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Development

Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences

Citation:

Rocheleau, Dianne, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, and Esther Wangari, eds. 1996. Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 

Authors: Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Esther Wangari

Annotation:

Summary: 
Feminist Political Ecology explores the gendered relations of ecologies, economies and politics in communities as diverse as the rubbertappers in the rainforests of Brazil to activist groups fighting racism in New York City. Women are often at the centre of these struggles, struggles which concern local knowledge, everyday practice, rights to resources, sustainable development, environmental quality, and social justice.
 
The book bridges the gap between the academic and rural orientation of political ecology and the largely activist and urban focus of environmental justice movements. (Summary from Google Books) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Gender and Environment: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective 
Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Esther Wangari 
 
2. Out on the Front Lines But Still Struggling for Voice: Women in the Rubber Tappers' Defense of the Forest in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil 
Connie Campbell with the Women's Group of Xapuri
 
3. Feminist Politics and Environmental Justice: Women's Community Activism in West Harlem, New York
Vernice Miller, Moya Hallstein, Susan Quass
 
4. Protecting the Environment Against State Policy in Austria: From Women's Participation in Protest to New Voices in Parliament
Doris Wastl-Walter
 
5. Spanish Women Against Industrial Waste: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Grassroots Movements 
Josepa Brú-Bistuer
 
6. Gendered Visions for Survival: Semi-Arid Regions in Kenya 
Esther Wangari, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Dianne Rocheleau
 
7. Developing and Dismantling Social Capital: Gender and Resource Management in the Philippines 
M. Dale Shields, Cornelia Butler Flora, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Gladys Buenavista
 
8. "Our Lives are No Different from That of Our Buffaloes": Agricultural Change and Gendered Spaces in a Central Himalayan Valley 
Manjari Mehta
 
9. Gendered Knowledge: Rights and Space in Two Zimbabwe Villages: Reflections on Methods and Findings
Louise Fortmann
 
10. From Forest Gardens to Tree Farms: Women, Men, and Timer in Zambrana-Chaucey, Dominican Republic 
Dianne Rocheleau, Laurie Ross, Julio Morrobel, (with Ricardo Hernandez, Cristobalina Amparo, Cirilo Brito, Daniel Zevallos, the staff of ENDA-Caribe and the Rural Federation of Zambrana-Chaucey) 
 
11. Where Kitchen and Laboratory Meet: The "Tested Food for Silesia" Program
Anne C. Bellows
 
12. "Hysterical Housewives" and Other Mad Women: Grassroots Environmental Organizing in the United States
Joni Seager
 
13. Feminist Political Ecology: Crosscutting Themes, Theoretical Insights, Policy Implications 
Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Esther Wangari, Dianne Rocheleau

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Justice, Political Participation

Year: 1996

Social Provisioning as a Starting Point for Feminist Economics

Citation:

Power, Marilyn. 2004. “Social Provisioning as a Starting Point for Feminist Economics.” Feminist Economics 10 (3): 3–19.

Author: Marilyn Power

Abstract:

The past decade has seen a proliferation of writing by feminist economists. Feminist economists are not identified with one particular economic paradigm, yet some common methodological points seem to be emerging. I propose making these starting points more explicit so that they can be examined, critiqued, and built upon. I use the term ‘‘social provisioning’’ to describe this emerging methodology. Its five main components are: incorporation of caring and unpaid labor as fundamental economic activities; use of well-being as a measure of economic success; analysis of economic, political, and social processes and power relations; inclusion of ethical goals and values as an intrinsic part of the analysis; and interrogation of differences by class, race-ethnicity, and other factors. The paper then provides brief illustrations of the use of this methodology in analyses of US welfare reform,gender and development, and feminist ecological economics.

Keywords: social provisioning, welfare reform, gender and development, feminist political economics, feminist ecological economics, feminist methodology

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2004

Making the Hidden Visible: The Importance of Caring Activities and Their Principles for Any Economy

Citation:

Jochimsen, Maren, and Ulrike Knobloch. 1997. “Making the Hidden Visible: The Importance of Caring Activities and Their Principles for Any Economy.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 107–12.

Authors: Maren Jochimsen, Ulrike Knobloch

Abstract:

In this paper we emphasize the interrelation of the monetary, free-enterprise sector of the economy and its maintaining basis. The current discussion on sustainability has so far placed too little attention on this circumstance. To us this interrelation is fundamental; it is one important key to understanding present day economics and economies. By concentrating on this interrelation we question the widely accepted dualism between the public and the private, between the officially acknowledged economic and the invisible economic. By this we create our own specific approach to the question of how to reform economic thought and action in order to achieve a naturally and socially sustainable living.

Keywords: feminist economics, discoursive ethics, ecological economics, sustainable development, caring economy

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Feminisms

Year: 1997

Gendered Reporting of Household Dynamics in the Kenyan Dairy Sector: Trends and Implications for Low Emissions Dairy Development

Citation:

Tavenner, Katie, Simon Fraval, Immaculate Omondi, and Todd A. Crane. 2018. “Gendered Reporting of Household Dynamics in the Kenyan Dairy Sector: Trends and Implications for Low Emissions Dairy Development.” Gender, Technology and Development 22 (1): 1-19.

Authors: Katie Tavenner, Simon Fraval, Immaculate Omondi, Todd A. Crane

Abstract:

Within the Kenyan dairy sector, climate change mitigation interventions are striving to sustainably intensify milk production while addressing the gender dynamics that mediate farmers’ ability to effectively participate in, and benefit from, low emissions development. In order to better understand these gender dynamics, household surveys were deployed by the East African Dairy Development (EADD) program to collect information on current practices of decision-making, resources, and labor dynamics within dairy farm households. Using the EADD survey results as secondary data, this study analyzes emergent patterns in these domains among cattle-keeping households in Bomet, Nandi, Uasin Gishu, and Kericho counties in Western Kenya. In analyzing these patterns, paired sample tests revealed statistically significant differences in results based on the gender of the respondent. While there were some categories that women and men reported on similarly, other areas were hotly contested. These results provide important challenges, both methodologically and programmatically, in interpreting gender dynamics across these domains. This paper reflects on the challenges and the opportunities of these data for informing gender-equitable low emissions development in the Kenyan dairy sector.

Keywords: gender, dairy, household survey, low emissions development, livestock, Kenya

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2018

Biopolitics, Climate Change and Water Security: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Issues for Women

Citation:

Tandon, Nidhi. 2007. “Biopolitics, Climate Change and Water Security: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Issues for Women.” Agenda 21 (73): 4-17.

Author: Nidhi Tandon

Abstract:

This article is not intended to be alarmist but its message is urgent. Its observations are fairly straightforward – it examines how climate change will impact on water security1, from both the supply and the demand side and how the African continent is especially vulnerable. Its core premise is that one important factor is to ensure that women have the necessary information, tools and resources to plan and take decisions around water security as it pertains to current and future needs. The paper’s focus is the African continent, with examples drawn from other developing countries. Its recommendations are extracted from workshop experiences in the field. 

Keywords: climate change, water security, drought, poverty

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2007

'Gender Hates Men': Untangling Gender and Development Discourses in Food Security Fieldwork in Urban Malawi

Citation:

Riley, Liam, and Belinda Dodson. 2016. “‘Gender Hates Men’: Untangling Gender and Development Discourses in Food Security Fieldwork in Urban Malawi.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (7): 1047-60.

Authors: Liam Riley, Belinda Dodson

Abstract:

This article examines the social construction and contestation of gender and gender roles in the city of Blantyre in Malawi. In fieldwork on gendered household roles related to food security, interviews with men and women revealed a distinct set of connotations with the word gender, which reflected Malawians’ historical and contemporary engagement with concepts of development, modernity, and human rights. We denote the Malawian concept of gender as gender in order to distinguish the word participants used in interviews from the more widely accepted conventional definition. We then use this distinction to highlight the ways in which ideas of gender equality have been introduced and received in the Malawian context. The urban setting of the research is key to drawing out the association of gender with Westernization, bringing into focus the power dynamics inherent in the project of translating global discourses of gender rights and gender equality into meaningful social change in developing countries. Gender in Malawi denotes a top-down (and outside-in) process of framing Malawi’s goals for gender equality. This creates political constraints both in the form of resistance to gender, because it resonates with a long history of social change imposed by outside forces, and in the form of superficial adherence to gender to appear more urban and modern, especially to a Western researcher. Local understandings of gender as gender undermine efforts to promote gender equality as a means to address Malawi’s intense urban poverty and household food insecurity.

Keywords: gender, development, postcolonial feminism, urban, qualitative research, Malawi

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2016

Cook, Eat, Man, Woman: Understanding the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, Nutritionism and Its Alternatives from Malawi

Citation:

Patel, Raj, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Lizzie Shumba, and Laifolo Dakishoni. 2015. “Cook, Eat, Man, Woman: Understanding the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, Nutritionism and Its Alternatives from Malawi.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 42 (1): 21-44.

Authors: Raj Patel, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Lizzie Shumba, Laifolo Dakishoni

Abstract:

The Group of Eight Countries (G8) launched the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition to improve nutritional outcomes through private sector involvement in agricultural development. The accession of Malawi to the Alliance reveals the assumptions behind the intervention. We show that while the New Alliance may seem to have little to do with nutrition, its emergence as a frame for the privatization of food and agriculture has been decades in the making, and is best understood as an outcome of a project of nutritionism. To highlight the failings of the approach, we present findings from the Soils, Food and Healthy Communities Initiative in northern Malawi, which has demonstrated success in combatting malnutrition through a combination of agroecological farming practices, community mobilization, women’s empowerment and changes in intrahousehold gender dynamics. Contrasting a political economic analysis of the New Alliance alongside that of the Soils, Food and Healthy Communities Initiative shows the difference between a concern with the gendered social context of malnutrition, and nutritionism. We conclude with an analysis of the ways that nutrition can play a part in interventions that are inimical, or conducive, to freedom. 

Keywords: New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, agroecology, nutritionism, gender, Malawi, africa, food security, food sovereignty

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Gender, Political Economies, Privatization, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2015

Gender, Nutrition- and Climate-Smart Food Production: Opportunities and Trade-Offs

Citation:

Beuchelt, Tina Désirée, and Lone Badstue. 2013. “Gender, Nutrition- and Climate-Smart Food Production: Opportunities and Trade-Offs.” Food Security 5 (5): 709-21.

Authors: Tina Désirée Beuchelt , Lone Badstue

Abstract:

Future food and nutrition security is threatened by climate change, overexploitation of natural resources and pervasive social inequalities. Promising solutions are often technology-focused and not necessarily developed considering gender and social disparities. This paper addresses issues of gender and human development opportunities and trade- offs related to promoting improved technologies for agricultural development. We examined these aspects for conservation agriculture (CA) as part of a cropping system with nutrition- and climate-smart potential. The paper is based on a literature review and field experiences from Zambia and Mexico. Findings point up situations where the promotion of CA for smallholders in developing countries may have undesired effects from gender and human development perspectives, specifically relating to drudgery, nutrition and food security, residue use, assets, mechanization and extension. The direction and magnitude of potential trade-offs depend on the local context and the specific intervention. The analysis is followed by a discussion of opportunities and pathways for mitigating the trade-offs, including gender transformative approaches; engagement with alternative or non-traditional partners with different but complementary perspectives and strengths; “smart” combinations of technologies and approaches; and policies for inclusive development.

Keywords: Trade-offs, gender and social equity, agriculture, conservation agriculture, Technology diffusion

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Security, Food Security

Year: 2013

A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change

Citation:

Buechler, Stephanie, and Anne-Marie S. Hanson, eds. 2015. A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Stephanie Buechler, Anne-Marie S. Hanson

Annotation:

Summary: 
This edited volume explores how a feminist political ecology framework can bring fresh insights to the study of rural and urban livelihoods dependent on vulnerable rivers, lakes, watersheds, wetlands and coastal environments. Bringing together political ecologists and feminist scholars from multiple disciplines, the book develops solution-oriented advances to theory, policy and planning to tackle the complexity of these global environmental changes.
 
Using applied research on the contemporary management of groundwater, springs, rivers, lakes, watersheds and coastal wetlands in Central and South Asia, Northern, Central and Southern Africa, and South and North America, the authors draw on a variety of methodological perspectives and new theoretical approaches to demonstrate the importance of considering multiple layers of social difference as produced by and central to the effective governance and local management of water resources.
 
This unique collection employs a unifying feminist political ecology framework that emphasizes the ways that gender interacts with other social and geographical locations of water resource users. In doing so, the book further questions the normative gender discourses that underlie policies and practices surrounding rural and urban water management and climate change, water pollution, large-scale development and dams, water for crop and livestock production and processing, resource knowledge and expertise, and critical livelihood studies.
This book will be of interest to students and scholars of environmental studies, development studies, feminist and environmental geography, anthropology, sociology, environmental philosophy, public policy, planning, media studies, Latin American and other area studies, as well as women’s and gender studies. (Summary from Routledge) 
 
Table of Contents: 
Foreword 
Leila Harris 
 
1. Introduction: Towards a Feminist Political Ecology of Women, Global Change and Vulnerable Waterscapes 
Anne-Marie Hanson and Stephanie Buechler 
 
2. Interrogating Large-scale Development and Inequality in Lesotho: Bridging Feminist Political Ecology, Intersectionality and Environmental Justice Frameworks 
Yvonne Braun 
 
3. The Silent (and Gendered) Violence: Understanding Water Access in Mining Areas 
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt 
 
4. Urban Water Visibility in Los Angeles: Legibility and Access for All
Kathleen Kambic
 
5. Advances and Setbacks in Women's Participation in Water Management in Brazil 
Andrea Moraes 
 
6. Climate-water Challenges and Gendered Adaptation Strategies in Rayon, a Riparian Community in Sonora, Mexico 
Stephanie Buechler 
 
7. International Partnerships of Women for Sustainable Watershed Governance in Times of Climate Change 
Patricia E. (Ellie) Perkins and Patricia Figuieredo Walker 
 
8. Women's Contributions to Climate Change Adaptation in Egypt's Mubarak Resettlement Scheme through Cactus Cultivation and Adjusted Irrigation 
Dina Najjar 
 
9. Shoes in the Seaweed and Bottles on the Beach: Global Garbage and Women's Oral Histories of Socio-Environmental Change in Coastal Yucatán 
Anne-Marie Hanson 
 
10. Heen Kas' el'ti Zoo: Among the Ragged Lakes - Storytelling and Collaborative Water Research with Carcross/Tagish First Nation (Yukon Territory, Canada) 
Eleanor Hayman with Mark Wedge and Colleen James 
 
11. Pamiri Women and the Melting Glaciers of Tajikistan: A Visual Knowledge Exchange for Improved Environmental Governance 
Citt Williams and Ivan Golovnev 
 
12. Conclusion: Advancing Multi-Disciplinary Scholarship on Gender, Water and Environmental Change through Feminist Political Ecology 
Stephanie Buechler, Anne-Marie Hanson, Diana Liverman and Miriam Gay-Antaki

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods

Year: 2015

Gendered Spaces of Activism in Exurbia: Politicizing an Ethic of Care from the Household to the Region

Citation:

Abbruzzese, Teresa V., and Gerda R. Wekerle. 2011. “Gendered Spaces of Activism in Exurbia: Politicizing an Ethic of Care from the Household to the Region.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 32 (2): 140–69. 

Authors: Teresa V. Abbruzzese, Gerda R. Wekerle

Annotation:

Summary: 
"The purpose of this paper is to analyze the convergence of women, environment, and place through the examination of an empirical case study of women’s activism in an exurban campaign against sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. While there is a considerable literature on women’s urban activism, there is virtually no research on women’s engagement in antisprawl campaigns or campaigns to preserve near-urban nature threatened by growth and development pressures, even though these particular environmental movements are widespread and growing in number. While this campaign to “Save the Oak Ridges Moraine” was not considered a women’s grassroots movement in public and academic debates or by the women activists themselves, women emerged as grassroots activists and spokespersons for the campaign and were politically effective in mobilizing a regionwide campaign that was instrumental in gaining provincial legislation to preserve the moraine and restrict development" (Abbruzzese and Wekerle 2011, 141). 

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2011

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