Trends in Global Gender Inequality


Dorius, Shawn F., and Glenn Firebaugh. 2010. “Trends in Global Gender Inequality.” Social Forces 88 (5): 1941-68. 

Authors: Shawn F. Dorius, Glenn Firebaugh


This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality.

Topics: Economies, Education, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation

Year: 2010

Like it or Not: Feminist Critical Policy Analysis Matters


Bensimon, Estela Mara, and Catherine Marshall. 2003. "Like It Or Not: Feminist Critical Policy Analysis Matters." The Journal of Higher Education 74 (3): 337-49.

Authors: Estela Mara Bensimon, Catherine Marshall

Keywords: feminist political economy, feminist analysis, gendered policy analysis, gender analysis, gender theory, gendered politics, constructivism and gender

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Globalization, Political Economies, Political Participation, Race, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2003

A Gender Perspective on Peace Education and the Work for Peace


Brock-Utne, Birgit. 2009. “A Gender Perspective on Peace Education and the Work for Peace.” International Review of Education 55 (2): 205-20.

Author: Birgit Brock-Utne


This article offers a gender perspective on peace education and the work for peace. To what extent are girls and boys in our society being socialised equally or differently when it comes to learning how to care, empathise with others and engage in or endure violent behaviour? Why are women generally more likely than men to support conscientious objectors, and oppose war toys and war itself? Gender is a powerful legitimator of war and national security. As in other conflict situations around the world, gendered discourses were used in the US following 11 September 2001 in order to reinforce mutual hostilities. Our acceptance of a remasculinised society rises considerably during times of war and uncertainty. War as a masculine activity has been central to feminist investigations.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses

Year: 2009

Sisters are Doin’ it for Themselves: The Price of Ignoring Gender in Modern Peace Education


Cook, Sharon Anne. 2007. “‘Sisters are Doin’ it for Themselves’: The Price of Ignoring Gender in Modern Peace Education.” Peace Research 39 (1-2): 59-74.

Author: Sharon Anne Cook


This article argues that the scholarly literature underpinning global and peace education largely ignores gender with troubling results. This omission makes incomprehensible a number of world crises, all of which could benefit from global and peace education. To chart the implications of this omission, this article first surveys peace education and pedagogy, demonstrating some of the intersections with the broader field of global education. Secondly, the article surveys the history of peace education, demonstrating the close interplay between women's activism and peace education. Finally, the article considers some of the effects of a gender blind analysis of peace education for students, for teachers, and for our collective future. In conclusion, the article calls us to reconsider and include gender issues within peace and global education, and to broaden what we define as peace education.

Topics: Education, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Health, HIV/AIDS, Peacebuilding Regions: Americas, North America, Europe

Year: 2007

Child Brides, Global Consequences: How to End Child Marriage


Lemmon, Gayle Tzemach, and Lynn S. ElHarake. 2014. Child Brides, Global Consequences: How to End Child Marriage. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Authors: Gayle Tzemach Lemmon, Lynn S. ElHarake


Child Brides, Global Consequences is a collection of two previously published CFR Working Papers on child marriage: "High Stakes for Young Lives" and "Fragile States, Fragile Lives."

In "High Stakes for Young Lives," Senior Fellow Gayle Tzemach Lemmon and Research Associate Lynn S. ElHarake examine the social, economic, and cultural factors driving child marriage in order to help policymakers and civil society leaders curb, and eventually eliminate, child marriage. Since no single strategy will end the practice, Lemmon and ElHarake argue for a combination of legal frameworks, education policies, enforcement standards, attitude shifts, and economic incentives.

"Fragile States, Fragile Lives" hones in on the correlation between child marriage and state fragility. Many of the countries with the highest rates of child marriage are found on the top of lists such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) list of fragile states and the Fund for Peace's Failed States Index, yet there is a wide gap in data that assesses the degree to which fragile contexts perpetuate child marriage.

Lemmon writes that closing this gap will help produce more effective and targeted interventions to assist the youngest and most at-risk members of communities in crisis, and improve the future prospects of all members of the next generation in some of the most challenging corners of the world.

This report was made possible thanks to generous support from the Ford Foundation, and is part of the Women and Foreign Policy program. (CFR)

Topics: Class, Economies, Education, Gender, Girls, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2014

Masculinity and Femininity in the Corps


Morgan, Erin. 2007. “Masculinity and Femininity in the Corps.” Race, Gender & Class 14 (3-4): 117-30.

Author: Erin Morgan


Cadets at the United States Military Academy live within a very distinct microcosm of American society. With a culture all their own, members of the Corps of Cadets grow up in an Academy whose historical tradition and present mission of producing officers for the U.S. Army shapes cadet behaviors, norms and ideals. Among these is the conceptualization of masculinity and femininity and the relative place and value of gender notions within the Academy and military service. An in-depth investigation of cadet opinions, stereotypes, behaviors, and personal experiences highlights current conceptualizations of gender in the Corps and evinces why actual clear feminine ideal defining the mannerisms valued and expected of a woman in military service does not exist.

Topics: Education, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2007

Ambivalence at the Academies: Attitudes toward Women in the Military at the Federal Service Academies


Drake, Monica Jansen. 2006. “Ambivalence at the Academies: Attitudes toward Women in the Military at the Federal Service Academies.” Social Thought & Research 27 (Gender, War, and Politics): 43-68.

Author: Monica Jansen Drake


In this paper I analyze comparative data on attitudes toward women at the Federal Service Academies relative to Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) students and active-duty officers using data from a 1998-1999 Triangle Institute for Security Studies survey. This paper serves as a pilot study for a more organizationally grounded analysis of masculine culture. I illustrate this approach by comparing patterns of gender related attitudes across a range of military institutions, while controlling for demographic and selection variables. I find that cadets at the academies are more ambivalent toward women than are senior officers or ROTC students, and that some of this effect can be attributed to socialization within the academy context. The relationship between culture, discrimination, and sexual harassment was evident at all of the academies. However, I also find that this relationship cannot be assumed by the existence of a masculine culture alone as patterns of gender attitudes vary across the services.

Topics: Education, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2006

Multinational Corporate Investment and Women’s Participation in Higher Education in Noncore Nations


Clark, Roger. 1992. “Multinational Corporate Investment and Women’s Participation in Higher Education in Noncore Nations.” Sociology of Education 65 (1): 37-47.

Author: Roger Clark


This article posits a theoretical connection between multinational corporate (MNC) investment and women's participation in higher education in noncore nations. It suggests that because MNC investment encourages a "breed-and-feed" ideology for women, the prejudicial hiring of men in high-status occupations, and the lack of state regulation of gender discrimination, its presence skews the demand for higher education away from women. Panel regression analyses of data from 66 noncore and 44 peripheral nations indicate considerable support for this position.

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Multi-National Corporations, Political Economies

Year: 1992

Exploring Barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand


Zeus, Barbara. 2011. “Exploring Barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand.” Journal of Refugee Studies 24 (2): 256–76.

Author: Barbara Zeus


Millions of refugees today are trapped in protracted encampment where they are dependent on external support for basic necessities. Growing up in a refugee camp, many young people are eager to attain Higher Education but lack the opportunities and freedoms their non-refugee peers enjoy as they transition into adulthood and look for meaningful ways to support themselves. This article explores three main assumptions surrounding barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations both theoretically as well as in relation to the particular case of Burmese refugees in Thailand. Following a rights-based approach and adopting post-structural theories, this literature-based article demonstrates how dominant educational discourse emphasizes externalities and thereby neglects the practical realization of the individual's right to Higher Education, while powerful narratives of refugees as dependent victims have shaped reality in justifying mechanisms for international protection and incapacitating refugees. The article concludes that Higher Education could be both a means to refugee empowerment and a form of empowerment. We must not believe the many, who say that free persons only ought to be educated, but we should rather believe the philosophers, who say that the educated only are free (Epictetus, 55-135 AD).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Education, Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2011

Education, Gender, and Migration in the Context of Social Change


Williams, N. 2009. “Education, Gender, and Migration in the Context of Social Change.” Social Science Research 38 (4): 883–96.

Author: N. Williams


Although sociologists have identified education as likely determinant of migration, the ways in which education affects migration are unclear and empirical results are disparate. This paper addresses the relationship between educational attainment, enrollment, and migration, focusing on the role of gender and how it changes with evolving social contexts. Using empirical analyses based in Nepal, results indicate that educational attainment has positive effects and enrolment has negative effects on out-migration and including enrolment in the model increases the effect of attainment. In the case of women, with the changing role of gender, increased education and labor force participation, the affect of educational attainment changes drastically over time, from almost no effect, to a strong positive effect. Consideration of enrolment, and the role of gender in education, employment, and marriage may help to explain the disparate results in past research on education and migration.

Keywords: migration, education, social change, Nepal

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Education, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009


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