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Displacement & Migration

What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte D’Ivoire


Cardoso, L. F., J. Gupta, S. Shuman, H. Cole, D. Kpebo, K. L. Falb. 2016. “What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.” Journal of Urban Health 93 (2): 364–78.

Authors: L. F. Cardoso, J. Gupta, S. Shuman, H. Cole, D. Kpebo, K. L. Falb


Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the modern city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan’s urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

Keywords: gender-based violence, humanitarian crisis, urbanization, domestic violence

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Urban Displacement, Poverty, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2016

Gender-Based Vulnerability: Combining Pareto Ranking and Spatial Statistics to Model Gender-Based Vulnerability in Rohingya Refugee Settlements in Bangladesh


Nelson, Erica L., Daniela Reyes Saade, and P. Gregg Greenough. 2020. “Gender-Based Vulnerability: Combining Pareto Ranking and Spatial Statistics to Model Gender-Based Vulnerability in Rohingya Refugee Settlements in Bangladesh.” International Journal of Health Geographics 19 (1): 1–14.

Authors: Erica L. Nelson, Daniela Reyes Saade, P. Gregg Greenough


Background: The Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh continues to outstrip humanitarian resources and undermine the health and security of over 900,000 people. Spatial, sector-specific information is required to better understand the needs of vulnerable populations, such as women and girls, and to target interventions with improved efficiency and effectiveness. This study aimed to create a gender-based vulnerability index and explore the geospatial and thematic variations in gender-based vulnerability of Rohingya refugees residing in Bangladesh by utilizing preexisting, open source data.

Methods: Data sources included remotely-sensed REACH data on humanitarian infrastructure, United Nations Population Fund resource availability data, and the Needs and Population Monitoring Survey conducted by the International Organization for Migration in October 2017. Data gaps were addressed through probabilistic interpolation. A vulnerability index was designed through a process of literature review, variable selection and thematic grouping, normalization, and scorecard creation, and Pareto ranking was employed to rank sites based on vulnerability scoring. Spatial autocorrelation of vulnerability was analyzed with the Global and Anselin Local Moran’s I applied to both combined vulnerability index rank and disaggregated thematic ranking.

Results: Of the settlements, 24.1% were ranked as ‘most vulnerable,’ with 30 highly vulnerable clusters identified predominantly in the northwest region of metropolitan Cox’s Bazar. Five settlements in Dhokkin, Somitapara, and Pahartoli were categorized as less vulnerable outliers amongst highly vulnerable neighboring sites. Security- and health-related variables appear to be the most significant drivers of gender-specific vulnerability in Cox’s Bazar. Clusters of low security and education vulnerability measures are shown near Kutupalong.

Conclusion: The humanitarian sector produces tremendous amounts of data that can be analyzed with spatial statistics to improve research targeting and programmatic intervention. The critical utilization of these data and the validation of vulnerability indexes are required to improve the international response to the global refugee crisis. This study presents a novel methodology that can be utilized to not only spatially characterize gender-based vulnerability in refugee populations, but can also be calibrated to identify and serve other vulnerable populations during crises.

Keywords: Rohingya, refugees, gender, open-source data, vulnerability index, spatial analysis, GIS, Pareto ranking, spatial autocorrelation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Myanmar

Year: 2020

Adolescents’ Perceptions and Experiences of Pregnancy in Refugee and Migrant Communities on the Thailand-Myanmar Border: A Qualitative Study


Asnong, Carine, Gracia Fellmeth, Emma Plugge, Nan San Wai, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Moo Kho Paw, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Nosten François, and Rose McGready. 2018. “Adolescents’ Perceptions and Experiences of Pregnancy in Refugee and Migrant Communities on the Thailand-Myanmar Border: A Qualitative Study.” Reproductive Health 15 (1): 1–13. 

Authors: Carine Asnong, Gracia Fellmeth, Emma Plugge, Nan San Wai, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Moo Kho Paw, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Nosten François, Rose McGready


Background: Adolescent pregnancy remains a global health concern, contributing to 11% of all births worldwide and 23% of the overall burden of disease in girls aged 15–19 years. Premature motherhood can create a negative cycle of adverse health, economic and social outcomes for young women, their babies and families. Refugee and migrant adolescent girls might be particularly at risk due to poverty, poor education and health infrastructure, early marriage, limited access to contraception and traditional beliefs. This study aims to explore adolescents’ perceptions and experiences of pregnancy in refugee and migrant communities on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Methods: In June 2016 qualitative data were collected in one refugee camp and one migrant clinic along the Thailand-Myanmar border by conducting 20 individual interviews with pregnant refugee and migrant adolescents and 4 focus group discussions with husbands, adolescent boys and non-pregnant girls and antenatal clinic staff. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify codes and themes emerging from the data.

Results: Study participants perceived adolescent pregnancy as a premature life event that could jeopardise their future. Important themes were premarital sex, forced marriage, lack of contraception, school dropout, fear of childbirth, financial insecurity, support structures and domestic violence. Supportive relationships with mothers, husbands and friends could turn this largely negative experience into a more positive one. The main underlying reasons for adolescent pregnancy were associated with traditional views and stigma on sexual and reproductive health issues, resulting in a knowledge gap on contraception and life skills necessary to negotiate sexual and reproductive choices, in particular for unmarried adolescents.

Conclusions: Adolescents perceive pregnancy as a challenging life event that can be addressed by developing comprehensive adolescent-friendly sexual and reproductive health services and education in refugee and migrant communities on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Creating a more tolerant and less stigmatising environment in these communities and their governing bodies will help to achieve this goal.

Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, Myanmar, migrant, Qualitative, refugee, sexual and reproductive health, contraception, Stigma, forced marriage, domestic violence

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2018

Tierras, mujeres y niñez. Familia y conflicto armado


Zorio, Sandra. 2015. “Tierras, mujeres y niñez. Familia y conflicto armado.” Revista Derecho del Estado 35: 295-315.

Author: Sandra Zorio


Este artículo pretende realizar un análisis socio-jurídico sobre la situación de las mujeres, los niños, niñas y adolescentes y su derecho a la tierra, específicamente, en la aplicación de la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras. Se pretende demostrar que a pesar de existir un conjunto de normativas amplias y garantistas en favor de estas poblaciones, las instituciones del Estado encargadas de los temas de tierras no logran recoger en sus procedimientos de política pública la realidad sociológica de las familias desplazadas, y por consiguiente, las mujeres, los niños, niñas y adolescentes quedan excluidos de los mecanismos de acceso al goce efectivo de sus derechos. Todo esto, porque en el Estado habita una noción de familia anacrónica y poco coincidente con la realidad campesina, modelo que supone a la familia como un grupo jerárquico en el que el hombre es el líder y las mujeres y sus hijos e hijas, una especie de auxiliares. 

Keywords: tierras, Mujeres, niños, niñas y adolescentes, Conflicto Armado, familia

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights

Year: 2015

Propietarias a la espera: Migración internacional, herencia y género en dos comunidades indígenas oaxaqueñas


Martínez Iglesias, María. 2016. “Propietarias a la espera: Migración internacional, herencia y género en dos comunidades indígenas oaxaqueñas.” Tesis doctoral, Universitat Rovira I Virgili.

Author: María Martínez Iglesias


This thesis analysis why the permanent migration of the sons - the preferred inheritors of family land under the Mesoamerican family model - has shifted inheritance patterns to include daughters in some areas of Oaxaca (México), while in others men still maintain their privileges over family land even when they are not present. Based in two case studies conducted in Oaxaca indigenous communities, we argue that daughters, excluded from previous arrangements, have become heirs because they can replace or complement their brothers in the four elements that made men legitimate heirs: residence, provision, care and the capacity of representing elderly parents in community institutions. Along with these new daughters ́ contributions to parents, new social definition of what means to be an adult women has change the assumption that daughters, after marriage, must be dependent only in their husband economic provision. Women, as daughters, still excluded from family property transfers because parents and migrated sons can rebuild cooperation despite the distance; or daughters cooperate only as care-givers but not providing or representing their parents. As long as our research areas are ruled by usos y costumbres and the land tenure is communal, some other debates around the tensions between private-communal land and law –custom needed to be answered.
Esta tesis se pregunta por qué en unas zonas de Oaxaca (México) la migración permanente de los hijos varones- los herederos preferentes de la tierra en el modelo mesoamericano- modifica los patrones de transmisión patrimonial para incluir a las hijas; mientras que en otras áreas los varones, a pesar de la ausencia, mantienen los privilegios hereditarios sobre el patrimonio familiar. A partir de dos estudios de caso en comunidades indígenas oaxaqueñas se muestra que las hijas se convierten en herederas porque pueden suplir o complementar a sus hermanos en los cuatro elementos que convertían a los hijos en herederos legítimos: la residencia, la provisión, la atención y la representación ante la comunidad de los padres ancianos. Esto implica una nueva definición social de adultez femenina basada en una mayor cooperación con los padres y autonomía frente al vínculo matrimonial. Por otro lado, las mujeres en el rol de hijas siguen ocupando un lugar residual en la transmisión patrimonial, a pesar de la ausencia de sus hermanos varones, porque aún en la distancia las familias transnacionales pueden recomponer el sistema tradicional de transmisión patrimonial, basado en la cooperación preferente con los hijos; también, porque las hijas se incorporan a elementos menos valorados de la cooperación inter-generacional, como el cuidado. Tratar de contestar la pregunta de investigación en contextos donde la tenencia de la tierra es comunitaria y está regida por sistemas normativos internos -usos y costumbres-conlleva adentrarse en debates vinculados a opciones distintas de intervención pública (tensiones entre propiedad privada y propiedad social así como entre la ley y la costumbre), que han sido tomados en cuenta y a los que se ha intentado dar una respuesta parcial. 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Land Tenure, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2016

La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano


Céspedes-Báez, Lina-María. 2010. "La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano." Revista Estudios Socio-Juridico 12 (2): 273-304.

Author: Lina-María Céspedes-Báez


This article reviews the evidence collected by diverse national and international organizations regarding the relationship between sexual violence against women, forced displacement, and dispossession in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. To this end, it uses the concept of "sexual violence regimes" to highlight that the ends pursued by sexual violence are not always exhausted by simple consummation (that is, the act of sexual violence itself), but depending on the context, can be connected with broader strategic goals of armed actors. At the same time, this document admits the difficulty of proving this relationship with respect to judicial procedures, and thus sets out the possibility of creating a rebuttable presumption, in the framework of "unconstitutional state of affairs" created by judgment T-025 of 2004, that alleviates the burden of proof of the victims, and serves as a catalyst to promote new gender-based mechanisms of reparations.
El presente artículo parte de la evidencia que ha sido recogida por diversas organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales, en materia de la interrelación entre la violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres, el desplazamiento forzado y el despojo en el conflicto armado colombiano. Para el efecto, utiliza el concepto de regímenes de violencia sexual, a fin de realzar el que los fines perseguidos por la conducta no se agotan siempre en el simple consumo, sino que, dependiendo del contexto, pueden estar conectados con objetivos más amplios dentro del repertorio estratégico de los actores armados. Asimismo, el documento admite la dificultad de la prueba de esta correlación en las instancias judiciales pertinentes, por lo cual plantea la posibilidad de crear una presunción desvirtuable, en el ámbito del estado de cosas inconstitucional declarado por la sentencia T-025 de 2004, que morigere la carga de la prueba de las víctimas y sirva como un catalizador para promover nuevos arreglos de género.

Keywords: desplazamiento forzado, Conflicto Armado, violencia sexual, tierras, pruebas, forced displacement, armed conflict, sexual violence, land, evidence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Land Tenure, International Organizations, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2010

Women In The Colombian Land Restitution And Titling Process – A RDS Household Survey Of IDPS


Wiig, Henrik, and Jemima García-Godos. 2015. “Women In The Colombian Land Restitution And Titing Process – A RDS Household Survey Of IDPS.” Paper presented at The World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington D.C., March 23-25.

Authors: Henrik Wiig, Jemima García-Godos


The Victims’ Law from 2011 in Colombia initiated a land restitution process that potentially would benefit more than 5 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) that lost an estimated 7-8 million hectares of land when they fled their homes in the countryside due to the conflict. The government helps them to reclaim the same piece of land and give support to return. Women are supposed to receive preferential and differentiated treatment in the process and the land is furthermore jointly titled as a gender equality measure. However, the process is slow and even less people is willing to actually return from their current place of residence shows our RDS household survey sample of 499 IDP households. Fear of repeated displacement, psychological trauma related to the place of origin especially among women and loss of agricultural knowledge influences their willingness to return. Both Survey and key informant interviews shows that gender perspective is reasonably successful but women have less intention than men to claim land restitution, return and make use of the land.

Keywords: Colombia, conflict, land restitution, land titling, gender equality

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Trauma, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

Revisión teórica sobre el post-conflicto: una oportunidad para empoderar a mujeres víctimas de desplazamiento


Romero-Acosta, Kelly, and Eidy Maria Contreras Banques. 2015. “Revisión teórica sobre el post-conflicto: una oportunidad para empoderar a mujeres víctimas de desplazamiento.” Cultura Educación y Sociedad 6 (1): 79-92.

Authors: Kelly Romero-Acosta, Eidy Maria Contreras Banques


Many Colombian women have experimented forced displacements, now new perspectives of life have been opened. These women have assumed new responsibilities they had not faced before, new situations have allowed them to become active members not only in political levels but also social, besides, it is necessary to develop field works to accomplish this propose, which will allow to improve these women lives, opportunities and choices. Qualitative research should be considered as a useful tool to carry out mediation projects in order to strengthen and empower the mentioned population in their new reality. This work is aimed to infer about women and forced displacement; by taking into account obtained results, this research proposal is addressed to reflect about mediations related to different roles of women in post-conflict settings, above all on restitutions of fields cases.
Debido al desplazamiento forzado a muchas mujeres colombianas se les abre una nueva perspectiva de vida en la cual ellas tienen que asumir responsabilidades que no tenían antes y en la que pueden ser más participativas a nivel políti- co y social. Es preciso realizar trabajos de campo que contribuyan a mejorar sus opciones de vida. La metodología cualitativa puede ser de gran ayuda para realizar procesos de intervención de modo que terminen fortalecidas y empoderadas en su nueva realidad. El siguiente trabajo hace una reflexión sobre la mujer y el desplazamiento forzado y genera, a partir de los datos encontra- dos, una propuesta de intervención relacionada con el papel de la mujer en el post-conflicto, específicamente en la restitución de tierras.

Keywords: desarollo rural, post-conflicto, salud mental, woman, rural development, post-conflict, mental health

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

El impacto del desplazamiento forzado sobre las mujeres en Colombia


Ramírez, María Himelda. 2001. “El impacto del desplazamiento forzado sobre las mujeres en Colombia.” Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire 3.

Author: María Himelda Ramírez

Keywords: Colombia, desplazados, Mujeres


"Este artículo presenta una mirada sobre la producción reciente acerca del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia, que incluye, el impacto sobre las mujeres. Esta visión, puesta en escena por las investigadoras que introdujeron la perspectiva de género en tales estudios, es innovadora en los análisis del tema1. Algunas vertientes de la investigación que muestran las diferencias de género, parten de la observación de las experiencias de la vida cotidiana de las comunidades campesinas antes de la expulsión. Así, es posible apreciar la especialización de funciones o, en otros términos, la división del trabajo por sexos, como un referente clave de la organizaciones sociales tradicionales, el cual es alterado de manera radical en la etapas subsiguientes al éxodo" (Ramírez 2001, 1).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2001

Desarraigo, género y desplazamiento interno en Colombia


Escobar, Nora Segura, and Donny Meertens. 1997. “Desarraigo, género y desplazamiento interno en Colombia.” Nueva Sociedad 148: 30–43.

Authors: Nora Segura Escobar, Donny Meertens


There are facets of violent displacement in Colombia that until now have not had visibility or recognition. When distinguishing between displaced men and women, adults and minors, there are ties and sources of tension not perceptible with other perspectives of analysis. There is a web of conflicts and pressures that dismantle the ways of life and forms of organization of displaced households and accelerates the breakdown of sexual stereotypes, traditional relationships between the sexes and generations, erodes the material and symbolic supports of the male pre-eminence, and generates crisis in identities and in affective and social relationships.
Hay facetas del desplazamiento violento en Colombia que hasta hoy no han tenido visibilidad ni reconocimiento. Al distinguir entre los desplazados a hombres y a mujeres, adultos y menores de edad, surgen lazos y fuentes de tensión no perceptibles con otras perspectivas de análisis. Hay una trama de conflictos y presiones que desarticula los modos de vida y formas de organización de los hogares desplazados y acelera la descomposición de los estereotipos sexuales, las relaciones tradicionales entre los sexos y las generaciones, erosiona los soportes materiales y simbólicos de la preeminencia masculina y genera crisis en las identidades y en las relaciones afectivas y sociales.

Keywords: violencia, gênero, desplazamiento, Colombia, violence, gender, displacement

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 1997


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