Economic Inequality

Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections

Citation:

Lachenmann, Gudrun, and Petra Dannecker. 2008. Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Authors: Gudrun Lachenmann, Petra Dannecker

Abstract:

Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies explores the negotiation processes of global development concepts such as poverty alleviation, human rights, and gender equality. It focuses on three countries that are undergoing different Islamisation processes: Senegal, Sudan, and Malaysia. While much has been written about the hegemonic production and discursive struggle of development concepts globally, this book analyzes the negotiation of these development concepts locally and translocally. Lachenmann and Dannecker present empirically grounded research to show that, although women are instrumentalized in different ways for the formation of an Islamic identity of a nation or group, they are at the same time important actors and agents in the processes of negotiating the meaning of development, restructuring of the public sphere, and transforming the societal gender order.

(Lexington Books)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Malaysia, Senegal, Sudan

Year: 2008

Gender, Poverty and Violence: Transitional Justice Responses to Converging Processes of Domination of Women in Eastern DRC, Northern Uganda and Kenya

Citation:

Fiske, Lucy, and Rita Shackel. 2015. “Gender, Poverty and Violence: Transitional Justice Responses to Converging Processes of Domination of Women in Eastern DRC, Northern Uganda and Kenya.” Women’s Studies International Forum 51 (July): 110–17. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2014.11.008.

 

 

Authors: Lucy Fiske, Rita Shackel

Annotation:

Gender, poverty and violence readily intersect in women's lives with profound impacts for women entrenching cycles of violence, disadvantage and disempowerment across women's lives in private and public domains. These effects are exacerbated in situations of armed conflict and in post-conflict societies where women are often targeted for particular types of violence, forced to enter into exploitative or abusive relationships and are routinely under-represented in key political, legal and economic decision making structures. Drawing on extensive fieldwork material we examine the complex and mutually constitutive ways in which gender, poverty and violence interact to shape the lives of women living in three conflict and post-conflict societies; eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), northern Uganda and Kenya. Finally, we consider the role of transitional justice, arguing for a more holistic approach with greater attention to gendered social and economic structures and better integration of the various mechanisms of transitional processes. (Synopsis from Elsevier Ltd)

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Transitional Justice, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2015

Victims of Time, Warriors for Change: Chilean Women in a Global, Neoliberal Society

Citation:

Clark, Evelyn A. 2013. Victims of Time, Warriors for Change: Chilean Women in a Global, Neoliberal Society. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Author: Evelyn A. Clark

Abstract:

This book explores how women in the Chilean workforce and social activists describe and understand globalization and neoliberalism and their impact on their nation and the lives of Chilean women. By examining national policies, quantitative measures of development, and how various women in the labor force and political and community organizations perceive and live within the Chilean economy, Clark shows the dynamic relationship between national and international policies and gender inequality and women's empowerment. In addition to historic and contemporary data analysis on Chile's economic commitment to neoliberalism since the 1970s, Clark discusses how women have gained in neoliberal Chile through wage labor and how that has impacted their relationships within the home and within their communities. In addition to working full time, these women were committed to full-time activism to promote equality and provide a backlash against neoliberal economic policies. Overall, therefore, globalization and neoliberalism have had a profound impact on women in Chilean society. On the one hand, opportunities have been opened for many women, but, on the other, limitations and suffering have been imposed on just as many, if not more. An unfortunate consequence of these processes is that class differences among women have been exacerbated. In particular, most women have become Victims of Time. Still, many women remain Warriors for Change whose political and social activism provide hope for a better Chile.
 
(Cambridge Scholars Publishing)

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Globalization, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2013

African Mining, Gender, and Local Employment

Citation:

Andreas Kotsadam, and Anja Tolonen. 2016. “African Mining, Gender, and Local Employment.” World Development 83: 325–39.

Authors: Andreas Kotsadam, Anja Toloen

Abstract:

The discovery of natural resources across the African continent brings hope for millions of poor people, but there are long-standing fears that the resources will be a curse rather than a blessing. One of the most frequently claimed effects is that gender inequality in economic opportunities may increase with mining. This paper is the first multi-country quantitative analysis of the local employment impacts for men and women of large-scale mining in the African continent. Using exact mine locations, we merge survey data for 800,000 individuals with data on all mine openings and closings across the continent, which enables a highly localized analysis of spillover effects. We employ a geographic difference-in-difference estimation exploiting the spatial and temporal variation in mining. We show that industrial mine opening is a mixed blessing for women. It triggers a local structural shift, whereby women shift from agricul- tural self-employment (25% decrease) to the service sector (50% increase), and are 16% more likely to earn cash. However, overall female employment decreases by 8% as agriculture is a larger sector than services. Male partners shift to skilled manual labor, and some find jobs in the mining sector. The effects of mine openings diminish with distance and are close to zero at 50 km from a mine. Mine closure causes the service and skilled sectors to contract. The results are robust to a wide battery of robustness checks, such as using different measures of distance and excluding migrants from the sample. This paper shows that large-scale mining can stimulate nonagricultural sectors in Africa, although it creates local boom-bust economies with transient and gender-specific employment effects.

Keywords: natural resources, female employment, Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Africa

Year: 2016

'They Have Embraced a Different Behaviour': Transactional Sex and Family Dynamics in Eastern Congo's Conflict

Citation:

Maclin, Beth, Jocelyn Kelly, Justin Kabanga, and Michael VanRooyen. 2015. “'They Have Embraced a Different Behaviour’: Transactional Sex and Family Dynamics in Eastern Congo’s Conflict.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 17 (1): 119-31. 

Authors: Beth Maclin, Jocelyn Kelly, Justin Kabang, Michael VanRooyen

Abstract:

The decades-long conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in major changes to local economies, strained social networks and insecurity. This environment forces many to pursue unconventional and, at times, socially stigmatised avenues for income. This paper explores the ways in which individuals in eastern DRC engage in, and are affected by, the commoditisation of sex within the context of decades of violent conflict. Focus group discussions conducted with men and women in 2009–2010 highlight how the war in the region has placed individuals, particularly women, in dire economic circumstances, while also changing their roles within families. In the face of severe poverty, women and girls may choose to engage in transactional sex in order to support themselves and their families. Discussants detailed how engaging in transactional sex due to an economic imperative has nonetheless damaged women’s relationships with family members between spouses as well as parents and their children through breach of trust and failure to provide. These focus group discussions elucidate how transactional sex is both a symptom of, and a catalyst for, changes within family dynamics in eastern DRC.

Keywords: family dynamics, transactional sex, conflict, DRC

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2015

Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

Citation:

Klasen, Stephen. 2002. “Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development.” The World Bank Economic Review 16 (3): 345–73.

Author: Stephen Klasen

Abstract:

Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4-0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Girls Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, South Asia

Year: 2002

Gender and Water in India: A Review

Citation:

Kulkarni, Seema. 2016. “Gender and Water in India: A Review.” In Indian Water Policy at the Crossroads: Resources, Technology and Reforms, edited by Vishal Narain and Annasamy Narayanamoorthy, 73–91. Global Issues in Water Policy 16. Springer Science & Business Media B.V. 

Author: Seema Kulkarni

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of key issues in the area of gender and water. It gives an overview of different debates around women and environment and shows how these have shaped the discourse and practice around gender and water. The chapter then goes on to discuss the reforms in the water sector at the global level and how this has impacted the discussions around gender and water. A comprehensive review of literature is done in the context of India which covers the various writings and actions in the area of gender and water. The review specifically looks at gender and equity issues in the areas of rivers, dams and displacement, water for production and domestic water. The chapter argues for going beyond the politics of representation and developing new agendas and creative forms of engagement with people’s movements- more specifically women’s movements, farmers movements and unions working on the question of growing informalisation of the economy, greater accumulation of capital, increasing injustices and disparities in everyday living- to see the linkages between land, water, rivers, natural resources and livelihoods.

The chapter argues for going beyond the politics of representation and developing new agendas and creative forms of engagement with people’s movements- more specifically women’s movements, farmers movements and unions working on the question of growing informalisation of the economy, greater accumulation of capital, increasing injustices and disparities in everyday living- to see the linkages between land, water, rivers, natural resources and livelihoods. (Abstract from Springer Link)

Keywords: Domestic water, Water for Production, dams and displacement, ecofeminism, gender

Topics: Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

Defining, Researching and Struggling for Water Justice

Citation:

Zwarteveen, Margreet Z., and Rutgerd Boelens. 2014. “Defining, Researching and Struggling for Water Justice: Some Conceptual Building Blocks for Research and Action.” Water International 39 (2): 143–58. doi:10.1080/02508060.2014.891168.

Authors: Margreet Z. Zwarteveen, Rutgerd Boelens

Abstract:

This article provides a framework for understanding water problems as problems of justice. Drawing on wider (environmental) justice approaches, informed by interdisciplinary ontologies that define water as simultaneously natural (material) and social, and based on an explicit acceptance of water problems as always contested, the article posits that water justice is embedded and specific to historical and socio-cultural contexts. Water justice includes but transcends questions of distribution to include those of cultural recognition and political participation, and is intimately linked to the integrity of ecosystems. Justice requires the creative building of bridges and alliances across differences.

Keywords: water rights, politics, distribution, recognition, participation

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Justice, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2014

Clamor for Justice: Sexual Violence, Armed Conflict and Violent Land Dispossession

Citation:

Méndez Gutiérrez, Luz, and Amanda Carrera Guerra. 2015. Clamor for Justice: Sexual Violence, Armed Conflict, and Violent Land Dispossession. Equipo de Estudios Comunitarios y Acción Psicosocial - ECAP.

 

Authors: Luz Méndez Gutiérrez, Amanda Carrera Guerra

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
I. The Social Context
The current context
Historical contexts of the two episodes of sexual violence analyzed in this book
 
II. Indigenous women: oppression and emancipation
Land dispossession-rape: a recurring dyad throughout history
Resistance and rebellion
 
III. The women protagonists of this study in their space and time
 
IV. The Women of Sepur Zarco
Human Rights Violations
The consequences
The Sepur Zarco women’s struggles for justice
 
V. The Women of Lote Ocho
Human rights violations
The Lote Ocho women’s struggle for justice 
 
VI. Q’eqchí women’s perceptions of community justice
Comparing community justice with state justice
Community justice: affected by unequal gender relations
 
VII. Conclusions

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Health, Indigenous, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2015

Structural Adjustment: Its Effect on Women

Citation:

Elson, Diane. 1991. "Structural Adjustment: Its Effect on Women." In Changing Perceptions: Writings on Gender and Development, edited by Tina Wallace and Candida March. Oxford: Oxfam. 

Author: Diane Elson

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 1991

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