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Economies

From Indigenous Economies to Market-Based Self-Governance: A Feminist Political Economy Analysis

Citation:

Kuokkanen, Rauna. 2011. “From Indigenous Economies to Market-Based Self-Governance: A Feminist Political Economy Analysis.” Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 44 (2): 275-97.

Author: Rauna Kuokkanen

Abstract:

This paper examines the apparent contradiction between the current tendency of many Indigenous groups and their political institutions to embrace the capitalist economic model as the one and only solution in establishing contemporary Indigenous self-governance, on the one hand, and on the other, the detrimental force of the market economy on Indigenous societies, past and present. The starting point is the following question. If the global market economy historically played a significant role in the loss of political and economic autonomy of Indigenous societies and women, how meaningful or sustainable is it to seek to (re)build contemporary Indigenous governance on the very economic model that was largely responsible for undermining it in the first place? Shouldn't this history be taken into consideration when discussing and shaping models and policies for contemporary Indigenous governance and hence be more critical of the standard economic development frameworks hailed as the path toward self-governance? (Jstor)

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Rights, Indigenous Rights

Year: 2011

Smallholder Farmers and Climate Smart Agriculture: Technology and Labor-Productivity Constraints amongst Women Smallholders in Malawi

Citation:

Murray, Una, Zewdy Gebremedhin, Galina Brychkova, and Charles Spillane. 2016. "Smallholder Farmers and Climate Smart Agriculture: Technology and Labor-Productivity Constraints amongst Women Smallholders in Malawi." Gender, Technology and Development 20 (2): 117-48. 

Authors: Una Murray, Zewdy Gebremedhin, Galina Brychkova, Charles Spillane

Abstract:

Climate change and variability present a major challenge to agricultural production and rural livelihoods, including livelihoods of women small- holder farmers. There are significant efforts underway to develop, deploy, and scale up Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices and technologies to facilitate climate change adaptation for farmers. However, there is a need for gender analysis of CSA practices across different farming and cultural systems to facilitate adoption by, and livelihood improvements for, women smallholder farmers. Climate change poses challenges for maintaining and improving agricultural and labor productivity of women smallholder farmers. The labor productivity of many women smallholders is constrained by lack of access to labor-saving technologies and the most basic of farm tools. Poorer smallholders face a poverty trap, due to low agricultural and labor productivity, from which they cannot easily escape without access to key resources such as rural energy and labor- saving technologies. In Malawi, the agricultural system is predominantly rainfed and largely composed of smallholders who remain vulnerable to climate change and variability shocks. Despite the aspirations of women smallholders to engage in CSA, our research highlights that many women smallholders have either limited or no access to basic agricultural tools, transport, and rural energy. This raises the question of whether the future livelihood scenarios for such farmers will consist of barely surviving or “hanging in”; or whether such farmers can “step up” to adapt better to future climate constraints; or whether more of these farmers will “step out” of agriculture. We argue that for women smallholder farmers to become more climate change resilient, more serious attention to gender analysis is needed to address their constraints in accessing basic agricultural technologies, combined with participatory approaches to develop and adapt CSA tools and technologies to their needs in future climates and agro-ecologies.

Keywords: climate change, women smallholders, labor productivity, participatory technology design, agriculture, economic growth

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2016

What is 'Green' in the Green New Deal - Criteria from Ecofeminist and Post-Keynesian Economics

Citation:

Kesting, Stefan. 2011. "What is 'Green' in the Green New Deal - Criteria from Ecofeminist and Post-Keynesian Economics."International Journal of Green Economics 5 (1): 49-64.

Author: Stefan Kesting

Abstract:

This article aims in general at further fulfilling the ambition of green economics to be a holistic paradigm synthesising and integrating a diverse set of heterodox economic approaches and philosophies. In particular, it addresses the current lack of macroeconomic and more specifically post-Keynesian short run theories in green economies. This new paradigm is in its essence a radical ecofeminist approach to economics. From this vantage point, the ecofeminist framework of (re)productivity developed by Biesecker and Hofmeister is indeed very congruent with green economies. Moreover, the goal of the article is to develop normative (ecofeminist) criteria for green stimulus packages. This could improve green economic policy formulation and real-world implementation [Turk,(2008), p.267].

Keywords: green stimulus, (re)productivity, post-keynesian economics, ecofeminism

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2011

Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest

Citation:

Loomis, Erik. 2017. “Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 37–44.

Author: Erik Loomis

Annotation:

Summary: 
In this paper, Erik Loomis explores the connections between natural resource workers, industrialized nature, and masculinity as constructed by the logger working class in the US Pacific Northwest. In the industrial forest, different ideas of masculinity and nature were formed and performed. Loomis argues that the working class histories of natural resource workers need to be included in sustainable economies and environmental history. This way, environmental activists can develop more sophisticated strategies for creating coalitions with natural resource workers. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking

Citation:

Suchland, Jennifer. 2015. Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking. Durham: Duke University Press.

Author: Jennifer Suchland

Annotation:

Summary:
Recent human rights campaigns against sex trafficking have focused on individual victims, treating trafficking as a criminal aberration in an otherwise just economic order. In Economies of Violence Jennifer Suchland directly critiques these explanations and approaches, as they obscure the reality that trafficking is symptomatic of complex economic and social dynamics and the economies of violence that sustain them. Examining United Nations proceedings on women's rights issues, government and NGO anti-trafficking policies, and campaigns by feminist activists, Suchland contends that trafficking must be understood not solely as a criminal, gendered, and sexualized phenomenon, but as operating within global systems of precarious labor, neoliberalism, and the transition from socialist to capitalist economies in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. In shifting the focus away from individual victims, and by underscoring trafficking's economic and social causes, Suchland provides a foundation for building more robust methods for combatting human trafficking. (Summary from Duke University Press) 
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Sex Trafficking and the Making of a Feminist Subject of Analysis
 
2. The Natasha Trade and the Post-Cold War Reframing of Precarity
 
3. Second World/ Second Sex: Alternative Genealogies in Feminist Homogenous Empty Time
 
4. Lost in Transition: Postsocialist Trafficking and the Erasure of Systemic Violence
 
5. Freedom as Choice and the Neoliberal Economism of Trafficking Discourse
 
6. Conclusion: Antitrafficking Beyond the Carceral State

 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, International Organizations, NGOs, Political Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2015

Imperial Democracies, Militarised Zones, Feminist Engagements

Citation:

Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 2011. “Imperial Democracies, Militarised Zones, Feminist Engagements.” Economic and Political Weekly 46 (13): 76–84.

Author: Chandra Talpade Mohanty

Annotation:

Summary:
The post-11 September 2001 consolidation of imperial democracies and securitised regimes in the United States, Israel, and India mobilise anatomies of violence anchored in colonial legacies and capitalist profitmaking. These regimes utilise specific and connected racial and gendered ideologies and practices at their social and territorial borders - in the US-Mexico borderlands, the West Bank and Gaza, and the Kashmir Valley. They exercise militarised and masculinised forms of control, surveillance and dispossession that illuminate the contours of national political subjectivities and the uneven construction of citizenship. These imperial democracies militarise all domains of social life, and discipline or imprison not just abandoned and criminalised communities, but all state subjects. The essay suggests that an alternative vision of connectivity and solidarity requires building ethical, cross-border feminist solidarities that confront neoliberal militarisation globally. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: India, Israel, United States of America

Year: 2011

In the Aftermath of Earth, Wind, and Fire: Natural Disasters and Respect for Women’s Rights

Citation:

Detraz, Nicole, and Dursun Peksen. 2017. “In the Aftermath of Earth, Wind, and Fire: Natural Disasters and Respect for Women’s Rights.” Human Rights Review 18 (2): 151–70.

Authors: Nicole Detraz, Dursun Peksen

Abstract:

Though much research has been devoted to a range of socioeconomic and political consequences of natural disasters, little is known about the possible gendered effects of disasters beyond the well-documented immediate effects on women’s physical well-being. This paper explores the extent to which natural disasters affect women’s economic and political rights in disaster-hit countries. We postulate that natural disasters are likely to contribute to the rise of systematic gendered discrimination by impairing state capacity for rights protection as well as instigating economic and political instability conducive to women’s rights violations. To substantiate the theoretical claims, we combine data on women’s economic and political rights with data on nine different natural disaster events—droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, extreme temperatures, floods, slides, volcanic eruptions, windstorms, and wildfires. Results from the data analysis for the years 1990–2011 suggest that natural disasters have a detrimental effect on the level of respect for both women’s economic and political rights. One major policy implication of our findings is that disasters could be detrimental to women’s status beyond the immediate effects on their personal livelihoods, and thus, policymakers, relief organizations, and donors should develop strategies to prevent gendered discrimination in the economy and political sphere in the affected countries.

Keywords: women's rights, gendered discrimination, natural disasters, human rights

Topics: Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2016

Biopolitics, Climate Change and Water Security: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Issues for Women

Citation:

Tandon, Nidhi. 2007. “Biopolitics, Climate Change and Water Security: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Issues for Women.” Agenda 21 (73): 4-17.

Author: Nidhi Tandon

Abstract:

This article is not intended to be alarmist but its message is urgent. Its observations are fairly straightforward – it examines how climate change will impact on water security1, from both the supply and the demand side and how the African continent is especially vulnerable. Its core premise is that one important factor is to ensure that women have the necessary information, tools and resources to plan and take decisions around water security as it pertains to current and future needs. The paper’s focus is the African continent, with examples drawn from other developing countries. Its recommendations are extracted from workshop experiences in the field. 

Keywords: climate change, water security, drought, poverty

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2007

Understanding the Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity of Households in Rural Victorian Towns in the Context of Long-Term Water Insecurity

Citation:

Stebbing, M.S., M. Carey, M. Sinclair, and M. Sim. 2013. “Understanding the Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity of Households in Rural Victorian Towns in the Context of Long-Term Water Insecurity.” Australasian Journal of Water Resources 17 (2): 193-201.

Authors: M. S. Stebbing, M. Carey, M. Sinclair, M. Sim

Abstract:

While the range of impacts of a changing climate on farming communities has been extensively studied in Australia, little is known about how individuals and households in small rural towns adapt to the effects of long-term water insecurity. The health and wellbeing impacts of climate variability may be experienced as direct or indirect health impacts or as reduced access to health and other services as reduced economic viability affects rural towns. Identifying risk factors for vulnerability and local measures and practices that will reduce health and wellbeing impacts offers evidence for climate change adaptation policy direction at the local, state and national level. This paper discusses the results of a study that aimed to improve understanding of the vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity of rural communities at the household scale. Focus groups with town residents and key informant interviews were conducted in three rural towns in Western Victoria experiencing differing water security challenges during a period of “drought”. Perceived health and wellbeing impacts and the differing ways in which residents adapted their lives to accommodate these changes were explored. The study revealed a range of physical, mental, oral health and food security impacts on health and wellbeing. There were clear gender differences in the ways that men and women identified, communicated and dealt with these impacts. Perceived water quality and cost were shown to be key determinants of acceptance of the small town reticulated water supply. The results of this study suggest that a history of conservatism, degree of community connectedness and communication, the small town ethic of self-reliance, and the openness of government to community involvement in decision making, planning and action around water supplies are important factors in determining resilience to threats to water security in small rural towns. 

Keywords: water security, water-supply, rural, water use, climate change adaptation

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security, Food Security Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2013

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