How the Crisis is Altering Women’s Roles in Syria


Haddad, Zerene. 2014. “How the Crisis Is Altering Women’s Roles in Syria.” Forced Migration Review, no. 47: 46-7.

Author: Zerene Haddad

Keywords: protracted displacement, refugees, Syria crisis, IDPs, forced migration, women's roles, Syria, FMR

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2014

Domestic Violence Prevention through the Constructing Violence-Free Masculinities Programme: An Experience from Peru


Mitchell, Rhoda. 2013. “Domestic Violence Prevention through the Constructing Violence-Free Masculinities Programme: An Experience from Peru.” Gender and Development 21 (1): 97-109

Author: Rhoda Mitchell


This paper examines work undertaken with male perpetrators of violence in the Construction of Violence-free Masculinities, a project run by the Centro Mujer Teresa de Jesus, a Women’s Centre located in a poor peri-urban district of Lima, Peru, in conjunction with Oxfam-Quebec. Centre staff faced the challenge of how to work with men who are violent towards their intimate partners. They use a community education approach, to challenge powerful stereotypes about gender roles, to question men’s assumed dominance over women, and support men to construct new forms of masculinity, without violence. Ultimately, the programme seeks to modify and change the beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours of men who are aggressors.

Keywords: masculinity, Intimate partner violence, domestic violence, men's groups

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Domestic Violence, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Masculinism, Households, NGOs, Nonviolence, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, SV against Women, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2013

Gender Disparities in Kenya


Owano, Nancy Abwalaba. 2014. “Gender Disparities in Kenya.” Journal of Research in Gender Studies 4 (2): 298–312.

Author: Nancy Abwalaba Owano


Gender issues have continued to play a key role in the formulation of sector wide public policy, worldwide. It is notable that gender gaps in many developing countries remain a challenge in the education sector. The purpose of policies is to guide action towards some identified practical goals; policies lose meaning when they remain unimplemented. Moreover, it is important to understand the process of policy formulation and implementation because it is crucial to the final outcomes. In contemporary education theory and practice, feminist thought provides invaluable direction on gender policies that seek to enhance inclusiveness and equality in education so that it does not discriminate against girls and women or any minority groups. This paper will, therefore, provide an overview use of gender budgeting as an important tool in the hands of the state to eliminate gender disparities from educational perspective against feminist theoretical frameworks. The purpose of the study is to establish the impact of gender budgeting on accessibility to quality education by the girl child. The study identified a wide range of factors that have led to gender disparities in Kenya and reveals that significant positive changes have been realized in the education sector although a lot more is required.


Keywords: gender, gap, responsive budget, policy

Topics: Education, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2014

Gender Responsive Entrepreneurial Economy of Nigeria: Enabling Women in a Disabling Environment


Nwoye, May. 2007. “Gender Responsive Entrepreneurial Economy of Nigeria: Enabling Women in a Disabling Environment.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 9 (1): 167-75.

Author: May Nwoye


Growth and development are among the most exciting subjects in economics, and the application of their principles to developing countries especially the African economies, is both needed and timely. In Nigeria, women have historically been disadvantaged in accessing not only material resources like property and credit, but also have been deprived of resources like education, market information and modern technology. All of these factors have negative implications for the type of enterprises that women are engaged in. This paper highlights the various economic constraints faced by women in Nigeria, as a result of limitations imposed on them by nature and culture; It calls for removal of gender-related obstacles in order to facilitate the creation of enterprises by women, as well as improving their general education, and entrepreneurial skills. The paper argues that gender imbalances in access to education and productive resources have important implications, not only for equity, but also for economic output, productivity, food security, fertility, and child welfare. It further recommends gender specific activities and affirmative action, whenever women are in a particularly disadvantageous position. The paper concludes that mainstreaming gender into budget and policy design will provide women access to support services they require to develop the necessary confidence, explore alternative business ideas and entrepreneurial strategies that will stimulate, not only the Nigerian economy, but the people’s way of life.


Keywords: Nigeria, Entrepreneurial Economy, women and economics

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2007

Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta


Anugwom, Edlyne. 2007. “Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta.” Agenda: Empowering Women For Gender Equity, Biopolitics: New Technologies Trilogy, 1 (1): 58–68.

Author: Edlyne Anugwom


This focus examines the relevance of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as economic and empowering mechanisms for women in the oil degraded Niger Delta region of Nigeria. While ICTs have become increasingly popular in the region and have provided economic niches for women, influence of ICTs has differed significantly between urban and rural women. Therefore, while urban women are now heavily engaged in various ICT businesses, like call centres and cyber cafés, the economic degeneration and underdevelopment of the rural enclaves have limited the commercial viability of ICTs for women. In spite of this, ICTs are important in both rural and urban areas in the region in terms of improving the knowledge base of women and enabling them to articulate their positions. Generally, the effective usage of ICTs, whether for leisure or commercial purposes, has been limited by structural constraints ranging from dearth of electricity to impoverished economic situations of women. However, the different impact of ICTs on women in urban and rural areas calls for a policy orientation that is conversant with the peculiar needs of women in both areas and the improvement of the general socio-economic situation of the rural enclaves.

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2007

Gender Equality and Intrastate Armed Conflict


Melander, Erik. 2005. “Gender Equality and Intrastate Armed Conflict.” International Studies Quarterly 49 (4): 695-714. 

Author: Erik Melander


In this article, I examine to what extent gender equality is associated with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict. I use three measures of gender equality: (1) a dichotomous indicator of whether the highest leader of a state is a woman; (2) the percentage of women in parliament; and (3) the female-to-male higher education attainment ratio. I argue that the first two measures in particular capture the extent to which women hold positions that allow them to influence matters of war and peace within a state. I further argue that all three measures, but especially the last two, capture how women are valued relative to men in a society, that is, the relative degree of subordination of women. Whereas female state leadership has no statistically significant effect, more equal societies, measured either in terms of female representation in parliament or the ratio of female-to-male higher education attainment, are associated with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict. The pacifying impact of gender equality is not only statistically significant in the presence of a comprehensive set of controls but also is strong in substantive terms.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Education, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups

Year: 2005

Plano Nacional de Politicas para as Mulheres


Presidência da República. 2013. Plano Nacional de Politicas para as Mulheres. Brasilia D.F: Plano Nacional de Politicas para as Mulheres.

Author: Secretaria de Políticas para as Mulheres – Presidência da República

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Health, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

Mulher do Campo: Educação e Relações de Gênero


Da Silva, Edvânia Aparecida. 2009. "Mulher do Campo: Educação e Relações de Gênero." Paper presented at 17º Congresso de Leitura do Brasil, UNESP Presidente Prudente, July 20-24. 

Author: Edvânia Aparecida da Silva


As diferentes perspectivas de pesquisas no meio rural podem revelar os avanços socioeconômicos, as formas de organização dos assentamentos e os acordos estabelecidos no interior dos lotes, sendo estes talvez, os de maior impacto nas vidas existentes no meio rural (MEDEREIROS, 2008). Tanto na esfera do domicílio, o cuidado da casa, dos filhos, da horta e a “ajuda” prestada ao marido, as pesquisas revelam o desprestígio do trabalho feminino. A falta de acesso aos espaços de decisão e o domínio patriarcal principalmente sobre as mulheres são apontados como motivos para a saída das jovens do meio rural e migração para as cidades em busca de escolaridade e emprego (CASTRO, 2008). A educação pode nortear os rumos de uma sociedade, neste caso das relações estabelecidas no meio rural, onde muitas mudanças vêm ocorrendo no modelo de família tradicional. O espaço escolar poderá se configurar como um espaço de reprodução da dominação do homem sobre a mulher ou transmitir outros valores que influenciarão na mudança da tradicional relação entre estes sujeitos. A escola acaba inculcando valores, como por exemplo, o incentivo ao consumo que repercute no acesso as novidades que facilitam o trabalho doméstico e transformam padrões de vida no campo (MEDEIROS, 2008). O que se pretende questionar é o peso da educação na emancipação das mulheres do campo. Até que ponto o acesso à educação torna as mulheres mais críticas sobre sua condição de sujeito que tem direitos negados, como direito a terra, a saúde, a aposentadoria, a salário–maternidade, a educação. Ou se esta consciência de sujeito subordinado acontece no cotidiano e a educação somente contribui para a manutenção da dominação.

Keywords: assentamento rurais, educação popular, gênero

Topics: Civil Society, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2009


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