La Corporalidad de las Guerras: una Mirada sobre las Mujeres Combatientes desde el Cuerpo y el Lenguaje


Londoño Fernández, Luz María. 2005. “La Corporalidad de las Guerras: una Mirada sobre las Mujeres Combatientes desde el Cuerpo y el Lenguaje.” Revista de Estudios Sociales, no. 21: 67–74.

Author: Luz María Londoño Fernández


La incursión de las mujeres en el mundo de la guerra ha sido un fenómeno poco estudiado. Su creciente vinculación como combatientes en las guerras contemporáneas, incluida la colombiana, amerita una reflexión desde la academia, encaminada a develar la compleja significación de este fenómeno. A la luz de corrientes de pensamiento contemporáneas, particularmente del feminismo de la diferencia, este artículo busca aproximarse al fenómeno, colocando en el centro del análisis el cuerpo y la palabra de las mujeres -su corporalidad-, como lugar e instrumento donde la guerra se vive, se significa y se narra, buscando abrir horizontes interpretativos que permitan recoger y traducir fielmente las voces de las mujeres combatientes, tradicionalmente invisibilizadas tanto en el drama de la guerra como en la búsqueda de la paz.
The incursion of women in the world of war has been a phenomena in which few research has been made. Nowadays, the growing presence of these combatants in contemporary wars, in which the Colombian war is included, claims for a academic reflection that seeks to explain the whole meaning of the phenomena. With the support of contemporary trends of thought, particularly the feminism of the difference, the present article aims for an approximation to the topic that places at the core of the analysis woman's speech and body, this as a place and tool where the war is lived, signified and narrated; thus, searching for new interpretative paths that permit recover and translate accurately the combatants' voices. Combatants that have been traditionally diminished both in the war drama and in the searching of peace. 

Keywords: gender, war, women combatants, violence, body, language, gênero, guerra, mujeres combatientes, violencia, cuerpo, lenguaje

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2005

In the Midst of War: Women’s Contribution to Peace in Colombia


Rojas, Catalina. 2004. In the Midst of War: Women’s Contribution to Peace in Colombia. Cambridge, MA: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

Author: Catalina Rojas


Women have been victims and actors in Colombia’s cycles of violence and peace. In talks organized by President Andrés Pastrana in 1999, women represented both the government and FARC, the major guerrilla group. In 2000, 600 women participated in a women’s public forum that pressed FARC and government leaders to consider women’s concerns. In 2002, women’s groups continued to work towards peace after talks fell apart, reaching a consensus on the issues affecting Colombian women. In spite of the dangers women face as a result of being recognized as political leaders, they remain at the forefront of local efforts for peace.

This publication assesses the importance of a gender perspective in peace negotiations and documents the critical work of women at the local, regional, and national levels to mitigate the effects of continued violence on their communities, mobilize for renewed dialogues, and prepare for the next cycle of peace in Colombia. (Institute for Inclusive Security)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, NGOs, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2004

Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-Combatants


Patel, Ana Cutter, Pablo de Greiff, and Lars Waldorf, eds. 2010. Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-Combatants. Advancing Transitional Justice Series 4. New York: SSRC.

Authors: Ana Cutter Patel, Pablo de Greiff, Lars Waldorf


Over the past twenty years, international donors have invested in large-scale disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs. In the same period there has been a proliferation of transitional justice measures to help render truth, justice, and reparations in the aftermath of state violence and civil war. Yet DDR programs are seldom analyzed to consider justice-related aims, and transitional justice mechanisms rarely articulate strategies for coordinating with DDR. Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-combatants examines how these two types of initiatives have connected—or failed to connect—in peacebuilding contexts and begins to articulate how future DDR programs ought to link with transitional justice aims. The book is the result of a research project of the International Center for Transitional Justice.

The fourth volume of the International Center for Transitional Justice's Advancing Transitional Justice Series. (SSRC)


Table of Contents:


Introduction: Linking DDR and Transitional Justice
Lars Waldorf

Chapter 1: Amnesties and DDR Programs
Mark Freeman

Chapter 2: Beyond "Peace vs. Justice": Understanding the Relationship Between DDR Programs and the Prosecution of International Crimes
Eric Witte

Chapter 3: Ex-Combatants and Truth Commissions
Lars Waldorf

Chapter 4: Establishing Links Between DDR and Reparations
Pablo de Greiff

Chapter 5: Transitional Justice and Female Ex-Combatants: Lessons Learned from International Experience
Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega

Chapter 6: DDR, Transitional Justice, and the Reintegration of Former Child Combatants
Roger Duthie and Irma Specht

Chapter 7: Local Justice and Reintegration Processes as Complements to Transitional Justice and DDR
Roger Duthie

Chapter 8: Transitional Justice, DDR, and Security Sector Reform
Ana Cutter Patel

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2010

Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste


Myrttinen, Henri. 2010. Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste. 31. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). 

Author: Henri Myrttinen


Gender analysis of actual SSR processes is sorely lacking in the SSR literature. In ‘Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste’ Henri Myrttinen breaks new ground in examining the gender dimensions of the DDR and SSR processes in Timor-Leste, with a focus on the establishment of the police and armed forces. The paper explores issues such as: how men’s roles relate to gang violence and relationships of patronage that undermine the security services, how women have been incorporated into the new security services and how the security services are addressing gender-based violence. It shows how a gender perspective can add to our understanding of many of the social processes at work in Timor-Leste and help to find solutions to some of the main security issues in the country, making recommendations for Timor-Leste’s ongoing SSR processes. (The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)).

Topics: DDR, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Security Sector Reform Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

Women and the Military: Implications for Demilitarization in the 1990s in South Africa


Cock, Jacklyn. 1994. "Women and the Military: Implications for Demilitarization in the 1990s in South Africa." Gender & Society 8 (2): 152-69.

Author: Jacklyn Cock


Militarization--the mobilization of resources for war--is a gendering process. It both uses and maintains the ideological construction of gender in the definitions of masculinity and femininity. This article draws on material from contemporary South Africa to illustrate the relation between gender and militarization in four respects: how women actively contribute toward the process of militarization; the similarities in the position of women in both conventional and guerrilla armies; the durability of patriarchy and the fragility of the gains made for women during periods of war; and, finally, how the South African experience sharpens the debate about the relation between equal rights and women's participation in armies. The article concludes that there is no necessary relation between demilitarization and gender equality.

Topics: DDR, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Non-State Armed Groups, Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1994

Individual Demobilization and Reintegration Process in Colombia: Implementation, Challenges and Former Combatants' Perspectives


Anaya, Liliana. 2007. "Individual Demobilization and Reintegration Process in Colombia: Implementation, Challenges and Former Combatants' Perspectives." Intervention 5 (3): 179-90. doi:10.1097/WTF.0b013e3282f1d036.

Author: Liliana Anaya


After decades of armed conflict, the Colombian government has implemented a voluntary individual disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme (DDR). This paper is based on interviews of former combatants from illegal armed groups, from both the left and right, governmental officials, and military personnel involved in the processes. The findings of this research suggest that the individual demobilization process as a military strategy is a success. However, in order to strengthen the peace-building process, the programme needs to give more support to the socialization and re-socialization processes that former combatants experience. It needs to provide the former combatants with the skills needed to be economically and socially productive members of society. This will help them redefine their identity as civilians and undergo a successful reintegration and reconciliation.

Keywords: ex-combatants, peace-building, reconciliation, reintegration, re-socialization

Topics: Combatants, DDR, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2007

The Land Issue in Eritrea’s Reconstruction & Development


Rock, June. 2000. “The Land Issue in Eritrea’s Reconstruction & Development.” Review of African Political Economy 27 (84): 221–34.

Author: June Rock


At the end of the 30 year‐long liberation struggle against Ethiopian overrule, Eritrea was faced with the enormous tasks of political and economic reconstruction, the repair of the country's physical infrastructure, and the need to rebuild and rehabilitate the devastated agricultural sector. These tasks coincided with those of the demobilisation of fighters and the repatriation and reintegration of some 600,000 refugees that had fled to the Sudan during the struggle. High on the agenda of Eritrea's decision‐makers immediately after Independence, was the issue of land. A speedy resolution of the land issue was seen as integral to the government's overall policies for post‐war recovery and reconstruction. This resulted in the introduction, in 1994, of the Eritrea Land Proclamation, which aimed to radically transform the country's tenure systems. Some six years later, with the exception of one or two small pilot projects in the immediate environs of the capital, Asmara, the Proclamation has still to be implemented. This article examines some of the specific provisions of the Land Proclamation in order to explore what would need to be done to initiate it on the ground. It is argued that, while the principles of the Land Proclamation are well intentioned, its implementation would be too complex and costly, and that there are alternative lessons to be learned from the EPLF's own, earlier land reforms of the mid‐1970s and 1980s.

Topics: DDR, Development, Economies, Land Tenure, Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Eritrea

Year: 2000

Notes toward a Gendered Understanding of Mixed‐Population Movements and Security Sector Reform after Conflict


Farr, Vanessa A. 2007. “Notes toward a Gendered Understanding of Mixed‐Population Movements and Security Sector Reform after Conflict.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 32 (3): 591–96. doi:10.1086/510156.

Author: Vanessa A. Farr


Armed conflicts in Africa are increasingly characterized by the movements of mixed populations of combatants and civilians. These movements may take place across international borders but sometimes come about from displacement across internal or state boundaries, including cease-fire zones, into territories held by an opposing force. The status of such mixed populations—as refugees or internally displaced people, as mercenaries or prisoners of war—is often difficult to determine. Their movement has direct implications for postconflict security measures such as repatriation and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of combatants, their dependents, and most particularly, women and girls associated with armed groups in noncombatant roles. Not surprisingly, however, given the vagueness of current approaches to cross-border and internal movements by militarized groups and the ongoing indifference to using a gender lens as an analytical tool in understanding insecurity, the fact that the movement of armed groups and fighting forces is highly gendered tends to be invisible to policy makers and program planners. In this article, I present a preliminary and largely speculative set of observations and questions on how militarized crossborder and internal movement is affecting women and girls, especially in areas with large internally displaced and refugee communities, and propose some avenues for further research.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2007

Guns, Camps and Cash: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reinsertion of Former Combatants in Transitions from War to Peace


Knight, Mark, and Alpaslan Ozerdem. 2004. "Guns, Camps and Cash: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reinsertion of Former Combatants in Transitions from War to Peace." Journal of Peace Research 41 (4): 499-516.

Authors: Mark Knight, Alpaslan Ozerdem


The process of disarmament, demobilization, reinsertion and reintegration (DDRR) of former combatants plays a critical role in transitions from war to peace. The success or failure of this endeavour directly affects the long-term peacebuilding prospects for any post-conflict society. The exploration of the closely interwoven relationship between peacebuilding and the DDRR process also provides a theoretical framework for this article, which aims to present an assessment of various disarmament, demobilization and reinsertion (DDR) programmes planned or implemented in a number of countries over the last two decades. The assessment is conducted by focusing on three specific DDR issues: disarmament as a social contract; demobilization without cantonment; and the relevance of financial reinsertion assistance. The majority of these initiatives adopted a ‘guns–camps–cash’ approach that seems to provide only a limited perspective for dealing with a wide range of complex issues related to the DDR process. Therefore, the article questions whether there is a need for a more comprehensive consideration of disarmament by acknowledging and responding to its social, economic and political implications. In conjunction with the above-mentioned consideration, disarmament in terms of a social contract is proposed as an alternative to the current military-centred approach. Experience also indicates a tendency towards the inclusion of cantonment in the demobilization phase, regardless of whether it actually can have some negative impacts on the DDRR process in general. Subsequently, the article questions such implications and possible approaches to demobilization without cantonment. Finally, the article focuses on the effectiveness of cash payments during reinsertion as an easier alternative to the provision of other material assistance, since this tends to be the most controversial aspect of the reinsertion phase.

Topics: Combatants, DDR, Peacebuilding

Year: 2004


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