and refugee assistance efforts at the time of the study. In general terms, such assistance had clearly failed to significantly impact the key targets of substantive income generation for women and reduction in female work burden. Indeed, food relief policy and structures for refugee representation appeared to frequently exacerbate existing gender inequalities. Such findings regarding the differential experience of refugee women and men may be of considerable relevance to the planning and management of future refugee assistance programmes. In particular, the goals of increasing time availability for women and increasing support for indigenous action are commended.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Households, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi, Mozambique

Year: 1995

Closing the Gender Gap: Postwar Education and Social Change


Arnot, Madeleine, Miriam E. David, and Gaby Weiner. 1999. Closing the Gender Gap: Postwar Education and Social Change. London: Polity Press.

Authors: Madeleine Arnot, Miriam E. David, Gaby Weiner


The education gender gap is closing. Since the 1980s, examination results have changed dramatically, as girls have 'caught up' with and, in some cases, overtaken boys. Through an analysis of the postwar transformation in British economic, social and cultural life, this important book provides valuable insights into how and why this unprecedented change has taken place. In particular, the book focuses on the welfare state and the education reforms under Margaret Thatcher which encouraged this momentum for change despite her personal efforts to re-instil Victorian education values. These reforms, the authors argue, coupled with the women's movement, re-shaped girls' and boys' identities and educational choices irrevocably, but not necessarily in the same or complementary ways. Closing the Gender Gap will be essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students in education, sociology and gender studies.

Topics: Education, Gender Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1999

Gender Studies and Gender Training in Africa


Kasente, Deborah Hope. 1996. “Gender Studies and Gender Training in Africa.” Development in Practice 6 (1): 50-4.

Author: Deborah Hope Kasente

Topics: Education, Gender, Women Regions: Africa

Year: 1996

Gender and Nationalism: Acadians, Quebecois, and Irish in New Brunswick Nineteenth-Century Colleges and Convent Schools, 1854-1888


Andrew, Sheila. 2002. "Gender and Nationalism: Acadians, Quebecois, and Irish in New Brunswick Nineteenth-Century Colleges and Convent Schools, 1854-1888." Historical Studies 68: 7-23.

Author: Sheila Andrew


Through analysis of the records of New Brunswick colleges and convent schools, newspaper accounts of their activities and memoirs of those involved, this paper examines attitudes to nationalism. It finds that the institutions that included students from Quebec, Acadians, and students of Irish background encouraged bilingualism for all students but also reflected the tensions in New Brunswick society by developing different forms of nationalism. In the colleges, the response was shaped by a gendered image of nationalism as emulation between the students of different origins and a blend of nationalism as common dislike of British colonial actions in the past and of pride in the current achievements of Britain and Queen Victoria. In the convents, collaboration, rather than emulation, was encouraged and nationalism was expressed as a common pride in surviving persecution and establishing unity in religion. These patterns were reflected in the subsequent behavior of the former students, influencing politics, business, and community life.

Topics: Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Education, Gender, Nationalism, Religion Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2002


© 2023 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Education