Ecological Economics

Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?

Citation:

Von Hagen, Markéta, and Johanna Willems. 2012. "Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?" Donor Committee for Enterprise Development.

Authors: Markéta von Hagen, Johanna Willems

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Summary:
The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to shed more light on the gender dimension of green growth, especially in the context of private sector development and thereby fill an important knowledge gap in the green growth discourse; (2) to validate women’s contributions to green growth and sustainable private sector development; and (3) ultimately to promote women’s empowerment and gender equality. The overall approach of the study combines three intersecting perspectives, which are dealt with independently as well as in tandem: a gender perspective with a focus on the (potential) participation of women, a greening perspective and a private sector development perspective. The study contains case studies from Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam. (Summary from Green Growth Knowledge Platform)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Green Growth
 
3. Making Women's Participation in Green Growth a Reality: Two Value Chain Examples
 
4. Assessment of Potentials, Risks and Relevant Approaches for Women's Participation in the Green Economy
 
5. Recommendations

Topics: Development, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda, Vietnam

Year: 2012

Quality Employment for Women in the Green Economy

Citation:

Hegewisch, Ariane, Jeff Hayes, Tonia Bui, and Anlan Zhang. 2013. Quality Employment for Women in the Green Economy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women's Policy Research.

Authors: Ariane Hegewisch, Jeff Hayes, Tonia Bui, Anlan Zhang

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Summary:
Investments in the green economy have many potential benefits such as reduced pollution, enhanced energy security, and increased competitiveness and export earnings for the U.S. economy. Such investments, particularly in energy conservation, also have the potential to create jobs with family-sustaining wages that do not require college degrees. Given women’s greater propensity to earn less than family-sustaining wages, this characteristic of green jobs is, arguably, particularly relevant to women. This report provides the first detailed estimates of women’s employment in the green economy, state-by-state, by industry, and by occupation. It finds that women working in the green economy have higher earnings than other women and that the gender wage gap in green jobs is lower than in the economy overall. Women are, however, much less likely than men to work in green jobs and are particularly underrepresented in the occupations that are predicted to grow most strongly in the green sector. The report suggests that state and national workforce development policies need to explicitly address women’s underrepresentation in green growth occupations to ensure that investment in the green economy equally benefits women’s and men’s economic prospects.
 
Table of Contents:
1. Methodology: Estimating the Gender Distribution of Green Jobs
 
2. Findings: The Gender and Race/Ethnic Distribution of Green Jobs
 
3. Findings: Growth Projections for the Green Economy
 
4. Conclusion: Gender Segregation, Green Jobs, and Pathways Into Careers with Family-Sustaining Wages for Women

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2013

The Role of Women in the Green Economy: The Issue of Mobility

Citation:

Lodovici, Manuela Samek, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, and Caterina Rosa. 2012. The Role of Women in the Green Economy: The Issue of Mobility. Brussels: European Parliament.

Authors: Manuela Samek Lodovici, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, Caterina Rosa

Abstract:

This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in four European countries. The results show significant, albeit declining, gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends. The policy recommendations underline the need to consider gender and environment mainstreaming in transport policies.

 

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Domestic Environmental Labour: An Ecofeminist Perspective on Making Homes Greener

Citation:

Farbotko, Carol. 2018. Domestic Environmental Labour: An Ecofeminist Perspective on Making Homes Greener. New York: Routledge.

Author: Carol Farbotko

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Summary:
This book addresses the question of domestic environmental labour from an ecofeminist perspective. A work of cultural geography, it explores the proposition that the practice and politics of domestic labour being undertaken in the name of ‘the environment’ needs to be better recognized, understood and accounted for as a phenomenon shaped by, and shaping of, gender, class and spatial relations.
 
The book argues that a significant yet neglected phenomenon worthy of research attention is the upsurge in voluntary, and yet mostly unrecognized, domestic environmental labour in high-consuming households in late modernity, with the burden often falling on women seeking to green their lives and homes in aid of a sustainable planet. Further, because domestic environmental labour is undervalued in governance and the formal economy, much like other types of domestic labour, householders have become an unrecognized and unaccounted-for supply of labour for the greening of capitalism.
 
Situated within broad global debates on links between ecological and social change, the book has relevance in the many jurisdictions around the world in which households are positioned as sites of environmental protection through green consumption. The volume engages existing interest in household environmental behaviour and practice, advancing understanding of these topics in new ways. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
 
2. The Green Home Imperative
 
3. Privatising Greening and The Work of Green Technology
 
4. Reclaiming Domestic Environmental Labour: Alternative Domestic Green Politics
 
5. Conclusion: Nature, Work, Home

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Informal Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Households, Livelihoods

Year: 2018

"Daring to Care": Challenging Corporate Environmentalism

Citation:

Phillips, Mary. 2019. “‘Daring to Care’: Challenging Corporate Environmentalism.” Journal of Business Ethics 156: 1151-64.

Author: Mary Phillips

Abstract:

Corporate engagements with pressing environmental challenges focus on expanding the role of the market, seeking opportunities for growth and developing technologies to manage better environmental resources. Such approaches have provided ineffective. I suggest that a lack of meaningful response to ecological degradation and climate change is inevitable within a capitalist system underpinned by a logics of appropriation and an instrumental rationality that views the planet as a means to achieve economic ends. For ecofeminism, these logics are promulgated through sets of hierarchical and interrelated dualisms which define the human in opposition to the realm of “nature”. This has led to the resilience of ecosystems, social reciprocity and care being unvalued or undervalued. An ecofeminist, care-sensitive ethics is proposed that focuses on the interconnections between human and non-human nature and on affective engagements with the living world. A practical morality is developed that sees the self not as atomized nor as self-optimizing, but as a self in relationship. Such an ethics is necessary to motivate action to contest capitalism’s binary thinking, evident within corporate environmentalism, which has re-made the web of life in ways that are not conducive to planetary flourishing.

Keywords: corporate environmentalism, ecofeminism, ecological modernism, ethics of care

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2019

The Post-2015 Framework: Merging Care and Green Economy Approaches to Finance Gender-Equitable Sustainable Development

Citation:

Schalatek, Liane. 2013. "The Post-2015 Framework: Merging Care and Green Economy Approaches to Finance Gender-Equitable Sustainable Development." Washington, D.C.: Heinrich Böll Stiftung.

Author: Liane Schalatek

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Summary:
"One year after the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), commonly referred to a “Rio +20” elaborated on the global community’s shared understanding of “the future we want”, follow up processes have started to sketch out possible outlines of a post-2015 framework with a set of sustainable development goals (SDG) as likely successor to the millennium development goal process (MDG), which ends in 2015. Gender-equitable sustainable development approaches will be key to addressing the shortcomings of the MDG process, which largely failed to significantly reduce persistent poverty and inequalities, including between men and women, in a natural environment that is overstressed, continues to be depleted in the name of economic growth and development, and is taken as a given. In order to succeed, truly sustainable development needs the marrying of the care economy which recognizes and accounts for primarily women’s unpaid social reproduction and care burden with the instruments of a green economy approach that internalizes and values (not necessarily prizes and commodifies) the use of environmental resources. Making development and climate finance processes and mechanisms more democratic and gender-responsive and devoting significant resources to interventions targeting gender equality and women’s empowerment is necessary to translate states’ rhetorical commitment into concrete policy actions" (Schalatek 2013, 3).

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Poverty, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Year: 2013

Doing Sustainable Economy at the Crossroads of Gender, Care and the Green Economy

Citation:

Gottschlich, Daniela, Stephanie Roth, Ulrike Röhr, Sarah Hackfort, Dörte Segebart, Claudia König, and Annika Härtel. 2014. "Doing Sustainable Economy at the Crossroads of Gender, Care and the Green Economy." CaGE Texts No. 4/2014, Leuphana University, Berlin.

Authors: Daniela Gottschlich, Stephanie Roth, Ulrike Röhr, Sarah Hackfort, Dörte Segebart, Claudia König, Annika Härtel

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Summary:
"The goal of the collaborative project “Care, Gender and Green Economy: Creating research perspectives and achieving equity through sustainable economy” (CaGE) was to enhance the potential for innovative research on gender and care in economic studies and the environmental and natural sciences. Innovative approaches in these areas were identified and communicated using a range of tools (networking, a knowledge and communication platform, dialogues between researchers and practitioners, and CaGE texts) tailored to different target groups. The collaborative project, supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, was carried out in two components. The first component was devoted to identifying the linkages between care, gender and the green economy, and key actors took part in networking; integrative approaches were identified in the research on gender, care and the green economy, giving rise to strategies and recommendations on how to integrate gender dimensions into the research on sustainable economics and green economy, as well as how to further promote equal opportunities and gender mainstreaming in these research areas. An expert workshop enabled exchange between leading researchers in the field and helped to identify gaps in the current research. In a dialogue between researchers and practitioners, a range of additional actors from research, research funding bodies, and the field came together to discuss initial results and create momentum for scientific and social change. The component was conducted by LIFE e.V. with the help of Leuphana Universität Lüneburg. The second component focused on the areas of scientific institutions, care and the green economy, and the role of scientific institutions in integrating care and gender into the green economy. The aim was to develop strategies and recommendations for innovative science and research policymaking, to help create futuredriven scientific institutions and reveal and strengthen their role in social transformation processes. The research results were presented and discussed during a dialogue between researchers and practitioners. This second component was carried out by the Freie Universität Berlin" (Gottschlich et al 2014, 4/27).

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. Approaching Green Economy
 
3. Approaching Care
 
4. Countering the Marginalisation of Care in a Sustainable Economy
 
5. Next Steps: Rethinking Economics
 
6. References

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming

Year: 2014

The Future We Want: A Feminist Perspective

Citation:

Wichterich, Christa. 2012. The Future We Want: A Feminist Perspective. Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Author: Christa Wichterich

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Summary:
"Feminist ecological and economic models and utopias are regaining ground. For the Heinrich Böll Foundation it is crucial to make these ideas heard and to give them greater prominence within the larger discourse on a post-growth, equitable world. Our perspective on the great transformations and the quest for a better life is critical of growth and, at the same time, gendered: The “future we want” is a future that thinks of gender justice as inseparable from ecological and social sustainability – one that discusses and strives for new models of prosperity, quality of life, and the social dimension of global restructuring in terms that take account of gender. Christa Wichterich’s essay provides the analytical foundations for this vision. It points to spheres of political action that are especially interesting and relevant for contemporary ecofeminism. The essay is part of a series of publications on Rio+20, a series that intends to promote new emphases that are able to break down blockages in thought and action – and thus to create a space for social innovations, something we need much more urgently than technological ones" (Unmüßig 2012, 7-8).

Table of Contents:
1. Back on the Agenda: Gender and Ecology
 
2. The Chernobylian Turn and Global Governance through UNCED
 
3. Climate and Gender Justice
 
4. Food and Agriculture
 
5. Multiple Crises, Green Economy, and a Critique of Growth
 
6. Outlook: Occupy the Future

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender

Year: 2012

Empowerment of Women in a Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication: The Case for Community-Based, Gender-Equitable and Human Rights-Based Green Economic Development

Citation:

Tandon, Nidhi. 2012. Empowerment of Women in a Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication: The Case for Community-Based, Gender-Equitable and Human Rights-Based Green Economic Development. New York: UN Women.

Author: Nidhi Tandon

Annotation:

Summary:
This paper has three sections. The first section cautions against whole-scale acceptance of the current economic institutional order and the prevailing neo-liberal policy framework and applying those principles to the architecture of a green economy. Poverty is by far the greatest violation of human rights, and today’s economic institutional order is closely associated with the structural drivers of persistent poverty. It is therefore imperative and urgent that those movements that speak for both disenfranchised people and for disempowered women build understanding and solidarity to fundamentally change the global rules of engagement that disadvantage the poor and make it impossible for them to fend for themselves. This section outlines a sample of current challenges to how the economic system could be designed, regulated and measured around different sets of values and ownership models to benefit poor communities in a green economy. The author encourages the women’s movement to build strategic alliances and integrate gender equity issues with this emergent transformative thinking.

The second section identifies, illustrates and discusses three sectors, recognizing that a green economy has implications for women not only across sectors but in both urban and rural settings with a plethora of employment opportunities in labour and technology intensive areas. These sectors are drawn from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Green Economy Initiative report:4 (1) natural capital, emphasizing women’s relations with water, fisheries and land use; (2) energy and resource efficiency, including an examination of waste collection with a special emphasis on women waste pickers; and (3) the transition to a global green economy, which includes an analysis of enabling conditions and financial instruments. It also addresses a number of predicaments and ramifications already evident or emerging at the community, local, national, regional and global levels, where the drivers and interests of one green economy can erode or even erase the drivers and outcomes of another green economy. The author emphasizes that communities of citizens, broadly defined, each need their own cognitive framework of green economy values, principles, practices and policies, since these address and respond to intensely local issues. The locally defined framework then needs to be embraced and supported by an overarching public policy environment. This process constitutes a key platform for women’s engagement in the management and negotiation of the benefits from the development of the green economy.

Complex challenges create imperatives for change. At the community level these complexities need to be unpacked for women and men to fully grasp what is at stake. The third section continues the discussion by reinforcing the importance of developing women’s capacity for change through consolidating social capital, collective agency and community action. It suggests that while economic empowerment in a green economy context will be key, economic empowerment on its own will not translate automatically, or even necessarily, into the kind of action needed for a holistic green economy regime. The community level is the quintessential entry point for investing in women’s empowerment in green economies. If poor communities are the designated beneficiaries of cost-benefit programmes in green economies, to generate revenues from Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes or access regular compensation payments for water used by industry, then a scaled-down financial support infrastructure is an absolute necessity. The section closes with strategic recommendations focusing on community-level empowerment of women through collective agency, social capital and institutional anchoring of support services and investment.

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Livelihoods

Year: 2012

Women in the Green Economy

Citation:

Petrović, Nevena. 2016. "Women in the Green Economy." Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education. no. 1-2: 97-110.

Author: Nevena Petrović

Abstract:

Women all over the world are engaged in different activities from providing basic necessities for their families to running businesses and countries. However, their contribution to societies and economic growth is unrecognized and undervalued. The green economy presents new opportunities for women but there is a possibility that they will be deprived from the potential benefits arising from the green economy especially in developing countries, unless the governments act and initiate structural reforms which will reduce gender inequality in labor markets.

Keywords: women, green economy, sustainable development, gender inequality

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods

Year: 2016

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