Economic Inequality

Women’s Responses to State Violence in the Niger Delta

Citation:

Ekine, Sokari. 2008. “Women’s Responses to State Violence in the Niger Delta.” Feminist Africa 10: 67–83.

Author: Sokari Ekine

Abstract:

This paper will discuss the ways in which the women of the Niger Delta have responded to acts of violence by the Nigerian State and its allies, the multinational oil companies. I first briefly outline the background to the crises in the Niger Delta and then discuss the responses and resistance of the women.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Corruption, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Multi-National Corporations, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2008

Women in Mining : A Conceptual Framework for Gender Issues in the South African Mining Sector

Citation:

Botha, Doret and Freek Cronje. 2015. “Women in Mining: A Conceptual Framework for Gender Issues in the South African Mining Sector.” South African Journal of Labour Relations 39 (1): 10-37.

Authors: Doret Botha, Freek Cronje

Abstract:

New mining legislation aims to rectify previous inequalities and disadvantages in the mining sector and specifically provides for the inclusion of women in core mining activities. Although there is no lack of good will, the achievement of gender equality in the male-dominated mining sector remains one of the biggest equity challenges in the country and numerous problems accompany the deployment of women in core mining activities. The main objective of the study was to critically analyse gender issues in the mining sector and then to develop a conceptual framework that will enable the mining sector to contribute to and ensure the sustainable employment of women in this sector. A literature review was carried out to gain an in-depth understanding of the variables that have an impact on women in the mining sector specifically. An empirical study was conducted to identify and investigate relevant gender-related issues in the mining sector. Quantitative and qualitative research paradigms were used. The research revealed that various factors need to be considered for the successful and sustainable deployment of women in the mining sector. The study concludes by making recommendations and offering a conceptual framework that could be implemented and used by various stakeholders in the mining sector.

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2015

'A Small Group of Thoughtful, Committed Citizens’: Women’s Activism, Environmental Justice, and the Coal River Mountain Watch

Citation:

Barry, Joyce M. 2008. “‘A Small Group of Thoughtful, Committed Citizens’: Women’s Activism, Environmental Justice, and the Coal River Mountain Watch.” Environmental Justice 1 (1): 25–33.

Author: Joyce M Barry

Abstract:

This article examines the environmental justice efforts of the Coal River Mountain Watch (CRMW) in Boone County, West Virginia. The CRMW is a grassroots group formed in 1998 to fight the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining in West Virginia. The membership of this organization is largely comprised of white, working-class women whose homes and community have been adversely impacted by this extractive industry. The CRMW serves as a watch dog of the coal industry oligarchy in the state, resisting the social and environmental injustices created by King coal and its abetting state political system. This article posits that around the country poor and working-class women respond collectively to threats on their homes and communities. However, the scale and impact of this social trend has yet to be adequately assessed by feminist and environmental justice scholars. There is a large body of important, ecofeminist scholarship examining women's connection to the natural world, mostly framed by the spiritual component of such connections. However, this scholarship frequently fails to consider the role of class and its relation to gender and the environment. Also, these analyses too often center women's individual responses to challenged environments, rarely focusing on women's collective actions. Environmental justice scholarship has done a tremendous job emphasizing the importance of class, social justice, and vulnerable communities' connection to the environment. However, the canon of environmental justice scholarship infrequently assesses the activism and importance of women in these grassroots movements. This is unfortunate considering that women make up 90% of the membership in environmental justice groups around the country. Using the Coal River Mountain Watch as a case study this article ultimately seeks to redress these shortcomings in existing scholarship, and highlight the efforts of this environmental justice organization.

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

Does Oil Wealth Hurt Women? A Reply to Caraway, Charrad, Kang, and Norris

Citation:

Ross, Michael L. 2009. “Does Oil Wealth Hurt Women? A Reply to Caraway, Charrad, Kang, and Norris.” Politics & Gender 5 (04): 575-82.

Author: Michael Ross

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Political Participation

Year: 2009

Living in a Walking World: Rural Mobility and Social Equity Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2002. “Living in a Walking World: Rural Mobility and Social Equity Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Development 30 (2): 285-300. 

Author: Gina Porter

Abstract:

Accessibility and mobility are embedded in the development nexus in far-reaching ways. Field studies of mobility among women and men in rural settlements with poor road access illustrate the frustrations and costs of living off-road. They are frequently marginalized and invisible, even to local administrations. State decentralization appears to have had little positive impact in reducing ‘‘tarmac bias’’ and improving rural service delivery. A range of potential interventions, from Intermediate Means of Transport to electronic communications is reviewed, and opportunities for building social capital in off-road areas through nurturing improvements in state–civil society relations are considered.

Keywords: accessibility, mobility, off-road, decentralization, Africa, services

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa

Year: 2002

Models for Masculinity in Colonial and Postcolonial Papua New Guinea

Citation:

Fife, Wayne. 1995. “Models for Masculinity in Colonial and Postcolonial Papua New Guinea.” The Contemporary Pacific 7 (2): 277-302. 

Author: Wayne Fife

Abstract:

This paper discusses the kinds of models that became available in the colonial context for indigenous men to be men in what eventually became the country of Papua New Guinea. One of the legacies of colonialism and the missionization of masculinity is the development of a new hierarchy of masculine values. These newer norms are in marked contrast to older forms of male effectiveness, and they have helped to define social distinctions within contemporary Papua New Guinea. At the same time, the reality of human behavior spills over the confines of both older and newer cultural norms, and the results can be confusing for individual males. However, individual confusion does not affect the overall saliency of these historically engendered forms of masculinity, nor the importance they may have for the justification of emerging social and economic inequalities within the country.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Indigenous Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 1995

Women, Men, and the International Division of Labor

Citation:

Nash, June C., and María Patricia Fernández-Kelly. 1983. Women, Men, and the International Division of Labor. Albany: SUNY Press.

Authors: June C. Nash, María Patricia Fernández-Kelly

Abstract:

The last few decades have witnessed a growing integration of the world system of production on the basis of a new relationship between less developed and highly industrialized countries. The effect is a geographical dispersion of the various production stages in the manufacturing process as the large corporations of industrialized "First World" countries are attracted by low labor costs, taxes, and relaxed production restrictions available in developing countries. This collection of papers focuses on inequalities among different sectors of the labor force, particularly those related to gender, and how these are affected by the changing international division of labor.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods

Year: 1983

Plano Nacional de Politicas para as Mulheres

Citation:

Presidência da República. 2013. Plano Nacional de Politicas para as Mulheres. Brasilia D.F: Plano Nacional de Politicas para as Mulheres.

Author: Secretaria de Políticas para as Mulheres – Presidência da República

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Health, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

Economic Liberalisation, Gender Wage Inequality and Welfare

Citation:

Mukhopadhyay, Ujjaini, and Sarbajit Chaudhuri. 2013. “Economic Liberalisation, Gender Wage Inequality and Welfare.” The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development 22 (8): 1214–39.

Authors: Sarbajit Chaudhuri, Ujjaini Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

The article develops a 3-sector general equilibrium model appropriate for economies with female labour oriented export sector to examine the effects of economic liberalisation policies on gender based wage inequality. It is assumed that there exist disparities in efficiencies between male and female labour due to skewed access to education and health, and differences in their spending patterns leading to differential effects of respective wages on their nutrition. The results indicate that tariff cut may reduce gender wage inequality, but may have detrimental effects on welfare; while foreign capital inflow may accentuate the inequality, despite improving the welfare of the economy. However, government policies to increase the provision of education and health have favourable effects on gender wage inequality but may be welfare deteriorating. Thus, the article provides a theoretical explanation to empirical evidences of diverse effects of liberalisation on gender wage inequality and explains the possibility of a trade-off between gender inequality and social welfare.

Keywords: gender, wage inequality, foreign capital inflow, tariff cut

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Health, Political Economies

Year: 2013

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