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Manifesting Ecofeminism in Peatland Restoration: Policies, Actions, and Challenges


Safitri, Myrna Asnawati. 2020. “Manifesting Ecofeminism in Peatland Restoration: Policies, Actions, and Challenges.” Indonesian Feminist Journal 25 (1). doi:10.34309/jp.v25i1.406.

Author: Myrna Asnawati Safitri


Degradation of peatland ecosystems occurs as a result of excessive exploitation leading to peat drainage and fires. This was influenced by a masculinity perspective in resource tenure and utilization. Ecofeminism presents a different perspective on narratives and inter-relationships of human with nature, including the place of women in them. Injustice that befalls women occur due to unequal power relations in the control and utilization of resources in the peatland ecosystem. This paper discusses the Government of Indonesia’s efforts to reduce gender injustice through Peatland Restoration’s policy. Two policies are discussed here, namely the Social Safety Safeguard and Peat Cares Village Program. It is concluded that women's participation must be able to resolve the imbalance of power relations among women as well as between gender. This requires sufficient time and everlasting education.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2020

Multispecies Ecofeminism: Ecofeminist Flourishing of the Twenty-First Century


Power, Chelsea. 2020. “Multispecies Ecofeminism: Ecofeminist Flourishing of the Twenty-First Century.” PhD diss., University of Victoria.

Author: Chelsea Power


Ecofeminism has had a nonlinear developmental path. Although it was celebrated as a potentially revolutionary project in the 1970s, by the time climate change and environmental crises had worked their way into mainstream discourse ecofeminism had become practically unheard of. The purpose of this thesis is to reflect on the failure of early ecofeminism and to explore ecofeminism’s potential as a transformative project of the twenty-first century. This thesis is motivated by my own personal experience of ecofeminism as transformative and also by what I would call a recent resurgence of interest in ecofeminism by young students, budding feminists, and fledgling environmentalists that understand the climate and environmental crises as fundamentally linked to the oppressions of colonial capitalist-patriarchy. Recounting the origin, history, and marginalization of the project of ecofeminism, I explore the rift between materialist and spiritual/cultural approaches to argue that the effectiveness of ecofeminism is dependent upon a collaborative recovery from the damages done by extensive anti-essentialism critiques. The onto-epistemology of our current paradigm— defined by neoliberal capitalism and colonial patriarchy—limits response to the environmental crises of our times to that of incremental policy change that is more symbolic than substantive. I argue that, in order to escape the chains of the neoliberal/capitalist/patriarchal subject that are cast upon us by these predatory onto-epistemologies, we must envisage ways to be human otherwise; in reciprocal relationships with more-than-human nature. As a prefigurative project that centres the more-than-human yet maintains a comprehensive intersectional anti-oppressive framework, a contemporary ‘multispecies ecofeminism’ can endow us with this potentiality. In our times of immense ecological degradation and ‘point-of-no-return’ deadlines, ecofeminism is a needed ‘third story’ that resonates as revolutionary with young scholars of the twenty-first century.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2020

Caring for More Than Humans: Ecofeminism and Care Ethics in Conversation


Pettersen, Tove. 2020. “Caring for More Than Humans: Ecofeminism and Care Ethics in Conversation.” In Between Closeness and Evil, edited by Odin Lysaker, 183-213. Oslo, Norway: Scandinavian Academic Press.

Author: Tove Pettersen


Over the last four decades, both ecofeminism and care ethics have profoundly theorized the link between oppression and what is viewed as Others, such as women, non-human animals and nature. After uncovering and analyzing some important commonalities and differences between these two branches of feminist ethical theories and their critiques of dominant Western philosophy and ethics, Tove Pettersen also identifies some clear thematic and methodological overlaps with Arne Johan Vetlesen’s philosophy. She explores three topics in particular where ecofeminism and care ethics may benefit from an exchange, and which is also relevant to Vetlesen’s scholarship: the relationship between reason and emotion, the relational ontology, and the emphasis on lived experience. In addition to challenging traditional conceptualizations of reality, conventional value hierarchies, and established power configurations, ecofeminism and care ethics also propose alternatives to oppressive arrangements and new ideals for the future, which are also discussed in this chapter. By integrating ecofeminism and care ethics into one conversation, Pettersen argues, these theories can enhance each other’s philosophical foundations and provide a powerful framework for analyzing the interconnection between the unjustified domination of women, other Others, and nature. They can also contribute toward kindling the radical shift in mindset and urgent action that Arne Johan Vetlesen calls for in his environmental philosophy.

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2020

Determinants of Ecofeminism in Anglophone Cameroon: A PESTECH Analysis


Njoh, Ambe J., and Elisabeth N. M. Ayuk-Etang. 2020. “Determinants of Ecofeminism in Anglophone Cameroon: A PESTECH Analysis.” Journal of Asian and African Studies. doi:10.1177/0021909620970571.

Authors: Ambe J. Njoh, Elisabeth N. M. Ayuk-Etang


This paper analyzes ecofeminism operationalized as the relationship between women and the natural environment. It treats ecofeminism as context-dependent and not a universal construct as suggested in the literature. It focuses on the political, economic, social, technological, ecological, cultural and historical (PESTECH) context of ecofeminism in Anglophone Cameroon, a polity with a unique pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial experience. Each dimension is shown to impact women–nature relations in its own unique way. This underscores the need to be more discerning and attentive to context in any analysis of ecofeminism.

Keywords: Anglophone Cameroon, ecofeminism, women-nature relations, feminism, gender-based discrimination, political, economic, social, technological, ecological, cultural and historical (PESTECH) context, environmental scanning model

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2020

Women, Land, Embodiment: A Case of Postcolonial Ecofeminism


Jabeen, Neelam. 2020. “Women, Land, Embodiment: A Case of Postcolonial Ecofeminism.” International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 22 (8): 1095-109.

Author: Neelam Jabeen


In continuation of a previous essay about how Pakistani Anglophone literature intervenes into the mainstream ecofeminist paradigm, in this essay I show how South Asian literature – specifically, Pakistani and Indian fiction – challenges the mainstream ecofeminist assumption of a symbolic woman–nature (land) connection where terms like fertile, barren, seed, rape, womb, virgin, etc. are used for both women and land, symbolically feminizing land, and naturalizing women. I argue that this woman–land connection cannot be merely regarded as symbolic because in the post/colonial South Asian societies that the selected texts present, women’s bodies are actually treated as land, which in turn complicates the notion of women–land embodiment, allowing a deeper understanding of the cause of the twin oppression of women and land.

Keywords: embodiment, postcolonial ecofeminism, women-land/nature connection

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2020

Ecofeminism and Environmental Protection: A Legal Perspective


Bangun, Budi Hermawan. 2020. “Ecofeminism and Environmental Protection: A Legal Perspective.” Jambe Law Journal 3 (1). doi:10.22437/jlj.3.1.1-18.

Author: Budi Hermawan Bangun


Women are very important figures to ensure sustainable development. This paper discusses the role of women in environmental protection from the perspective of eco-feminism and law. This research is a non-doctrinal legal research with a socio-legal approach. The data used are secondary data obtained through literature studies, then the data that has been obtained is analyzed qualitatively. It is learnt from the discussion that eco-feminism as a thought that criticizes the dominance of patriarchy over control of environmental management and has succeeded in encouraging environmental protection movements carried out by women in various countries. Women are key actors in using, managing and protecting natural resources. Environmental preservation is closely related to the role of women. From a legal perspective, eco-feminism is an effort by the people to seek justice as the main goal of law and ensure the principle of equality before the law in monitoring, protecting and enjoying the benefits of environmental sustainability.

Keywords: ecofeminism, environmental protections, legal perspective

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Justice

Year: 2020

Breaking the Boundaries: Towards a Feminist Green Socialism


Mellor, Mary. 1992. Breaking the Boundaries: Towards a Feminist Green Socialism. London: Virago Press.

Author: Mary Mellor


Argues that humans are faced with a choice between survivalism or a socialism based on feminist and green principles. The author advocates that elements of ecology, ecofeminism, spirituality and revolutionary socialism should be brought together to offer a new vision for the 21st century. (Summary from Amazon)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 1992

Earth Follies: Feminism, Politics and the Environment


Seager, Joni. 1993, reissued 2019. Earth Follies: Feminism, Politics and the Environment. New York: Routledge.

Author: Joni Seager


First published in 1993. The question of ‘agency’ is essential to our understanding of environmental problems - who is responsible, and why? Threats such as ozone depletion, global warming and overconsumption are all precipitated by the powerful institutions which shape modern life – institutions which are overwhelmingly controlled by men and dominated by masculine presumptions.

Joni Seager argues that the gender bias inherent in western culture is inextricably linked to our environmental crisis. She analyses the traditional institutes of power – governments, the military and transnational corporations - and also takes a critical look at the equally patriarchal environmental establishment, comparing the work of the official environmental movement, grounded in masculine thought, with the smaller-scale, direct actions taken by women driven to protect their homes and communities.

Earth Follies represents an incisive and utterly convincing feminist critique of our environmental crises, and offers radical and productive priorities for the environmental agenda. (Summary from Routledge)


Table of Contents

Introduction: What’s the Problem Here?

1. Up in Arms Against the Environment: The Military

2. Business as Usual

3. On the Coattails of Men in Government 

4. The Ecology Establishment

5. The Eco-Fringe: Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism

6. Hysterical Housewives, Treehuggers, and Other Mad Women


Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2019

Gender and Nature in the Matrilineal Society of Meghalaya, India: Searching for Ecofeminist Perspectives


Bhutia, Yodida, and Georgia Liarakou. 2018. "Gender and Nature in the Matrilineal Society of Meghalaya, India: Searching for Ecofeminist Perspectives." The Journal of Environmental Education 49 (4): 328-35.

Authors: Yodida Bhutia, Georgia Liarakou


The ecofeminist perspective of the matrilineal society of Meghalaya, India, is intriguing in that it has descent through mother, is matrilocal and daughters inherit parental property, but the different genders possibly do not agree about the relationship between women and nature. Ecofeminism has not yet been studied in a matrilineal society. The purpose of the study was to investigate qualitatively the students' ecofeminist perspectives among the Khasi, Jaintia, and Garo tribes of Meghalaya, through students who were studying in North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, India. The sample consisted of 33 students purposefully selected to complete an open questionnaire and unstructured interviews. The responses showed that the women of this matrilineal society seem to be more ecofeminist compared with the men. However only a minority of both male and female expressed an ecofeminist worldview with respect to nature and development indicating that this concept is at early stage of development. 


Keywords: ecofeminism, gender, matrilineal society, Meghalaya, nature, worldviews

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Men, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2018

Ecofeminism and System Change: Women on the Frontlines of the Struggle against Fossil Capitalism and for the Solar Commons


Giacomini, Terran. 2016. "Ecofeminism and System Change: Women on the Frontlines of the Struggle against Fossil Capitalism and for the Solar Commons." Canadian Woman Studies 31 (1-2): 95-101.


Author: Terran Giacomini


Plusieurs universitaires et activistes reconnaissent que les femmes sont plus nombreuses à travailler dans les “communes.” Ce texte nous présente une analyse écoféministe des communes, ces mouvements ou réseaux d’actions et de perspectives qui travaillent en commun avec deux mouvements où les femmes sont très présentes: le Réseau des femmes d’action pour la Terre et le climat (wecan) et La Via Campesina. L’analyse démontre les luttes des femmes qui comprennent la coopération comme un contrôle des moyens de survie, elles défient les relations capitalistes et font la promotion des alternatives. Donc, les alliances entre ces communes et celles qui sont intégrées au capitalisme sont essentielles pour transformer le capitalisme anti écologique en capitalisme écologique.

Topics: Agriculture, Class, Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women

Year: 2016


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