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Displacement & Migration

Documenting the Impact of Conflict on Women Living in Internally Displaced Persons Camps in Sri Lanka: Some Ethical Considerations

Citation:

Swiss, Shana, Peggy J. Jennings, K. G. K. Weerarathne, and Lori Heise. 2019. “Documenting the Impact of Conflict on Women Living in Internally Displaced Persons Camps in Sri Lanka: Some Ethical Considerations.” Health and Human Rights Journal 21 (1): 93-101.

Authors: Shana Swiss, Peggy J. Jennings, K. G. K. Weerarathne, Lori Heise

Abstract:

Women’s Rights International works with rural women and girls who are living in countries at war or with ongoing political violence. In 2005, The Asia Foundation invited Women’s Rights International to Sri Lanka to evaluate the feasibility of a random-sample survey of women to document the impact of the decades-long conflict. The significant imbalance in the risks-to-benefits ratio compelled us to recommend that random-sample surveys that included questions about sexual violence be avoided at that time, especially in the displaced persons areas. Instead, we recommended that three strategies be given priority in situations in which the risks for women are too great to justify a random-sample survey. First, maximize the use of existing information. Second, collect survey data only in partnership with a strong community organization that will use the data for direct tangible benefits. Third, share knowledge that will help build the capacity of local organizations to design surveys that address their priorities, and collect and use their own data following ethical guidelines that maximize the protection of individuals and the wider community. We implemented these recommendations in a partnership with a local organization with a strong history of advocating for women’s rights.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2019

The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia

Citation:

von Au, Anne Kathrin. 2013. "The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia." Revista Deusto de Derechos Humanos 11: 207-39.

Author: Anne Kathrin von Au

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper studies the existence of elements of gender justice in the ongoing land restitution process in Colombia, in order to analyse the potential of the Land Restitution Programme to contribute to the elimination of structural violence against women and the resulting gender inequalities. In this context, the sources of the analysis comprises the Victims’ and Land Restitution Law of 2011, the implementation programmes by the Land Restitution Unit, and the sentences by the specialized judges for land restitution. The paper argues that the land restitution programme could contribute to the elimination of structural forms of discrimination and exclusion of women in the Colombian society, if the elements of gender justice are applied in a coherent and systematic way and if it is accompa- nied by additional measures aimed at reducing the high security risks for internally displaced women in the land restitution process and changing the patriarchal system deeply rooted in the Colombian society.
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este artículo estudia la existencia de elementos de justicia de género en el actual proceso de restitución de tierra en Colombia para analizar el potencial del Programa de Restitución de Tierras en la contribución a la eliminación de violencia estructural contra mujeres internamente desplazadas y las inequidades resultantes. En este contexto, las principales fuentes de datos para el análisis son la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras de 2011, las programas de acción de la Unidad de Restitución de Tierras y las sentencias de los jueces especializados en la restitución de tierras. Este trabajo sostiene que el programa de restitución de tierras podría contribuir a la eliminación de formas estructurales de discriminación y exclusión de mujeres en la sociedad colombiana si los elementos de la justicia de género son aplicados de una manera coherente y sistemática, y si van acompañadas por medidas adicionales enfocadas a reducir el alto riesgo para mujeres internamente desplazadas en dicho proceso y a cambiar el sistema patriarcal, firmemente arraigada en la sociedad colombiana.

 

Keywords: transitional justice, displacement, land restitution, gender justice, structural violence, transformative justice, differential approach, justicia transicional, desplazamiento, restitución de tierra, justicia de género, violencia estructural, justicia transformativa, enfoque diferencial

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2013

Masculinities and Environment

Citation:

Paulson, Susan, and William Boose. 2019. “Masculinities and Environment.” CAB Reviews 14 (30): 1-12.

Authors: Susan Paulson, William Boose

Abstract:

This review article supports researchers and practitioners to strengthen attention to variously positioned men and masculine identities in order to increase the rigour of empirical research and to enhance outcomes of work addressing environmental issues. Masculinities interact with other factors to shape patterns of environmental management and to influence responses to environmental challenges; at the same time, human-environment dynamics produce differing expressions and experiences of masculinity. Yet, environmental initiatives implemented in many contexts and scales have been hindered by lack of attention to gendered conditions, identities and expectations associated with diversely positioned men. Theoretically, studies gathered here strive to overcome these limitations by applying concepts of plural masculinities, intersectionality and hegemonic masculinity. Methodologically, this body of work challenges universalizing stereotypes about men by situating empirical studies in specific sociocultural, ethnoracial, ecological and geographical contexts around the world. The 160 publications reviewed here illuminate three realms: productive enterprises including logging, mining, petroleum exploitation, ranching and agroindustry; lifeways and attitudes involving care for health, families and nature; environmental crises, from disasters to refugees and climate change. Evidence in each realm suggests that some masculine-identified behaviours, attitudes and resources are intertwined with environmentally destructive processes, while others support, or can support, moves toward dynamics that are healthier for humans and non-human nature. After considering skills, tools and frameworks for further research and practice, die review ends with a look at challenges of developing more systemic approaches to gender and environment.

Keywords: agroindustrial sector, attitudes, climate change, crises, environment management, gender relations, human ecology, lifestyle, literature reviews, logging, mining, natural disasters, petroleum, ranching, refugees

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Intersectionality, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa

Citation:

Camlin, Carol S., Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, and Edwin Charlebois. and Charlebois. 2019. "Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa." Health & Place 57: 339-51.

Authors: Carol S. Camlin, Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Edwin D. Charlebois

Abstract:

Mobility in sub-Saharan Africa links geographically-separate HIV epidemics, intensifies transmission by enabling higher-risk sexual behavior, and disrupts care. This population-based observational cohort study measured complex dimensions of mobility in rural Uganda and Kenya. Survey data were collected every 6 months beginning in 2016 from a random sample of 2308 adults in 12 communities across three regions, stratified by intervention arm, baseline residential stability and HIV status. Analyses were survey-weighted and stratified by sex, region, and HIV status. In this study, there were large differences in the forms and magnitude of mobility across regions, between men and women, and by HIV status. We found that adult migration varied widely by region, higher proportions of men than women migrated within the past one and five years, and men predominated across all but the most localized scales of migration: a higher proportion of women than men migrated within county of origin. Labor-related mobility was more common among men than women, while women were more likely to travel for non-labor reasons. Labor-related mobility was associated with HIV positive status for both men and women, adjusting for age and region, but the association was especially pronounced in women. The forms, drivers, and correlates of mobility in eastern Africa are complex and highly gendered. An in-depth understanding of mobility may help improve implementation and address gaps in the HIV prevention and care continua.

Keywords: HIV, mobility, migration, gender, Kenya, Uganda, population-based

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2019

Social and Policy Aspects of Gender and Migration in Sudan

Citation:

Assal, Munzoul. 2012. "Social and Policy Aspects of Gender and Migration in Sudan." The Ahfad Journal 29 (2): 25-37.

Author: Munzoul Assal

Abstract:

Sudan is both a sending and a receiving country for economic as well as forced migrants (refugees). Out-migration from Sudan is caused by conflict and political instability, but also by the desire of Sudanese migrants to have better economic and educational opportunities abroad and, in some cases, for family reunification purposes. Migrants coming to Sudan are either refugees or recent voluntary migrants following oil exploration and the signing of the peace agreements in 2005. The same causes that result in the migration of Sudanese also lead to foreigners coming to Sudan. Statistics show that Asians represent the majority of economic migrants in Sudan, while Ethiopians and Eritreans represent the overwhelming majority of refugees in the country. The paper employs the analytic review and a meta analytic methods to address foreign migrants' influx to the Sudan, the gender aspect and the relevant policies. Findings revealed that migration issues are dealt with through legal frameworks that regulate the presence and work of foreigners, and travel matters of nationals. But the laws are not gender sensitive and do not address the concerns of migrants generally and migrant women in particular. There is a need for legal reform and there is also a need for the introduction of policies or programs that are gender sensitive when dealing with migration issues. Sudan needs to enter into bilateral agreements with receiving countries, to ensure the protection of migrant Sudanese women and also foreign migrant women in Sudan.

Keywords: policy aspects of migration, migrant, influx, gender and migration, internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees, gender sensitive laws

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Economies, Gender Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2012

Invisible Lives: Gender, Dispossession, and Precarity amongst Syrian Refugee Women in the Middle East

Citation:

Canefe, Nergis. 2018. "Invisible Lives: Gender, Dispossesion, and Precarity amongst Syrian Refugee Women in the Middle East." Refuge 34 (1): 39-49. 

Author: Nergis Canefe

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article attends to the connections between neo-liberal and neo-developmentalist labour regimes, asylum and immigration management, and the exploitation of undocumented, refugee, and migrant women, based on the experiences of Syrian refugee women in Turkey. The concept of precarity is explored as a selectively applied strategy by states to people who lack “status” or who are unable to benefit from “membership rights.” Forced migrants, illegal migrants, and asylum seekers are directly implicated in highly precarious work experiences at the bottom end of labour markets across the Global South, becoming trapped in forced labour and human trafficking arrangements. The article establishes a link between extreme forms of migrant labour exploitation in precarious life worlds and gender-based  profiling of life chances.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article concerne les connexions entre les régimes de travail néo-libéraux et néo-développementistes, la gestion de l’asile et de l’immigration, et l’exploitation de femmes migrantes, réfugiées, sans papiers, à partir du vécu de réfugiées syriennes en Turquie. Le concept de précarité est exploré en tant que stratégie appliquée de manière sélective par les états aux personnes qui n’ont « pas de statut » ou ne peuvent pas bénéficier de « droits d’appartenance ». Les migrants forcés, les migrants illégaux et les demandeurs d’asile sont directement concernés par des expériences de travail fortement précaire au plus bas des marchés du travail sur l’ensemble des pays du Sud, et deviennent alors prisonnier du travail forcé et du trafic d’êtres humains. L’article établit un lien entre des formes extrêmes d’exploitation des migrants au travail dans des contextes de vie précaires et un profilage des opportunités de vie en fonction du genre.

 

Keywords: political economy of crisis, precarity, forced migration, gender and migration, gender and precarity, Middle Eastern States

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Syria, Turkey

Year: 2018

A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Citation:

Jane Freedman, Zeynep Kivilcim, and Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu, eds. 2017. A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Jane Freedman, ed. , Zeynep Kivilcim, ed. , Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu, ed.

Annotation:

Summary:
The refugee crisis that began in 2015 has seen thousands of refugees attempting to reach Europe, principally from Syria. The dangers and difficulties of this journey have been highlighted in the media, as have the political disagreements within Europe over the way to deal with the problem. However, despite the increasing number of women making this journey, there has been little or no analysis of women’s experiences or of the particular difficulties and dangers they may face.
 
A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis examines women’s experience at all stages of forced migration, from the conflict in Syria, to refugee camps in Lebanon or Turkey, on the journey to the European Union and on arrival in an EU member state. The book deals with women’s experiences, the changing nature of gender relations during forced migration, gendered representations of refugees, and the ways in which EU policies may impact differently on men and women. The book provides a nuanced and complex assessment of the refugee crisis, and shows the importance of analysing differences within the refugee population.
 
Students and scholars of development studies, gender studies, security studies, politics and middle eastern studies will find this book an important guide to the evolving crisis.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, International Organizations Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Lebanon, Syria, Turkey

Year: 2017

Gender Relations among Neighbors: a Study of Humanitarian Practices Addressing Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

Citation:

Christiansen, Connie Carøe. 2018. "Gender Relations among Neighbors: A Study of Humanitarian Practices Addressing Syrian Refugees in Lebanon." Paper presented at Pluralism in Emergenc(i)es: Movement, Space and Religious Difference, Amman, December 6-8. 

Author: Connie Carøe Christiansen

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the perceptions of gender relations among Syrian refugees as presented by employees of selected local NGOs in Lebanon. These NGOs form part of a civil society undergoing changes since the refugee crisis of the Syrian war, and now collaborating with Syrian NGOs, and engaging Syrian refugees in humanitarian projects. Their participation in humanitarian response occurs in Lebanon in several contexts, ranging from handicraft workshops to neighborhood committees, civil society activism and business initiation. Gender relations among Syrians are presented by such NGOs as more patriarchal and harmful for women, but Syrian activists in Lebanon contest this indictment. Nevertheless, these conceptions become a pretext for the approach that refugee women are more vulnerable not only due to the war, but also due to their relations to Syrian men. The paper forms part of a study, which asks what consequences the engagement of Syrian refugees in humanitarian work may have for citizenship transformation– with particular urgency and value for women who are denied equal citizenship with men.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2017

Traumatic Stress Among Sexual and Gender Minority Refugees from the Middle East, North African, and Asia who Fled to the European Union

Citation:

Alessi, Edward J., Sarilee Kahn, Leah Woolner, and Rebecca Van Der Horn. 2018. "Traumatic Stress Among Sexual and Gender Minority Refugees From the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia Who Fled to the European Union." Journal of Traumatic Stress 31 (6): 805-15.

Authors: Edward J. Alessi, Sarilee Kahn, Leah Woolner, Rebecca Van Der Horn

Abstract:

In 2015, more than 600,000 individuals from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan fled to Europe in search of protection. Among the most understudied of this population are individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ). These individuals have not only fled war but also violence due to their sexual and/or gender identities. At the same time, LGBTQ individuals from other parts of the Middle East, Central and South Asia, and North Africa have also fled to Europe to escape persecution. The purpose of this multimethod study was to understand how traumatic stress shaped the experiences of 38 LGBTQ individuals who fled to Austria (n = 19) and the Netherlands (n = 19) from these regions. We assessed participants for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and conducted qualitative interviews to understand their migration experiences. Of the 37 participants assessed for PTSD, 33 (89.2%) reported that their most distressing event occurred prior to migration. For the 24 (64.9%) participants who met criteria for a provisional diagnosis of PTSD, 15 reported that the precipitating event was related to their sexual and/or gender identities and 9 reported that it was related to another type of event (e.g., war). Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data. Themes demonstrated that participants encountered targeted violence and abuse throughout migration and upon their arrival in Austria and the Netherlands. Findings indicate that LGBTQ refugees may be vulnerable to ongoing trauma from other refugees and immigration officials. Recommendations for protecting and supporting LGBTQ refugees during humanitarian emergencies are provided.

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Health, PTSD, Trauma, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Austria, Iraq, Netherlands, Syria

Year: 2018

Syrian Refugees: Thinking Beyond Gender Stereotypes

Citation:

Lokot, Michelle. 2018. "Syrian Refugees: Thinking beyond Gender Stereotypes." Forced Migration Review 57: 33-35.

Author: Michelle Lokot

Annotation:

"The dominant gender narratives among NGOs responding to Syrian refugees, and their subsequent interventions, are based on sometimes simplistic understandings of the 'traditional' Syrian household and power dynamics" (Lokot 2018, 33). 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Households, NGOs Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2018

Pages

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