Economic Inequality

Gender, Adjustment and Macroeconomics. Special Issue

Citation:

Cagatay, Nilufer, Diane Elson and Caren Grown. 1995. ‘Gender, Adjustment and Macroeconomics. Special Issue’. World Development 23 (11): 1827–36.

Authors: Nilufer Cagatay, Diane Elson, Caren Grown

Abstract:

Since the mid-1980s feminist economists have argued that gender relations interact with market oriented processes of economic restructuring, with implications both for the distribution of costs and benefits between different groups of women and men, and for the achievement of macroeconomic objectives. While there is a growing recognition of the gender distributive

effects of structural adjustment (in the pages of this journal and elsewhere), the relationship between gender relations and macroeconomic outcomes has received far less attention. This issue grew out of the efforts of feminist economists to go beyond analyses of the gendered effects of adjustment and to demonstrate the relevance of gender as an analytical category in macroeconomics. Our aim is to bring a gender lens to macroeconomic discourse conducted at four different levels: conceptual

frameworks; formal models; empirical research such as historically informed country case studies and comparative crosscountry statistical analysis; and diagnosis of macroeconomic problems and formulation of policies to remedy them. This project draws on the resources of heterodox macroeconomics and feminist analysis.

 

Keywords: economic restructuring, macroeconomic policy, gender discourse, feminist economics

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 1995

The Post-Washington Consensus and Economic Representations of Women in Development at the World Bank

Citation:

Bergeron, Suzanne. 2003. ‘The Post-Washington Consensus and Economic Representations of Women in Development at the World Bank’. International Feminist Journal of Politics 5 (3): 397–419.

Author: Suzanne Bergeron

Abstract:

In the past few years, the neoliberal Washington consensus has given way to a ‘post-Washington consensus’ aimed at integrating social and economic dimensions of development, paying attention to broader goals such as sustainability, and challenging the old state versus market dichotomy. Among its other effects, this shift in development thinking has contributed to a greater emphasis on gender concerns in development institutions such as the World Bank. This article examines the recent innovations in economic theory that have informed these efforts. Through an analysis of the ways that these theories construct meanings about gender equity and development, the article concludes that the post-Washington consensus maintains the economistic and colonial discourses of neoliberalism, and thus provides little space for the meaningful social transformations called for by feminists working in development.

Keywords: gender and development, social capital, economic representations, World Bank

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2003

Land Rights and the Rush for Land

Citation:

Anseeuw, Ward, Liz Alden Wily, Lorenzo Cotula, and M. Taylor. 2012. Land Rights and the Rush for Land. Rome, Italy: International Land Coalition (ILC).

Authors: Ward Anseeuw, Liz Alden Wily, Lorenzo Cotula, Taylor Michael

Abstract:

The land and resource rights and livelihoods of rural communities are being put in jeopardy by the prevailing model of large-scale land acquisition.

Topics: Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2012

Political Instability, Gender Discrimination, and Population Growth in Development Countries

Citation:

Lehmijoki, Ulla and Tapio Palokangas. 2006. “Political Instability, Gender Discrimination, and Population Growth in Development Countries.” Journal of Population Economics 19 (2): 431-46.

Authors: Ulla Lehmijoki, Tapio Palokangas

Abstract:

This paper introduces gender discrimination and population growth into a model of political economy. The government keeps up the military for the sake of political instability in the country. It is shown that if the risk of internal conflicts is high, then the government needs a bigger military and a larger supply of young men for it. The government is then willing to boost population growth by keeping women outside the production (e.g. neglecting their education or restricting their movement). Some empirical evidence on the interdependence of political instability, population growth, and gender discrimination is provided. 

Keywords: population growth, discrimination, political instability

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Male Combatants, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Households, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Political Economies, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2006

Rural Women, Poverty and Natural Resources: Sustenance, Sustainability and Struggle for Change

Citation:

Agarwal, Bina. 1989. “Rural Women, Poverty and Natural Resources: Sustenance, Sustainability and Struggle for Change.” Economic and Political Weekly 24 (43): WS46–65.

Author: Bina Agarwal

Abstract:

Women in poor rural households are burdened with a significant responsibility for family subsistence and are important, often the primary, and in many female-headed households the sole economic providers. However, their ability to fulfil this responsibility is significantly constrained by the limited (and declining) resources and means at their command - a constraint that stems not merely from their class position but also from gender. These gender inequities in access to resources take varying forms: intra-family differences in the distribution of basic necessities; women's systematically disadvantaged position in the labour market; their little access to the crucial means of production - land, and associated production technology; and the growing deterioration and privatisation of the country's common property resources on which the poor in general and women in particular, depend in substantial degree for sustenance. At the same time, the women are not always passive victims - many have reacted against their marginalisation and are today significant actors in grassroots initiatives for change. In particular, in response to a growing crisis of survival, poor peasant and tribal women have emerged in the forefront of many ecology initiatives. These initiatives, which have developed into movements in several areas, articulate a growing resistance to existing approaches to development, and call attention to the critical need for an alternative approach which is regenerative rather than destructive of nature - a necessary condition for its sustainability in the long run. Indeed, the perspectives and insights offered by such movements, and women as important participants in them, need to be an integral part of any attempt to chart out an alternative.

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 1989

Women and Fish-for-Sex: Transactional Sex, HIV/AIDS and Gender in African Fisheries

Citation:

Béné, Christophe, and Sonja Merten. 2008. “Women and Fish-for-Sex: Transactional Sex, HIV/AIDS and Gender in African Fisheries.” World Development 36 (5): 875–99.

Authors: Christophe Béné, Sonja Merten

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the phenomenon of fish-for-sex in small-scale fisheries and discusses its apparent links to HIV/AIDS and transactional sex practices. The research reveals that fish-for-sex is not an anecdotal phenomenon but a practice increasingly reported in many different developing countries, with the largest number of cases observed in Sub-Saharan African inland fisheries. An overview of the main narratives that attempt to explain the occurrence of FFS practices is presented, along with other discourses and preconceptions, and their limits discussed. The analysis outlines the many different and complex dimensions of fish-for-sex transactions. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations.

 

Keywords: artisanal fisheries, vulnerability, poverty, public health, Africa

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Health, HIV/AIDS, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods Regions: Africa

Year: 2008

The Feminist Political Ecology of Fishing down: Reflections from Newfoundland and Labrador

Citation:

Bavington, Dean, Brenda Grzetic, and Barbara Neis. 2004. “The Feminist Political Ecology of Fishing down: Reflections from Newfoundland and Labrador.” Studies in Political Economy 73: 159-82.

Authors: Dean Bavington, Brenda Grzetic, Barbara Neis

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2004

Extractive Industries and Women in Southern Africa

Citation:

Moyo, Theresa. 2011. “Extractive Industries and Women in Southern Africa.” BUWA! A Journal on African Women's Experiences. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa. Accessed July 29, 2015. http://www.osisa.org/buwa/regional/women-and-extractive-industries-southern-africa.

Author: Theresa Moyo

Annotation:

“The main objectives of this article are to assess the participation of women in mining in southern Africa and to assess the underlying factors which limit participation. It also examines the impact of mining activities on women. Finally, the paper explores strategies to improve women’s participation in ability and to benefit from, the sector, and to reduce the negative impact on their lives.

The paper raises a number of questions. What role are women playing in the sector? What factors have determined their participation or non-participation? What is the impact of mining activities on the lives of women? What policies and strategies are required in order to promote greater and more meaningful participation of women?” (Moyo, 2015, p. 61)

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Health, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2011

Women and Artisanal Mining: Gender Roles and the Road Ahead

Citation:

Hinton, Jennifer, Marcello M. Veiga, and Christian Beinhoff. 2003. “Women and Artisanal Mining: Gender Roles and the Road Ahead.” In The Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Developing Countries, edited by G Hilson and A Balkema. Netherlands: Swets Publishers.

Authors: Jennifer Hinton, Marcello M Veiga, Christian Beinhoff

Annotation:

“In many locales, women function in multiple capacities. For instance, a women working as a panner may also obtain income as a sex trade worker and a cook.” (Hinton et. all, 2003, p. 2).

This article takes care to compare the situations of female miners in Africa, Asia and South/Latin America. In terms of percentage of artisanal miners who are female: Asia < South/Latin America < Africa

“In Guinea, although women undertake the same labour as men, inequities in pay (men are paid four times more for the same quantity of gold) often leads to a “troc”, or trade of sex for additional money or gold (USAID, 2000)” (p. 8).

“Although the chemical dangers, in particular, those associated with mercury and cyanide misuse, first come to mind, most occupational hazards are a consequence of poor physical conditions, such as ground failure, shaft collapses and machinery accidents” (p. 9).

Because of their involvement with the processing aspect of mining, women are at greater risk of chemical dangers and side effects.

“Chronic exposure to moderate levels of methylmercury results in symptoms including: visual constriction; numbness of the extremities; impairment of hearing; impairment of speech; and impairment of gait. In cases of acute intoxication, muscular atrophy, seizures and mental disturbance are prominent. Women of childbearing age and their children are particularly susceptible  as methylmercury readily crosses placental barriers and is considered to be a developmental toxicant (Grandjean, 1999). Depending on the frequency and degree of exposure, effects can range from sterility, and spontaneous abortion, to mild to severe neurological symptoms” (p. 11).

Importance of land rights and access to land in controlling, and thus benefiting from, commodities on that land.

“In a detailed study of gender and technology (Evert, 1998), it was found that interventions did not benefit women when: the ‘improvements’ were not more convenient and accessible than traditional sources or activities (e.g. clean water wells), modifications were directed towards commercial uses (e.g. development of forests for resale when fodder needs were not being met), and technologies were generally inappropriate (e.g. ‘improved’ stoves that did not consider the cultural value” (p. 23).

PDF includes a slide show presentation entitled “Women and Artisanal and Small Scale Mining: A Review of Roles and Issues” given by the author at the University of British Columbia. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Health, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia

Year: 2003

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