Economic Inequality

Women’s Leadership in War and Reconstruction

Citation:

Macintyre, Stuart. 2013. “Women’s Leadership in War and Reconstruction.” Labour History, no. 104, 65-80. 

Author: Stuart Macintyre

Abstract:

The consequences of World War II for women’s employment, familial roles and personal freedom have received substantial attention, as have the new forms of domesticity that followed the war. Their place in the ambitious schemes for Post-War Reconstruction is less well understood. This article considers how the planning for Post-War Reconstruction conceived the role of women and how far they were involved in this planning. It suggests that the exclusion of women had particular consequences for the government’s attempt to secure constitutional powers for Post-War Reconstruction. 
 

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2013

Gender Change in the Globalization of Agriculture?

Citation:

Joshi, Deepa. 2015. “Gender Change in the Globalization of Agriculture?” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 165-74.

Author: Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Almost two decades ago, feminist researcher Maria Mies asked, “What would an economy look like in which nature mattered, in which women mattered, in which children mattered, in which people mattered, [an economy] which would not be based on colonizing and exploiting others?” These are precisely the issues of concern today. Contemporary globalization relocates high value agricultural production to the Southern hemisphere for Northern markets and high-income consumers in general. A post-colonial globalization of agri-food and trade through corporatization of land is critiqued by many for undermining food security, for irreversibly altering ecological landscapes, and for marginalizing the poorest, including women, through traps of coercive wage labor opportunities that are grossly inequitable as well as limiting voice, dignity, and food sovereignty. Given the tenacious links drawn between the political, social, and economic dimensions of food insecurity and conflict, it appears that there is indeed a contemporary nexus between gender, environment, and conflict, it is manifested in and aggravated by the globalization of the agri-food system.

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Economic Inequality, Food Security, Gender, Women, Globalization, Political Economies

Year: 2015

Motivated Migrants: (Re)framing Arab Women’s Experiences

Citation:

Killian, Caitlin, Jennifer Olmsted, and Alexis Doyle. 2012. “Motivated Migrants: (Re)framing Arab Women’s Experiences.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (6): 432–46. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2012.09.006.

Authors: Caitlin Killian, Jennifer Olmsted, Alexis Doyle

Abstract:

Much of the existing literature on Arab migration either assumes women do not migrate or focuses on their experiences in the diaspora. Using two unique data sets, one collected in a source country (Palestine) and the other in a host country (France), we are able to make visible a type of migration that has remained largely invisible to date. Combining quantitative analysis and a case study approach, we examine patterns as well as the motivations for Arab women's migration, categorizing motivations as political, educational, and employment-related, but also highlighting how political and economic forces, as well as educational and familial motives, are difficult to disentangle, and may shift over time. We also contextualize our findings historically by exploring the multifaceted manner in which structural factors, such as political systems and economic forces, influence both decisions to leave one's home and reception in the host country in gendered ways. In particular, we find that in recent decades new opportunities have emerged for women to migrate to pursue educational goals.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2012

Counting Women and Balancing Gender: Increasing Women’s Participation in Governance

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2013. “Counting Women and Balancing Gender: Increasing Women’s Participation in Governance.” Politics & Gender 9 (03): 351–59. doi:10.1017/S1743923X13000238.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Despite the large amount of attention by politics and gender scholars to analyzing gender parity in political representation and the impact of the increasing participation of women in electoral politics, little attention has been paid to women's participation in the governance of the economic sphere nationally or globally. Yet men overwhelmingly dominate economic decision-making positions, such as those on corporate boards, as business executives, government financial regulators, trade negotiators, and central bankers around the world.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Women, Governance, Political Participation

Year: 2013

The Cinderella Syndrome: Economic Expectations, False Hopes and the Exploitation of Trafficked Ukrainian Women

Citation:

Vijeyarasa, Ramona. 2012. “The Cinderella Syndrome: Economic Expectations, False Hopes and the Exploitation of Trafficked Ukrainian Women.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (1): 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.09.004.

Author: Ramona Vijeyarasa

Abstract:

Human trafficking is a multi-causal and multi-dimensional issue. The case of Ukraine evidences this complexity, with relevant factors spanning Ukraine's political history, its relations with the EU and the current state of socio-economic development. This paper focuses on the role of barriers to full and equal participation in the labour market for Ukrainian women as a driver of human trafficking. The purpose is to use qualitative data and secondary sources to assess the extent to which a causal relationship can be identified between labour market barriers and vulnerability to trafficking and trafficking-like conditions that result from the search for economic betterment abroad by irregular or undocumented means. Attention is also paid to the pull factor of images of migrant success abroad, an element which is often neglected in trafficking discussions. Consequently, labour market barriers are intimately connected to the lure of migration success in destination countries, whether true, exaggerated or entirely false.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Violence Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2012

War, Resisting the West and Women's Labor: Toward an Understanding of Arab Exceptionalism

Citation:

Angrist, Michele. 2012. “War, Resisting the West, and Women’s Labor: Toward an Understanding of Arab Exceptionalism.” Politics & Gender 8 (01): 51–82. doi:10.1017/S1743923X12000074.

Author: Michele Angrist

Abstract:

Countries with Muslim-majority populations often are viewed as places where women are particularly oppressed. To a degree, this perception reflects reality. Fish (2002) demonstrates that, relative to Catholic countries, Muslim countries are associated with larger male–female literacy gaps, higher male–female population sex ratios (which can reflect poorer treatment of females), and lower scores on the United Nations Development Program's (UNDP's) Gender Empowerment Measure, which focuses on political participation, economic influence, and income. Looking at the developing world, Cherif (2010) finds that Muslim countries are associated with inheritance and nationality laws that are discriminatory toward women. Some suggest that Islam itself is responsible for limitations on women's economic, political, and social freedoms. Whether referring to the substance of Islamic (shari'a) law, which treats men and women differently, or to the ways in which politicians defer to conservative interpretations of shari'a law in order to build and/or consolidate their legitimacy, or to contemporary regimes' need to appease (or at least not inflame) important Islamist constituencies who favor a subordinate role for women, many accounts of gender inequality in Muslim countries assert that “prevailing interpretations of Islamic law . . . and the attitudes it informs” are a key culprit (Cherif 2010, 1145).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Political Participation, Religion Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, South Caucasus

Year: 2012

Bridging Inequalities through Inclusion: Women’s Rights Organisations as the ‘Missing Link’ in Donor Government-Led Participatory Policy Development and Practice

Citation:

Hunt, Abigail, Hannah Bond, and Ruth Ojiambo Ochieng. 2015. “Bridging Inequalities through Inclusion: Women’s Rights Organisations as the ‘Missing Link’ in Donor Government-Led Participatory Policy Development and Practice.” Gender & Development 23 (2): 347–64. 

Authors: Abigai Huntl, Hannah Bond, Ruth Ojiambo Ochieng

Abstract:

This article focuses on women's rights organisations and their role in challenging inequality within the development process. Women in poverty are excluded as a result of their unequal societal position, geographic location, and the predominance of ‘top-down’ and piecemeal policymaking processes carried out by donor governments. We argue that in-country women's rights organisations provide the ‘missing link’ to bridge the disconnect between grassroots, marginalised women and donor decision-makers. This article focuses on the UK government's approach to developing policy and practice aimed at furthering international women's rights, focusing on the Women, Peace and Security agenda. Engaging with women's rights organisations not only ensures that donor policy and practice responds fully to the interests and needs of the poorest and most marginalised women in the global South, but renders the decision-making process itself empowering to the women involved.

Keywords: women's rights organisations, policy, participation, women, peace and security, inclusion, decision making

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2015

Gendering the Inequality Debate

Citation:

Perrons, Diane. 2015. “Gendering the Inequality Debate.” Gender & Development 23 (2): 207–22. 

Author: Diane Perrons

Abstract:

In the past 30 years, economic inequality has increased to unprecedented levels, and is generating widespread public concern among orthodox, as well as leftist and feminist, thinkers. This article explores the gender dimensions of growing economic inequality, summarises key arguments from feminist economics which expose the inadequacy of current mainstream economic analysis on which ‘development’ is based, and argues for a ‘gender and equality’ approach to economic and social policy in both the global North and South.

Keywords: gender inequality, social norms, austerity, socially sustainable development

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2015

Does Microfinance Enhance Gender Equity in Access to Finance? Evidence from Pakistan

Citation:

Zulfiqar, Ghazal. 2016. “Does Microfinance Enhance Gender Equity in Access to Finance? Evidence from Pakistan.” Feminist Economics, 1–26. doi:10.1080/13545701.2016.1193213.

Author: Ghazal Zulfiqar

Abstract:

This paper descriptively analyzes longitudinal microfinance outreach numbers and interview data from 140 practitioners and borrowers in Pakistan to examine whether the claim that microfinance enhances gender equity in access to finance can be substantiated. This assertion has recently replaced the more ambitious contention that microfinance has an empowering impact on women. The paper argues that this shift has occurred because of increased commercialization at the global level and authoritative assessments against the empowerment claim. The study further considers whether the frame of competing logics from institutional theory can explain the case of the Pakistani microfinance sector, in which, as shown here, commercialized microfinance has actually led to a rise in gender inequalities in access to finance. The paper attributes this rise to the inability of the Pakistani microfinance sector to reconcile the competing logics of development and banking.

Keywords: microfinance, gender inequality, institutional analysis

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2016

Gender, Neoliberalism and Post-Neoliberalism: Re-Assessing the Institutionalisation of Women’s Struggles for Survival in Ecuador and Venezuela

Citation:

Lind, Amy. 2010. “Gender, Neoliberalism and Post-Neoliberalism: Re-Assessing the Institutionalisation of Women’s Struggles for Survival in Ecuador and Venezuela.” In The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Amy Lind

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Globalization, Political Economies, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador, Venezuela

Year: 2010

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