The Peruvian Truth Commission's Mental Health Reparations: Empowering Survivors of Political Violence to Impact Public Health Policy


Laplante, Lisa, and Miryam Rivera Holguin. 2006. “The Peruvian Truth Commission’s Mental Health Reparations: Empowering Survivors of Political Violence to Impact Public Health Policy.” Health and Human Rights 9 (2): 136–63.

Authors: Lisa Laplante, Miryam Rivera Holguin


The Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), formed in 2001, turned national attention toward the serious mental health consequences of the country's 20-year internal armed conflict. The TRC prioritized reparations in mental health, using a legal justification that provided victims-survivors of the war with a rights-based framework for demanding that the public sector attend to their mental health needs. Since the majority of victims-survivors come from historically poor, rural, and marginalized populations and have tended to not exercise their right to health for a variety of social, economic, and cultural reasons, framing mental health in terms of rights helps to empower these people to impact the development of appropriate policies in mental health. The authors suggest that this process contributes directly to improving the mental health of this population.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Health, Mental Health, Justice, Reparations, TRCs, Post-Conflict, Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2006

Promoting a Gender-Just Peace: The Roles of Women Teachers in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction


Kirk, Jackie. 2004. “Promoting a Gender-Just Peace: The Roles of Women Teachers in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction.” Gender & Development 12 (3): 50–9.

Author: Jackie Kirk


Schools - however temporary and improvised they may be - are often among the first community organisations to start functioning after a crisis. It is important that they set a high standard in encouraging the active participation of women in reconstruction and peacebuilding after conflict. This article examines the potential of women teachers for significant participation in building a gender-just peace, and the challenges that exist for women to fulfil this potential. Drawing on examples from a number of different contexts, especially Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and south Sudan, it discusses women teachers' personal and professional development. It identifies some of the challenges faced by women in becoming teachers, and strategies to support women teachers to become agents of change in their societies.

Topics: Development, Education, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Ethiopia, South Sudan

Year: 2004

Mainstreaming Gender in Conflict Reduction: From Challenge to Opportunity


Whitbread, Jasmine. 2004. “Mainstreaming Gender in Conflict Reduction: From Challenge to Opportunity.” Gender & Development 12 (3): 41–9.

Author: Jasmine Whitbread


This paper draws on the author's experience of leading the work of Oxfam GB on conflict reduction and attempting to mainstream a commitment to gender equality into it. It highlights the difficulties faced and reflects on what did and did not work along the way. Finally, the author draws out some wider lessons about leading gender mainstreaming in development work. While gender mainstreaming in development programmes is widely seen as a challenge to be overcome, it can infact be an opportunity to increase impact dramatically, or to achieve breakthroughs in situation analysis and programme design.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, conflict, gender equality

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2004

Resisting Austerity: A Gendered Perspective on Neo-Liberal Restructuring in Peru


Hays-Mitchell, Maureen. 2002. “Resisting Austerity: A Gendered Perspective on Neo-Liberal Restructuring in Peru.” Gender & Development 10 (3): 71–81.

Author: Maureen Hays-Mitchell


Since the early 1980s, development in Latin America has been defined by neo-liberal restructuring in response to the region’s precarious debt. This paper examines the distinctly gendered impact of structural adjustment by analysing, first, the changing status of women’s lives under neo-liberal reform and, second, their efforts to mitigate the deteriorating status of their households. The formation of community kitchens and village banks by women in shanty towns surrounding Lima offer examples of grassroots organisation to ensure collective survival and development. Such efforts constitute acts of resistance to neo-liberal restructuring and, hence, are part of a broader movement of resistance to neo-liberalism as a prescription for economic recovery and development.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Governance, Households Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2002

Constitutional Provisions and Enhancing Participation of Women in Elections


Ndulo, Muna. 2004. “Constitutional Provisions and Enhancing Participation of Women in Elections.” Paper presented at United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI) Expert Group Meeting on Enhancing Women's Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries, Glen Cove, January 19-22.

Author: Muna Ndulo


In most parts of the world and in countries of differing economic levels of development, a huge problem remains in ensuring the full participation of women in the political process. Although women are underrepresented in the political process in most countries, the situations tends to be worse in post-conflict societies. In post conflict societies, while women endure the same trauma as the rest of the population, they are disproportionally harmed /affected by literacy rates, poverty, violence and gender-role stereotyping. This paper discusses the participation of women in post conflict societies from a perspective of the legislative measures that can be taken to enhance the participation of women. It also considers non legislative measures such as the role of the media. The paper first provides a background on constitutional provisions relevant to elections, next examines the participation of women in elections and the problems they face in their efforts to participate in the elections. It then considers legislative approaches that have been taken in several countries to increase women participation. It ends with a conclusion that focuses on the chances of achieving the objective of improving women participation in elections.

Keywords: women in politics, political participation, post-conflict, elections, legislation

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Political Participation, Post-Conflict

Year: 2004

Rehabilitation, Sustainable Peace and Development: Towards Reconceptualisation


Green, Reginald Herbold, and Ismail I. Ahmed. 1999. “Rehabilitation, Sustainable Peace and Development: Towards Reconceptualisation.” Third World Quarterly 20 (1): 189-206.

Authors: Reginald Herbold Green, Ismail I. Ahmed


Rehabilitation after violent conflict is today relevant to many countries - especially but not only in SSA - and hopefully will become so for more. It is in generally too narrowly specified, too short term and too fragmented with no macro strategic or conceptual frame. Further it is usually based on quite inadequate knowledge of the history, priorities and dynamics of the afflicted country. Rehabilitation has-or should have-interacting economic (especially livelihood rebuilding), social (stress and perceived inequity reducing) and political (reconciliation and legitimacy restoration not least by rehabilitating basic service access including user friendly, personal security oriented civil police and magistrates courts system). In severely war impacted countries these are likely to be among the most economically efficient ways to regaining growth and restructured economic development as well as of rebuilding social and political reconcilliation and religitimisation.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Livelihoods, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 1999

Post-Conflict Programmes for Women: Lessons from the Kosovo Women's Initiative


Kalungu-Banda, Agnes. 2004. “Post-Conflict Programmes for Women: Lessons from the Kosovo Women's Initiative.” Gender & Development 12 (3): 31-40.

Author: Agnes Kalungu-Banda


This paper considers the relationship between the concept of participation in development and the concept of sustainable development in the aftermath of a war. For sustainable development to take place after a period of armed conflict, the intended beneficiaries of a reconstruction programme must be supported to take charge of the process, and hence own the results. 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Kosovo

Year: 2004

Gender Mainstreaming and Policy Coherence for Development: Unintended Gender Consequences and EU Policy


Allwood, Gill. 2013. “Gender Mainstreaming and Policy Coherence for Development: Unintended Gender Consequences and EU Policy.” Women’s Studies International Forum 39 (4): 42–52.

Author: Gill Allwood


This article argues that the unintended gender consequences of EU development policy are caused not (or not only) by the failure to gender mainstream, but by the way in which gender slips off the agenda once other policies intersect with development. Policy coherence for development (PCD) is an attempt to prevent policies in other areas having a negative impact on development, but although it claims that gender is a crosscutting issue, there is little evidence that gender features at the intersections between development and other related areas. Therefore, gender must be kept at the forefront of policy analysis if unintended gender consequences are to be avoided.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, International Organizations, Political Participation Regions: Europe

Year: 2013

Gender Equality, Development and Transitional Justice: The Case of Nepal


Aguirre, Daniel, and Irene Pietropaoli. 2008. “Gender Equality, Development and Transitional Justice: The Case of Nepal.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 2 (3): 356-77.

Authors: Daniel Aguirre, Irene Pietropaoli


The strong links between transitional justice, development and gender equality have been overlooked and underdeveloped in both theory and practice. Transitions are rare periods of rupture that offer opportunities to reconceive the social meaning of past conflicts in an attempt to reconstruct their present and future effects. The peace-building initiatives unfolding in Nepal encourage a timely examination of the application of the right to development to transitional justice mechanisms. This right embodies much more than economic growth; it is a human rights-based process that aims to empower marginalized groups. In Nepal, this must include women, who not only bore the brunt of the conflict but also continue to suffer systematic discrimination. Many of Nepali women's preexisting problems stem directly from inequality and underdevelopment. This article suggests that transitional justice should go beyond retributive and restorative approaches to consider the economic, social and cultural inequalities that fuel conflicts while setting the foundation for a permanent rights-based development programme that ensures the viability of women's rights in the future. A redistributive approach to transitional justice based on the legal and political process of the right to development is crucial to achieving gender equality in Nepal and avoiding renewed cycles of violence.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2008


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