Ecological Economics

Feminist Engagements with Green New Deals Infographic

The Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights is excited to share our new infographic: "Feminist Engagements with Green New Deals: Are They Green Enough, New Enough, & Who Gets the Raw End of the Deal?"

A Green New Deal Without Growth?


Mastinia, Ricardos, Giorgos Kallis, and Jason Hickel. 2021. “A Green New Deal Without Growth?” Ecological Economics 179.

Authors: Mastinia, Ricardos , Giorgos Kallis, Jason Hickel


The IPCC warns that in order to keep global warming under 1.5°, global emissions must be cut to zero by 2050. Policymakers and scholars debate how best to decarbonise the energy system, and what socio-economic changes might be necessary. Here we review the strengths, weaknesses, and synergies of two prominent climate change mitigation narratives: the Green New Deal and degrowth. Green New Deal advocates propose a plan to coordinate and finance a large-scale overhaul of the energy system. Some see economic growth as crucial to financing this transition, and claim that the Green New Deal will further stimulate growth. By contrast, proponents of degrowth maintain that growth makes it more difficult to accomplish emissions reductions, and argue for reducing the scale of energy use to enable a rapid energy transition. The two narratives converge on the importance of public investments for financing the energy transition, industrial policies to lead the decarbonisation of the economy, socializing the energy sector to allow longer investment horizons, and expanding the welfare state to increase social protection. We conclude that despite important tensions, there is room for synthesizing Green New Deal and degrowth-minded approaches into a ‘Green New Deal without growth.’

Keywords: Green New Deal, degrowth, decarbonisation, green growth, ecological economics, political ecology

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Public Finance, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2021

Focus: (Re)Productivity: Sustainable Relations Both between Society and Nature and between the Genders


Biesecker, Adelheid, and Sabine Hofmeister. 2010. “Focus: (Re)Productivity: Sustainable Relations Both between Society and Nature and between the Genders.” Ecological Economics 69 (8): 1703–11.

Authors: Adelheid Biesecker, Sabine Hofmeister


The paper is embedded in the multiplicity of discourses concerned with a viable, sustainable development of society and its economy. It makes a case for a mode of economic activity geared to systematically integrating production and reproduction processes. Its starting hypothesis is that the persistent, constantly changing and expanding crises that weigh so heavily on modern societies – above all the ecological crisis and the crisis of reproductive work – have their common origin in the separation of production from reproduction constitutive for industrial modernity. A reformulation of the category of (re)productivity – the idea of the unity of and at the same time the distinction between production and reproduction in the economic process – could set the stage for us to review today's crisis phenomena, relocalize problems, and in this way to develop new solutions for them. A sustainable society would be in a position to grasp, and shape, the economy as a (re)productive regulative system, with economic space constituted consciously as a socioecological action space.

Keywords: production, reproduction, sustainability, (re)productivity, social ecology

Topics: Development, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Women

Year: 2010

Equality, Harmony, and the Environment: An Ecofeminist Approach to Understanding the Role of Cultural Values on the Treatment of Women and Nature


Bloodhart, Brittany, and Janet K. Swim. 2010. “Equality, Harmony, and the Environment: An Ecofeminist Approach to Understanding the Role of Cultural Values on the Treatment of Women and Nature.” Ecopsychology 2 (3): 187–94. 

Authors: Brittany Bloodhart, Janet K. Swim


This research investigated the associations between hegemonic cultural values, gender equality, and environmental protection. Psychologists have largely studied domination of people over other people (e.g., men over women) rather than domination of people over the environment. Ecofeminism, however, theorizes that hegemonic systems of power and oppression materialize both as domination of men over women and as domination of people over the environment, leading to degradation of the ecosystems. Consequently, we theorize that gender inequality and impacts on the natural world should be related at a national level, and that cultural tendencies to prioritize hegemonic values of hierarchy of people (rather than egalitarianism) and mastery over the environment (rather than harmony) should be related to negative environmental impacts and gender inequality. Data from the United Nations (2009) on gender equality and women's empowerment, Schwartz's (2006) assessment of cultural value orientation, and Yale's Environmental Performance Index (2008) generally support ecofeminist predictions: controlling for gross domestic product, gender empowerment is related to a country's tendency to exploit the environment, and cultural hegemonic values are predictive of gender inequality and environmental exploitation. However, gender empowerment mediates the relationship between hegemony and environmental health, whereas it is mutually predictive with hegemony of ecosystem vitality. These results may be influenced by women's representation in law and policy creation as well as by men's differential self-interest in their own health over the health of animals, the biosphere, and marginalized human groups.

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health

Year: 2010

Ecofeminism and Globalisation: A Critical Appraisal


Sydee, Jasmin, and Sharon Beder. 2001. “Ecofeminism and Globalisation: A Critical Appraisal.” Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy 7 (2): 281–302.

Authors: Jasmin Sydee, Sharon Beder


Ecofeminism offers a useful yet limited framework through which to critique globalisation. Ecofeminism claims that the domination of women and of nature are intrinsically linked. Material ecofeminists, in particular, focus on the material conditions of women's lives locating the source of this twin domination in patriarchal capitalism. These ecofeminists provide insights into the impacts of globalisation on women but their analysis of the causes of globalisation are limited. They identify globalisation as an outgrowth of patriarchal capitalism, insisting on the primacy of gender as the determinant of social organisation and arguing that it is the dichotomy between production and reproduction that essentially defines capitalism. However, the rise of modern capitalism has been more convincingly described by those who focus on the domination of workers, the role of the market economy, and the enrolment of all sections of society through the propagation of the work ethic and the allure of consumerism. 

Topics: Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Globalization

Year: 2001

Sustainable Agricultural Intensification and Gender-Biased Land Tenure Systems: An Exploration and Conceptualization of Interactions


Fischer, Gundula, Akosua Darkwah, Judith Kamoto, Jessica Kampanje-Phiri, Philip Grabowski, and Ida Djenontin. 2020. “Sustainable Agricultural Intensification and Gender-Biased Land Tenure Systems: An Exploration and Conceptualization of Interactions.” International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. doi:10.1080/14735903.2020.1791425.

Authors: Gundula Fischer, Akosua Darkwah, Judith Kamoto, Jessica Kampanje-Phiri, Philip Grabowski, Ida Djenontin


How does sustainable agricultural intensification’s (SAI) tenet of increased productivity on the same area of land relate to prevailing gender-biased land tenure systems? How can one conceptualize the interactions between intensified land use and control over land, labour, crops and benefits – and how can equitable outcomes be facilitated? These questions (which have not yet received sufficient attention in SAI research) are explored in this study using a qualitative methodology and a gender-transformative approach. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with a total of 248 respondents were conducted in matrilineal and patrilineal intensification contexts in Ghana and Malawi. We develop a conceptual framework that extends Kabeer’s institutional analysis to include gender implications of SAI. Selected cases reveal how farmers and key actors link land use intensification to existing land-related institutions with diverse outcomes. We conclude that SAI interventions should adopt gender-transformative approaches. These facilitate equitable outcomes by supporting consensus-based institutional changes and creating positive synergies between multiple scales.

Keywords: gender, land, sustainable agricultural intensification, Ghana, Malawi

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Gender Analysis, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land Tenure Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi

Year: 2020

Structural Transformations for Gender, Economic and Ecological Justice


Bidegain, Nicole, and Anita Nayar. 2012. “Structural Transformations for Gender, Economic and Ecological Justice.” In Sustainable Economy and Green Growth: Who Cares?, edited by Ulrike Röhr and Conny van Heemstra, 38-40. Berlin: GENANET.

Authors: Nicole Bidegain, Anita Nayar


Nicole Bidegain and Anita Nayar criticise the Green Economy concept and explore how issues of care are linked to environmental sustainability and alternatives to the current inequitable economic model. They ask what alternatives sustainability of livelihoods and the planet promote, rather than private accumulation, growth and efficiency. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Livelihoods

Year: 2012

Equitable, Ecological Degrowth: Feminist Contributions


Perkins, Patricia E. 2010. Equitable, Ecological Degrowth: Feminist Contributions. Paper presented at the 2nd Conference on Economic Degrowth: For Ecological Sustainability and Social Equity. March 26-29.

Author: Patricia E. Perkins


This paper uses feminist ecological economics and ecofeminist methodologies and theory to contribute to Degrowth in theory and practice. These feminist contributions involve highlighting unpaid work and ecological services, redistribution, and participatory processes as crucially important in developing the new paradigm and movement for equitable material Degrowth. 

Keywords: feminist ecological economics, ecofeminism, unpaid work, economic redistribution, political participation, diversity

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Livelihoods

Year: 2010

Women, Ecology and Economics: New Models and Theories


Perkins, Ellie. 1997. “Women, Ecology and Economics: New Models and Theories.” Ecological Economics, Women, Ecology and Economics 20 (2): 105–106.

Author: Ellie Perkins


“In envisioning a special issue of this journal which would focus on the connections between women, ecology and economics, our initial goal was to provide a forum for discussion around very concrete examples of why women are (and should be!) concerned with ecological economics. Flowing from my initial discussions with several colleagues and students, who all thought such a forum was a great idea and long overdue, a number of specific suggestions emerged.

The Call for Papers mentioned such possible topics as "The parallels between women's work, environmental services and natural resource use with regard to valuation, status as 'externalities,' sustainability, complementarity with financial capital, incorporation in national accounts, etc.; the role of women in creating the conditions for sustainable economies and sustainable trade; women's health as an environmental and economic issue; the economic implications of women's position as environmental stewards, especially in the South; and the impact of globalization on women, from an ecological economics perspective." The journal's editors suggested an additional topic of interest which we listed as 'women and population policy.'

…the degree of complementarity and balance in the work of authors from all over the globe is astounding. While the models differ somewhat in emphasis and form, all those we received take as a starting point the unpaid work which is vitally necessary to build and maintain homes, human relationships, and communities -- and without which there is no 'economy'. ~ Whether her paper is theoretical or empirical, however, each author chooses a unique focus for her inquiry, tracing different ecological connections” (Perkins 1997, 105).

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women

Year: 1997


© 2024 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Ecological Economics