Gendered and Ethical Dilemmas of Moving from Emergency Response to Development in ‘Failed’ States


Leatherman, Janie, and Nadezhda Griffin. 2008. “Gendered and Ethical Dilemmas of Moving from Emergency Response to Development in ‘Failed’ States.” In Handbook of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, edited by Dennis J.D. Sandole, Sean Byrne, Ingrid Sandole-Staroste, and Jessica Senehi, 354-68. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Janie Leatherman, Nadezhda Griffin

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance

Year: 2008

Gender Equality, Environmental Management, and Natural Disaster Mitigation


Enarson, Elaine. 2001. “Gender Equality, Environmental Management, and Natural Disaster Mitigation.” Paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Environmental Management and the Mitigation of Natural Disasters: a Gender Perspective, Ankara, Turkey, November 6-9.

Author: Elaine Enarson


This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a six-week online conference in which 224 participants from around the world took part. The conference focused on five themes: gender myths and realities in disasters; ways in which women manage and use environmental resources; women’s and men’s coping strategies in the face of natural disasters; ways in which disasters can be used for social change; and methods for integrating gender equality into disaster prevention and development initiatives. Participants noted the important roles that women play during disasters and concerning the environment in general, and they asserted that women’s voices should be promoted in this field. They offer several examples of successful and failed strategies, and assert that education is key for promoting women’s participation. The conference ends with three knowledge gaps and three goals for further integrating gender into disaster and development issues.

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Humanitarian Assistance

Year: 2001

Mainstreaming Gender Perspectives in Environmental Management and Mitigation of Natural Disasters


Hannan, Carolyn. 2002. “Mainstreaming Gender Perspectives in Environmental Management and Mitigation of Natural Disasters.” Paper presented at the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women's Round Table and Discussion on the Disproportionate Impact of Natural Disasters on Women, New York City, January 17.

Author: Carolyn Hannan


In this presentation, Carolyn Hannan describes the need for a gendered perspective in assessing, preparing for, and recovering from natural disasters. She points out that women and men not only have different environmental knowledge, but also that they are affected by natural disasters in different ways. A gender-blind management system is therefore incomplete, and can make women more vulnerable in the face of environmental disasters. Hannan argues that gendered perspective in which women are given a voice is ideal in planning for and recovering from disasters. This is very important considering the impact that environmental concerns have on development. Hannan concludes with a list of recommendations that could be used in shaping future policies and disaster strategies.

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Humanitarian Assistance

Year: 2002

Transforming Conflict: Some Thoughts on a Gendered Understanding of Conflict Processes


El-Bushra, Judy. 2000. “Transforming Conflict: Some Thoughts on a Gendered Understanding of Conflict Processes.” In States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance, edited by Susie Jacobs, Ruth Jacobson, and Jennifer Marchbank. London: Zed Books.

Author: Judy El-Bushra

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Development, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda

Year: 2000

Fitting Gender into Development Institutions


Razavi, Shahra. 1997. “Fitting Gender into Development Institutions.” World Development 25 (7): 1111–25.

Author: Shahra Razavi


This paper analyzes some of the more prominent strands of gender and development (GAD) discourse that have justified the need for policy attention to women on efficiency and poverty grounds. The analysis is set within the context of organizational politics, as well as the changing national and international policy environment of the past decade which has hastened the need for gender lobbies to forge strategic alliances with like-minded social forces. While admitting the analytical and methodological weaknesses that very often characterize the gender policy discourses, the paper draws attention to the political imperatives and institutional constraints within which these arguments have taken shape. A clearer recognition of these constraints and the fact that gender discourses are context-specific raises questions about the allegations of instrumentalism that are often levelled against them by institutional outsiders.

Keywords: gender, WID, development institutions, advocacy, efficiency, poverty

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Discourses, International Financial Institutions, International Organizations

Year: 1997

Institutions, Organisations and Gender Equality in an Era of Globalisation


Rao, Aruna, and David Kelleher. 2003. “Institutions, Organisations and Gender Equality in an Era of Globalisation.” Gender and Development 11 (1): 142–49.

Authors: Aruna Rao, David Kelleher


Development organisations can play a significant role in supporting women in the communities where they work to challenge unequal gender relations. The authors of this article argue that the majority of development organisations fail to do so because they pay insufficient attention to the importance of social institutions in perpetuating inequality. Two prominent approaches to gender mainstreaming emphasise organisational infrastructure and culture. Ideas in these approaches are necessary, but insufficient, to enable organisations to play a part in transforming the social institutions that perpetuate gender inequality. Gender at Work is a new global capacity-building and knowledge network aiming to promote institutional change through encouraging development organisations to analyse gender relations in the societies in which they work, and in the institutions they need to challenge. It reviews past efforts of development organisations to mainstream gender into their work, and develops programmes and processes to challenge institutional norms which work against women's interests.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, International Organizations, NGOs

Year: 2003

Evaluating Gender Mainstreaming in Development Projects


de Waal, Maretha. 2006. “Evaluating Gender Mainstreaming in Development Projects.” Development in Practice 16 (2): 209-14. doi:10.1080/09614520600562454.

Author: Maretha de Waal

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity

Year: 2006

Violence and Resilience: Women, War and the Reality of Everyday life in Sudan


Jok, Jok Madut. 2006. “Violence and Resilience: Women, War and the Reality of Everyday Life in Sudan.” The Afhad Journal 23 (2): 58–80.

Author: Jok Madut Jok


In his article Violence and Resilience, Dr. Jok Madut explores the insidious effect that militant opposition to the Sudanese government and that the Sudanese government’s counter-insurgency tactics has had on Sudanese women. Madut begins his article by highlighting and criticizing the majority of the media attention and academic scholarship on gender in Sudan, which myopically focuses on Sudanese women as helpless victims of warfare. Madut’s article illustrates how gender-based violence has been an unquestionable trait of Sudanese warfare used by all parties of the conflict to dehumanize and devastate enemy populations. Madut argues, however, that the militarization of Sudanese society has led to the continuous reproduction and entrenchment of gender-based violence throughout Sudanese society resulting in widespread gender-based violence and marginalization within communities and families. Moreover, Madut’s article illuminates a complex of subculture of “expanded self-reliance” created by Sudanese women relying on newly found and traditional methods of resisting gender-based violence and marginalization. Madut warns that development programs often fail to address women’s rights in Sudan in an attempt to return Sudanese women to their traditional female roles.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2006

A Window Of Opportunity: Improving Gender Relations in Post-Conflict Societies: The Sierra Leonean Experience


Smet, Stijn. 2009. “A Window Of Opportunity: Improving Gender Relations in Post-Conflict Societies: The Sierra Leonean Experience.” Journal of Gender Studies 18 (2): 147–63.

Author: Stijn Smet


Those playing a role in the immediate aftermath of armed conflicts widely state the pursuit of gender equality as a specific objective. This article both assesses the theoretical feasibility of this objective and questions the practical efforts undertaken by development actors in this respect in the concrete case of Sierra Leone. The case study focuses on discrimination against women and girls in Sierra Leonean society and on gender bias and discrimination against girls associated with armed forces or armed groups (GAAFs) in the official Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) Programme and ‘unofficial’ reintegration efforts. The research shows that – due to a variety of factors – the international community does have a window of opportunity to impact positively on gender relations in post-conflict societies. However, as the study demonstrates, this opportunity has thus far not been taken up in the case of Sierra Leone. The article therefore proposes a new robust model to ameliorate efforts to support the creation of gender equality in post-conflict societies, based on the conclusions drawn from the case study.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2009

Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts, and Adaptation: Why Does Gender Matter?


Denton, Fatma. 2002. “Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts, and Adaptation: Why Does Gender Matter?” Gender and Development 10 (2): 10–20.

Author: Fatma Denton


Gender-related inequalities are pervasive in the developing world. Although women account for almost 80 per cent of the agricultural sector in Africa, they remain vulnerable and poor. Seventy per cent of the 1.3 billion people in the developing world living below the threshold of poverty are women. It is important that the consequences of climate change should not lead already marginalised sections of communities into further deprivation. But key development issues have been at best sidetracked, and at worst blatantly omitted, from policy debates on climate change. The threats posed by global warming have failed to impress on policy-makers the importance of placing women at the heart of their vision of sustainable development. This article argues that if climate change policy is about ensuring a sustainable future by combining development and environment issues, it must take into account the interests of all stakeholders. The Global Environment Facility and the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol can play a role in ensuring sustainable development, provided they are implemented in a way that does not disadvantage women and the poor.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2002


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