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Illicit Financial Flows: Why We Should Claim These Resources for Gender, Economic, and Social Justice


Waris, Attiya. 2017. Illicit Financial Flows: Why We Should Claim These Resources for Gender, Economic, and Social Justice. Toronto: Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID).

Author: Attiya Waris


“This brief focuses on international illicit financial flows (IFFs) and why these ‘lost’ resources should be claimed for gender, economic and social justice.
It will explore the following three issues:
1.     Understand the basic concept of IFFs and highlight their disproportional gender impact, in relation to the drain in developing countries of critical resources, for the advancement of women’s human rights.
2.     Unveil the current legal and political frameworks that allow multinational corporations to benefit from tax abuse to the detriment of people and planet
3.     Provide recommendations, from a feminist perspective, on how to demand transparency and corporate accountability in order to curb illicit financial flows" (Waris n.d., 7).

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Multi-National Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2017

The Gendered Dimensions of Illicit Financial Flows


Merkle, Ortrun. 2019. The Gendered Dimensions of Illicit Financial Flows. Berlin: Transparency International and CHR Michelsen Institute. 

Author: Ortun Merkle


Illicit financial flows (IFFs) are increasingly understood as one of the greatest challenges to global development. Interestingly, while much attention is paid to gendered aspects of development overall, there are very few studies exploring the extent to which women are affected by and involved in IFFs. The links between gender and IFFs can be investigated from three main perspectives: i) how IFFs specifically affect women; ii) the roles women play in IFFs; and iii) how women can help curb IFFs.

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women

Year: 2019

Women, Energy and Sustainable Development


Shailaja, R. 2000. “Women, Energy and Sustainable Development.” Energy for Sustainable Development 4 (1): 45–64.

Author: R. Shailaja


"Sustainable development is an equitable, empowering, environmentally sound, economically viable process of growth. Energy is the key indicator of sustainable development. About 74% of the population of India live in rural areas. 80% of their energy needs are derived from biomass. About 92% of this energy is consumed in cooking activity. Women play a major role in biofuel management. Rural women's perspective in sustainable development is therefore critical.

Declining biofuel resources, poor quality of the available biofuels and inefficient devices have pushed women into greater hardships. This paper examines the role of rural women in biomass management. The energy resources that rural women use, the strategy that the government and other organisations have adopted to alleviate rural energy problems and how these strategies have benefited women and improved their quality of life, the importance of incorporating the concept of ‘gender and development’ in alternative energy strategies to achieve the objectives of sustainable development are discussed in this paper" (Shailaja 2000, 45).

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2000

Integrating Women in Energy Assistance: Which Way Forward?


Skutsch, Margaret M. 1994. “Integrating Women in Energy Assistance: Which Way Forward?” Energy for Sustainable Development 1 (3): 49-51.

Author: Margaret M. Skutsch


“Almost all the western donor agencies are very concerned with responding to ‘‘women’s needs’’ in the planning and implementation of development projects. Some donors have special units not only to organise women’s projects but increasingly also to make sure the needs of women are attended to in ‘‘mainstream’’ projects, for example by developing checklists against which to assess a project’s likely impact on women, or as an aide- memoire to planners to think about women’s interests when designing the project. All the DAC countries of the OECD have indeed agreed to prepare such instruments (OECD, 1990), which undoubted1y are useful in creating better working habits, and this is a good initiative. However, the existence and even the use of such guidelines will not seriously change the way development assistance works with regard to women if they are simply applied to the same types of development interventions that we have been using in the past. To really help women, it is necessary to rethink the types of projects supported, with a more basic understanding of what women need” (Skutsch 1994, 49-50).

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 1994

Gender Analysis for Energy Projects and Programmes


Skutsch, Margaret M. 2005. “Gender Analysis for Energy Projects and Programmes.” Energy for Sustainable Development 9 (1): 37–52.

Author: Margaret M. Skutsch


"This paper proposes that one of the reasons why gender is not being mainstreamed in energy project and programme planning is because there are no appropriate gender-analytic tools available for the special case of energy. It reviews the standard gender tools as used in development planning, and a number of approaches that have been proposed for the energy sector, such as the EnPoGen model and various schemes based on the project cycle. The critique of these leads to suggestions for an improved model. The paper was written as part of a process in which a training manual on gender and energy is being prepared" (Skutsch 2005, 37).


Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2005

Unraveling Relationships in the Energy-Poverty-Gender Nexus


Skutsch, Margaret, and Joy Clancy. 2006. “Unraveling Relationships in the Energy-Poverty-Gender Nexus.” In Transforming Power: Energy, Environment, and Society in Conflict, edited by John Byrne, Leigh Glover, and Noah J. Toly, 61–89. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Margaret Skutsch, Joy Clancy


This chapter attempts to unravel some of the relationships in the gender, energy and poverty nexus. It starts by explaining that there is an energy dimension to poverty, and considers why energy policy and planning in most developing countries has paid scant attention to this. Energy poverty is a concept that captures the energy dimension of poverty. It has a number of effects on poor families, which tend to use less energy than wealthier ones. To understand more clearly why energy planning fails the poor, one has to understand that it involves two quite different sub-sectors: the modern sector, including renewable energy technologies (RETs), and the traditional sector. New and RETs can be considered part of the modern, commercial energy sector and are receiving increasing attention. Of several important reasons, the chapter explores: the structure of mainstream development theories and the failure of the energy sector to keep abreast of developments in other sectors as regards gender.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2006

Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Microenterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis


Smith, Julie A. 2000. Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Microenterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Author: Julie A. Smith


Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people do not have access to electricity, including 100 million in the Latin America region. Depending on the country, 30 to 90 % of this unelectrified Latin American population lives in rural areas where geographic remoteness and low energy consumption patterns may preclude the extension of the conventional electricity grid. Women are heavily impacted by the energy scarcity given their role as primary energy procurers and users for the household, agricultural and small industrial subsectors in developing countries. As a result, women spend disproportionately more time engaged in energy-related activities like carrying water and searching for cooking fuel.

This paper describes the use of decentralized renewable energy systems as one approach to meet the energy needs of rural areas in Latin America. It outlines the advantages of a decentralized energy paradigm to achieve international development goals, especially as they relate to women. The paper studies Enersol Associates, Inc.’s Solar-Based Rural Electrification model as an example of a decentralized energy program that has merged energy and development needs through the local involvement of energy entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations and community members.

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, NGOs Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2000

Making the Clean Available: Escaping India’s Chulha Trap


Smith, Kirk R., and Ambuj D. Sagar. 2014. “Making the Clean Available: Escaping India’s Chulha Trap.” Energy Policy 75: 410–4.

Authors: Kirk R. Smith, Ambuj D. Sagar


Solid cookfuel pollution is the largest energy-related health risk globally and most important cause of ill-health for Indian women and girls. At 700 million cooking with open biomass chulhas, the Indian population exposed has not changed in several decades, in spite of hundreds of programs to make the “available clean”, i.e. to burn biomass cleanly in advanced stoves. While such efforts continue, there is need to open up another front to attack this health hazard. Gas and electric cooking, which are clean at the household, are already the choice for one-third of Indians. Needed is a new agenda to make the “clean available”, i.e., to vigorously extend these clean fuels into populations that are caught in the Chulha Trap. This will require engaging new actors including the power and petroleum ministries as well as the ministry of health, which have not to date been directly engaged in addressing this problem. It will have implications for LPG imports, distribution networks, and electric and gas user technologies, as well as setting new priorities for electrification and biofuels, but at heart needs to be addressed as a health problem, not one of energy access, if it is to be solved effectively.

Keywords: household energy ladder, cooking fuel, household air pollution, energy access, LPG, biomass stoves

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Women, Girls, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2014

Gender, Tax Reform and Taxation Cooperation Issues: Navigating Equity and Efficiency under Policy Constraints


Williams, Mariama. 2019. Gender, Tax Reform and Taxation Cooperation Issues: Navigating Equity and Efficiency under Policy Constraints. Policy Brief No. 9. Geneva: The South Centre.

Author: Mariama Williams


This policy brief has sought to present a review of the state of thinking and research on a pressing issue of the day: tax reform and tax cooperation and its gendered impacts. There is undeniably widespread agreement amongst all the entities of global governance with responsibility for a role in macroeconomic, financial and trade policies that gender equality and women’s empowerment are important to sustained growth and development. Increasingly, these same voices are articulating and researching on how fiscal policy both on the budgetary and on the revenue side can be made more efficient, gender sensitive and gender responsive. Taxation is the latest area of focused attention in this regard. There is now a quite strong body of work, including case studies, that demonstrates how the tax system can work to the disadvantage of socio-economic development and social goals including gender equality and women’s empowerment. 
La présente note d'orientation a pour but de présenter un état de la réflexion et de la recherche concernant la question brûlante des réformes et de la coopération en matière fiscale et leurs incidences en fonction du sexe. Il existe un consensus clair au sein des structures de la gouvernance mondiale qui jouent un rôle dans les politiques macroéconomiques, financières et commerciales selon lequel l'égalité des sexes et l'autonomisation des femmes sont essentielles pour garantir une croissance et un développement durables. De plus en plus des voix s'expriment et des recherches sont entreprises sur les moyens permettant de faire en sorte que les politiques fiscales, tant du point de vue des dépenses que du point de vue des recettes, soient plus efficaces, tiennent davantage compte des questions de genre et intègrent la dimension homme-femme. La fiscalité est le dernier domaine qui fait l'objet d'une attention particulière sur ce point. Il existe aujourd'hui un corpus de travaux plus que solide, y compris des études de cas, qui démontrent que le système fiscal peut nuire au développement socio-économique et aux objectifs sociaux, qui incluent l’égalité des sexes et l'autonomisation des femmes.
Este informe de políticas tiene como objetivo presentar un balance de la opinión predominante y la investigación sobre un tema apremiante de la actualidad: la reforma y la cooperación tributarias y sus repercusiones en las cuestiones de género. Entre todas las entidades de gobernanza mundial responsables de desempeñar un papel en las políticas macroeconómicas, financieras y comerciales existe indiscutiblemente un amplio consenso acerca de la importancia de la igualdad de género y el empoderamiento de las mujeres para lograr el crecimiento y el desarrollo sostenidos. Cada vez más, estas mismas voces están articulando e investigando de qué forma la política fiscal, tanto en materia presupuestaria como de ingresos, puede ser más eficiente y sensible a las cuestiones de género y tener en cuenta el género. La tributación es el último ámbito en que se está centrando la atención a este respecto. Actualmente, existe un corpus de trabajo bastante sólido que incluye estudios de caso y demuestra que el sistema tributario puede perjudicar el desarrollo socioeconómico y los objetivos sociales, como la igualdad de género y el empoderamiento de las mujeres.

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance

Year: 2019

Energy in the Development Strategy of Indian Households—the Missing Half


Sudhakara Reddy, B., and Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan. 2013. “Energy in the Development Strategy of Indian Households—the Missing Half.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 18 (February): 203–10.

Authors: B. Sudhakara Reddy, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan


There is a growing consensus that universalization of modern energy services is central to reducing major elements of poverty and hunger, to increase literacy and education, and to improve health care, employment opportunities, and lives of women and children. In India, as per 2011 census, over 700 million people lack access to modern energy services for lighting, cooking, water pumping and other productive purposes. Devoid of these services people, mostly women, are forced to spend significant amounts of their time and effort on subsistence activities like firewood collection, carrying these head load for miles, and then burning these hard earned fuels inefficiently in traditional chullas. These adversely affect the health and standard of living for women and act as a barrier to gender development (here ‘gender’ means women unless otherwise specified). Although the links between gender inequity, poverty, and energy deprivation have been studied by many, not many practical solutions to the above problems have emerged. The present paper explores the nexus among gender–energy–poverty, highlights areas of gender concern, and suggests actions. We analyze how women from rural areas and low income households are at the receiving ends of energy poverty. We then analyze the roles women as an important stakeholders in universalizing modern energy services. We show how women self-help groups can be a vital link in large-scale diffusion of energy-efficient and renewable technologies. The paper concludes with policy pointers for sustainable development and gender empowerment through energy solutions.

Keywords: domestic energy sector, gender, entrepreneurs, energy poverty, self help groups

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013


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