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Economic Inequality

Women’s Status and Economic Globalization

Citation:

Gelleny, Ronald, and David L. Richards. 2007. “Women’s Status and Economic Globalization.” International Studies Quarterly 51 (4): 855-76.

Authors: Ronald Gelleny, David L. Richards

Abstract:

Previous research on gender-based economic inequality has emphasized occupational segregation as the leading explanatory factor for the gender wage gap. Yet the globalization of the U.S. economy has affected gender inequality in fundamental ways and potentially diminished the influence of occupational gender segregation. We examine whether occupational gender segregation continues to be the main determinant of gender earnings inequality and to what extent globalization processes have emerged as important determinants of inequality between women’s and men’s earnings. We study factors contributing to the gender earnings ratio as well as the median earnings of men and women for 271 U.S. metropolitan areas. The results indicate that occupational segregation is still the leading determinant of gender earnings inequality, that its effects are only slightly diminished by the presence of globalization, and that various aspects of the global economy independently influence the gender earnings gap.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2007

Occupational Gender Segregation, Globalization, and Gender Earnings Inequality in U.S. Metropolitan Area

Citation:

Gauchat, Gordon, Maura Kelly, and Michael Wallace. 2012. "Occupational Gender Segregation, Globalization, and Gender Earning Inequality in U.S. Metropolitan Areas." Gender and Society 26 (5): 718–47.

Authors: Gordon Gauchat, Maura Kelly, Michael Wallace

Abstract:

Previous research on gender-based economic inequality has emphasized occupational segregation as the leading explanatory factor for the gender wage gap. Yet the globalization of the U.S. economy has affected gender inequality in fundamental ways and potentially diminished the influence of occupational gender segregation. We examine whether occupational gender segregation continues to be the main determinant of gender earnings inequality and to what extent globalization processes have emerged as important determinants of inequality between women’s and men’s earnings. We study factors contributing to the gender earnings ratio as well as the median earnings of men and women for 271 U.S. metropolitan areas. The results indicate that occupational segregation is still the leading determinant of gender earnings inequality, that its effects are only slightly diminished by the presence of globalization, and that various aspects of the global economy independently influence the gender earnings gap.

Keywords: class/stratification, comparative/historical, sexuality

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Gender, Cities, and the Millennium Development Goals in the Global South

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2007. “Gender, Cities, and the Millennium Development Goals in the Global South.” New Working Paper Series 21, London School of Economics, London.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Abstract:

Despite a dedicated Millennium Development Goal for ‘promoting gender equality and empowering women’, and popular rhetoric around the fulfilment of MDG 3 as a prerequisite for achieving all other seven goals, there has been widespread criticism on the part of feminists of their limited scope to address gender inequalities in the Global South. Suggestions have been made by the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Education and Gender Equality to improve the gender-responsiveness of the MDGs. Drawing on recent research on the ‘feminisation of poverty’ in Africa, Asia and Latin America and on the wider literature on gender in cities, this paper reflects on the potential of selected MDGs and their proposed revisions for reducing inequalities among poor urban women and men in the 21st century.

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, NGOs, Political Economies Regions: Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia

Year: 2007

Re-thinking the "Feminization of Poverty" in Relation to Aggregate Gender Indices

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2006. “Re-Thinking the Feminization of Poverty in Relation to Aggregate Gender Indices.” Journal of Human Development 7 (2): 201–20.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Abstract:

The ‘‘feminization of poverty’’ is often referred to without adequate specification or substantiation, and does not necessarily highlight aspects of poverty that are most relevant to women at the grassroots. The United Nations Development Programme's gender indices go some way to reflecting gendered poverty, but there is scope for improvement. In order to work towards aggregate indices that are more sensitive to gender gaps in poverty as identified and experienced by poor women, the main aims of this paper are two-fold. The first is to draw attention to existing conceptual and methodological weaknesses with the ‘‘feminization of poverty’’, and to suggest how the construct could better depict contemporary trends in gendered privation. The second is to propose directions for the kinds of data and indicators that might be incorporated within the Gender-related Development Index or the Gender Empowerment Measure, or used in the creation of a Gendered Poverty Index. 

Keywords: gender, poverty, feminization of poverty, aggregate gender indices, gender-related development index, gender empowerment measure, gendered poverty index

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Political Economies

Year: 2006

Gender Equality as Smart Economics? A Critique of the 2012 World Development Report

Citation:

Roberts, Adrienne, and Susan Soederberg. 2012. “Gender Equality as Smart Economics: A Critique of the 2012 World Development Report.” Third World Quarterly 33 (5): 949–68.

Authors: Adrienne Roberts, Susan Soederberg

Abstract:

Business now plays an increasingly prominent role in development. While the implicit links between private actors and international development institutions have been widely debated, the explicit role of financial corporations in shaping official development policy has been less well documented. We employ a feminist Marxian analysis to examine the material and discursive landscape of the 2012 World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development. Its exclusive focus on gender equality as ‘smart economics’, and the central role accorded to leading financial corporations like Goldman Sachs in the formulation of the key World Bank recommendations enable us to explore the changing landscape of the neoliberal corporatisation of develop- ment. We argue, first, that the apolitical and ahistorical representation of gender and gender equality in the WDR serves to normalise spaces of informality and insecurity, thereby expunging neoliberal-led capitalist relations of exploitation and domination, which characterise the social context in which many women in the global South live. Second, the WDR represents the interest of corporations in transforming the formerly excluded segments of the South (women) into consumers and entrepreneurs. The WDR thus represents an attempt by the World Bank and its ‘partners’ to deepen and consolidate the fundamental values and tenets of capitalist interests.

 

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies

Year: 2012

"When Will I Get My Rest?” Neo-Liberalism, Women, Class and Ageing in Ibadan, Nigeria

Citation:

Adeniyi-Ogunyankin, Grace. 2012. “‘When Will I Get My Rest?’ Neo-Liberalism, Women, Class and Ageing in Ibadan, Nigeria.” Agenda 26 (4): 29–36.

Author: Grace Adeniyi-Ogunyankin

Abstract:

In-depth interviews about gender and the urban political economy in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria with a sample of 24 women aged 46 to 83 years revealed that there are class differences in ageing as it pertains to women’s experiences of financial security and care work. Based on interview responses, this briefing argues that neoliberalism has exacerbated the class disparity in ageing among women in Ibadan. Neoliberalism has heightened urban inequality through policies that have led to currency devaluation, state retrenchment of social services and employment insecurity. These policies have in turn intensified women’s triple burden of reproduction, production and community management as women bear the responsibility of absorbing the shock of neoliberal economic policies. Moreover, contrary to neoliberal assumptions that older people are mainly dependants who rely on their families for financial assistance and care, poorer older women are also shock absorbers as far as economic activity and care work is concerned. This briefing highlights that neoliberalism in fact increases the burden on older people, especially women, and can have adverse effects on the ageing process in that it exacerbates deprivation and increases the social constraints faced by poor elder women and their burden of care.

Keywords: neoliberalism, gender, age, class, financial security, care work

Topics: Age, Class, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2012

Tierra de mujeres: reflexiones sobre el acceso de las mujeres rurales a la tierra en América Latina

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, Claudia Ranaboldo,and Patricia Costas Monje. 2011. Tierra de mujeres: reflexiones sobre el acceso de las mujeres rurales a la tierra en América Latina. La Paz,Bolivia: International Land Coalition (ILC).

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, Claudia Ranaboldo, Patricia Costas Monje

Topics: Domestic Violence, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2011

Los derechos a la tierra y la fiebre por ella: hallazgos del Proyecto de Investigación Global Presiones Comerciales sobre la Tierra

Citation:

Anseeuw, Ward, Liz Alden Wily, Lorenzo Cotula, and M. Taylor. 2012. Los derechos a la tierra y la fiebre por ella: hallazgos del Proyecto de Investigación Global Presiones Comerciales sobre la Tierra. Rome, Italy: International Land Coalition (ILC).

Authors: Ward Anseeuw, Liz Alden Wily, Lorenzo Cotula, Taylor Michael

Abstract:

Los derechos a la tierra y los recursos y los medios de vida de las comunidades rurales están cada vez más en peligro por la prevalencia de un modelo de adquisiciones de tierra de gran escala.

Topics: Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2012

Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, and Claudia Ranaboldo. 2011. Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America. Translated by Sara Shields. La Paz, Bolivia: Fundación Tierra.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, Claudia Ranaboldo

Abstract:

The human rights of women are not yet fully respected despite the progress made in legislation at global, regional, and national levels. Apart from formal legislation, access to and control of land by women should be part of other mechanisms for recognising these rights, in communities, for example, where women are often not included in spaces for participation and decisionmaking. Although the law may protect their land rights, it is difficult for rural women to gain access to the judicial system to protest when these rights are violated.

This scenario of inequality in which women find themselves can be reversed through social and economic changes to give women the tools they need to empower themselves.
 
This book is the result of a collective effort by many women from several parts of Latin America. It is unique because it represents the accumulation of reflections, inputs, visits, discussions, and meetings. The document synthesises various activities taken forward by ILC and other institutions: the publication of six research studies carried out in 2009, two international discussion forums (one held in Colombia and the other in Costa Rica), and the reflections of three specialists on agrarian issues who – drawing on their own experiences and expertise – engage in a dialogue with the research studies to generate further knowledge. (ELLA)

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2011

‘Expatriates’: Gender, Race and Class Distinctions in International Management

Citation:

Berry, Daphne P., and Myrtle P. Bell. 2012. “‘Expatriates’: Gender, Race and Class Distinctions in International Management.” Gender, Work and Organization 19 (1): 10–28.

Authors: Daphne P. Berry, Myrtle P. Bell

Abstract:

In the international management (IM) literature, 'expatriate' is used as a verb in reference to the transnational movement of employees by multinational corporations (MNCs) and as a noun in reference to the people who are so moved across borders to work. IM's resulting expatriate analyses apply only to a specific minority of relatively privileged people. However, as is clear in other bodies of literature, many others ('migrants') in less privileged class positions move themselves across national boundaries for work. In this majority are often women and men—people of diverse races, ethnicities, economic and social means—who have less education and who work in lower level jobs, also often in or for MNCs. Their invisibility in the IM literature sustains and reinforces gender, race and class-based disparities in globalization processes and work to the detriment of poor women of colour around the world. We call for gendering change that would make visible the invisible in IM scholarship related to expatriation.

Keywords: expatriates, migrants, class, international management, gender

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Race

Year: 2012

Pages

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