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Ecological Economics

Sustainable Agricultural Intensification and Gender-Biased Land Tenure Systems: An Exploration and Conceptualization of Interactions


Fischer, Gundula, Akosua Darkwah, Judith Kamoto, Jessica Kampanje-Phiri, Philip Grabowski, and Ida Djenontin. 2020. “Sustainable Agricultural Intensification and Gender-Biased Land Tenure Systems: An Exploration and Conceptualization of Interactions.” International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. doi:10.1080/14735903.2020.1791425.

Authors: Gundula Fischer, Akosua Darkwah, Judith Kamoto, Jessica Kampanje-Phiri, Philip Grabowski, Ida Djenontin


How does sustainable agricultural intensification’s (SAI) tenet of increased productivity on the same area of land relate to prevailing gender-biased land tenure systems? How can one conceptualize the interactions between intensified land use and control over land, labour, crops and benefits – and how can equitable outcomes be facilitated? These questions (which have not yet received sufficient attention in SAI research) are explored in this study using a qualitative methodology and a gender-transformative approach. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with a total of 248 respondents were conducted in matrilineal and patrilineal intensification contexts in Ghana and Malawi. We develop a conceptual framework that extends Kabeer’s institutional analysis to include gender implications of SAI. Selected cases reveal how farmers and key actors link land use intensification to existing land-related institutions with diverse outcomes. We conclude that SAI interventions should adopt gender-transformative approaches. These facilitate equitable outcomes by supporting consensus-based institutional changes and creating positive synergies between multiple scales.

Keywords: gender, land, sustainable agricultural intensification, Ghana, Malawi

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Gender Analysis, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land Tenure Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi

Year: 2020

Structural Transformations for Gender, Economic and Ecological Justice


Bidegain, Nicole, and Anita Nayar. 2012. “Structural Transformations for Gender, Economic and Ecological Justice.” In Sustainable Economy and Green Growth: Who Cares?, edited by Ulrike Röhr and Conny van Heemstra, 38-40. Berlin: GENANET.

Authors: Nicole Bidegain, Anita Nayar


Nicole Bidegain and Anita Nayar criticise the Green Economy concept and explore how issues of care are linked to environmental sustainability and alternatives to the current inequitable economic model. They ask what alternatives sustainability of livelihoods and the planet promote, rather than private accumulation, growth and efficiency. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Livelihoods

Year: 2012

Equitable, Ecological Degrowth: Feminist Contributions


Perkins, Patricia E. 2010. Equitable, Ecological Degrowth: Feminist Contributions. Paper presented at the 2nd Conference on Economic Degrowth: For Ecological Sustainability and Social Equity. March 26-29.

Author: Patricia E. Perkins


This paper uses feminist ecological economics and ecofeminist methodologies and theory to contribute to Degrowth in theory and practice. These feminist contributions involve highlighting unpaid work and ecological services, redistribution, and participatory processes as crucially important in developing the new paradigm and movement for equitable material Degrowth. 

Keywords: feminist ecological economics, ecofeminism, unpaid work, economic redistribution, political participation, diversity

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Livelihoods

Year: 2010

Women, Ecology and Economics: New Models and Theories


Perkins, Ellie. 1997. “Women, Ecology and Economics: New Models and Theories.” Ecological Economics, Women, Ecology and Economics 20 (2): 105–106.

Author: Ellie Perkins


“In envisioning a special issue of this journal which would focus on the connections between women, ecology and economics, our initial goal was to provide a forum for discussion around very concrete examples of why women are (and should be!) concerned with ecological economics. Flowing from my initial discussions with several colleagues and students, who all thought such a forum was a great idea and long overdue, a number of specific suggestions emerged.

The Call for Papers mentioned such possible topics as "The parallels between women's work, environmental services and natural resource use with regard to valuation, status as 'externalities,' sustainability, complementarity with financial capital, incorporation in national accounts, etc.; the role of women in creating the conditions for sustainable economies and sustainable trade; women's health as an environmental and economic issue; the economic implications of women's position as environmental stewards, especially in the South; and the impact of globalization on women, from an ecological economics perspective." The journal's editors suggested an additional topic of interest which we listed as 'women and population policy.'

…the degree of complementarity and balance in the work of authors from all over the globe is astounding. While the models differ somewhat in emphasis and form, all those we received take as a starting point the unpaid work which is vitally necessary to build and maintain homes, human relationships, and communities -- and without which there is no 'economy'. ~ Whether her paper is theoretical or empirical, however, each author chooses a unique focus for her inquiry, tracing different ecological connections” (Perkins 1997, 105).

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women

Year: 1997

Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?


Von Hagen, Markéta, and Johanna Willems. 2012. "Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?" Donor Committee for Enterprise Development.

Authors: Markéta von Hagen, Johanna Willems


The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to shed more light on the gender dimension of green growth, especially in the context of private sector development and thereby fill an important knowledge gap in the green growth discourse; (2) to validate women’s contributions to green growth and sustainable private sector development; and (3) ultimately to promote women’s empowerment and gender equality. The overall approach of the study combines three intersecting perspectives, which are dealt with independently as well as in tandem: a gender perspective with a focus on the (potential) participation of women, a greening perspective and a private sector development perspective. The study contains case studies from Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam. (Summary from Green Growth Knowledge Platform)
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
2. Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Green Growth
3. Making Women's Participation in Green Growth a Reality: Two Value Chain Examples
4. Assessment of Potentials, Risks and Relevant Approaches for Women's Participation in the Green Economy
5. Recommendations

Topics: Development, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda, Vietnam

Year: 2012

Quality Employment for Women in the Green Economy


Hegewisch, Ariane, Jeff Hayes, Tonia Bui, and Anlan Zhang. 2013. Quality Employment for Women in the Green Economy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women's Policy Research.

Authors: Ariane Hegewisch, Jeff Hayes, Tonia Bui, Anlan Zhang


Investments in the green economy have many potential benefits such as reduced pollution, enhanced energy security, and increased competitiveness and export earnings for the U.S. economy. Such investments, particularly in energy conservation, also have the potential to create jobs with family-sustaining wages that do not require college degrees. Given women’s greater propensity to earn less than family-sustaining wages, this characteristic of green jobs is, arguably, particularly relevant to women. This report provides the first detailed estimates of women’s employment in the green economy, state-by-state, by industry, and by occupation. It finds that women working in the green economy have higher earnings than other women and that the gender wage gap in green jobs is lower than in the economy overall. Women are, however, much less likely than men to work in green jobs and are particularly underrepresented in the occupations that are predicted to grow most strongly in the green sector. The report suggests that state and national workforce development policies need to explicitly address women’s underrepresentation in green growth occupations to ensure that investment in the green economy equally benefits women’s and men’s economic prospects.
Table of Contents:
1. Methodology: Estimating the Gender Distribution of Green Jobs
2. Findings: The Gender and Race/Ethnic Distribution of Green Jobs
3. Findings: Growth Projections for the Green Economy
4. Conclusion: Gender Segregation, Green Jobs, and Pathways Into Careers with Family-Sustaining Wages for Women

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2013

The Role of Women in the Green Economy: The Issue of Mobility


Lodovici, Manuela Samek, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, and Caterina Rosa. 2012. The Role of Women in the Green Economy: The Issue of Mobility. Brussels: European Parliament.

Authors: Manuela Samek Lodovici, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, Caterina Rosa


This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in four European countries. The results show significant, albeit declining, gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends. The policy recommendations underline the need to consider gender and environment mainstreaming in transport policies.


Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Domestic Environmental Labour: An Ecofeminist Perspective on Making Homes Greener


Farbotko, Carol. 2018. Domestic Environmental Labour: An Ecofeminist Perspective on Making Homes Greener. New York: Routledge.

Author: Carol Farbotko


This book addresses the question of domestic environmental labour from an ecofeminist perspective. A work of cultural geography, it explores the proposition that the practice and politics of domestic labour being undertaken in the name of ‘the environment’ needs to be better recognized, understood and accounted for as a phenomenon shaped by, and shaping of, gender, class and spatial relations.
The book argues that a significant yet neglected phenomenon worthy of research attention is the upsurge in voluntary, and yet mostly unrecognized, domestic environmental labour in high-consuming households in late modernity, with the burden often falling on women seeking to green their lives and homes in aid of a sustainable planet. Further, because domestic environmental labour is undervalued in governance and the formal economy, much like other types of domestic labour, householders have become an unrecognized and unaccounted-for supply of labour for the greening of capitalism.
Situated within broad global debates on links between ecological and social change, the book has relevance in the many jurisdictions around the world in which households are positioned as sites of environmental protection through green consumption. The volume engages existing interest in household environmental behaviour and practice, advancing understanding of these topics in new ways. (Summary from Routledge)
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
2. The Green Home Imperative
3. Privatising Greening and The Work of Green Technology
4. Reclaiming Domestic Environmental Labour: Alternative Domestic Green Politics
5. Conclusion: Nature, Work, Home

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Informal Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Households, Livelihoods

Year: 2018

"Daring to Care": Challenging Corporate Environmentalism


Phillips, Mary. 2019. “‘Daring to Care’: Challenging Corporate Environmentalism.” Journal of Business Ethics 156: 1151-64.

Author: Mary Phillips


Corporate engagements with pressing environmental challenges focus on expanding the role of the market, seeking opportunities for growth and developing technologies to manage better environmental resources. Such approaches have provided ineffective. I suggest that a lack of meaningful response to ecological degradation and climate change is inevitable within a capitalist system underpinned by a logics of appropriation and an instrumental rationality that views the planet as a means to achieve economic ends. For ecofeminism, these logics are promulgated through sets of hierarchical and interrelated dualisms which define the human in opposition to the realm of “nature”. This has led to the resilience of ecosystems, social reciprocity and care being unvalued or undervalued. An ecofeminist, care-sensitive ethics is proposed that focuses on the interconnections between human and non-human nature and on affective engagements with the living world. A practical morality is developed that sees the self not as atomized nor as self-optimizing, but as a self in relationship. Such an ethics is necessary to motivate action to contest capitalism’s binary thinking, evident within corporate environmentalism, which has re-made the web of life in ways that are not conducive to planetary flourishing.

Keywords: corporate environmentalism, ecofeminism, ecological modernism, ethics of care

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2019


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