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DDR

Gender, Peace and Disarmament

Citation:

Heyzer, Noeleen. 2003. “Gender, Peace and Disarmament.” Disarmament Forum 4: 5–16.

Author: Noeleen Heyzer

Abstract:

This paper shows how gender perspectives are relevant to disarmament issues. It illustrates the links between gender and landmines, small arms and light weapons, weapons of mass destruction and the post-conflict process of disarming, demobilizing and reintegrating former combatants. The author looks more closely at each of these issues, highlighting examples of the gender and disarmament nexus. (UNDIR)

Topics: DDR, Gender, Peace Processes

Year: 2003

The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern

Citation:

Luciak, Ilja. 2009. “The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern.” Paper presented at the Annual ISA-ABRI Joint International Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, July 22-24.

Author: Ilja Luciak

Abstract:

It is the premise of this paper that sustainable peace and development require the full implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325. The paper calls attention to the importance of implementing SCR 1325 by highlighting key areas of concern with a primary focus on a small sample of Latin American countries, including Colombia, Guatemala, El Salvador, Haiti, and Nicaragua. The paper discusses several recent and current peace processes in the region. It emphasizes that peace negotiations constitute a crucial entry point for considerations of gender justice. Thus it is essential that the process be inclusive. Yet women'€™s participation in formal peace processes continues to be limited and their contributions to informal peace processes are only starting to be recognized. Peace accords and subsequent constitution-building present important opportunities for countries emerging from conflict to transform their political systems toward greater gender equality. Several Latin American countries have advanced in the political reconstruction of their respective societies by instituting constitutional and electoral reforms in the wake of conflict. On the other hand, a discussion of disarmament and demobilization processes in the region and highlights the current lack of attention to gender considerations. Similarly, the gendered needs of refugees and internally displaced populations also require attention. Further, in addition to dealing with violent acts committed during war, governments need to address the security environment that emerges in the wake of conflict. Post-war violence, whether committed in the public or private sphere, plagues many countries in the region.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 2009

Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants (DDR) in Afghanistan: Constraints and Limited Capabilities

Citation:

Rossi, Simonetta, and Antonio Giustozzi. 2006. “Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants (DDR) in Afghanistan: Constraints and Limited Capabilities.” Crisis States Series Working Paper 02-02, Crisis States Research Centre, DESTIN, London School of Economics and Political Science, London.

Authors: Simonetta Rossi, Antonio Giustozzi

Abstract:

This paper examines the efforts towards DDR in Afghanistan and the widening gap between programme goals and the reality on the ground. It examines the experiences of targeted and non-targeted approaches and identifies a lack of prior planning and adequate assessment of the social and economic situation in Afghanistan as contributory factors to failures in successful delivery of DDR. It also considers the impact of some international actors' failure to engage fully with the process.

Topics: Combatants, DDR Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2006

Demobilization and Reintegration in Central America

Citation:

Spencer, Denise. 1997. Demobilization and Reintegration in Central America. Bonn, Germany: Bonn International Conversion Center.

Author: Denise Spencer

Abstract:

This paper reviews reductions in armed forces and opposition forces of Central American countries and the context of each demobilization experience. A brief background of the Central American peace process and the resolution of conflicts in Nicaragua and El Salvador will illustrate how a trend toward demilitarization in the region developed and established a sense of regional security–though at times unstable–essential to successful demobilization and reintegration experiences. The Paper then reviews these post-conflict experiences in light of the peace agreements and commitments made by the respective governments. The challenges to demobilization and reintegration exercises and the reintegration support provided for ex-combatants are examined.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, Central America

Year: 1997

The Nexus between Social Capital and Reintegration of Ex-combatants: A Case for Sierra Leone

Citation:

Leff, Jonah. 2008. “The Nexus between Social Capital and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: A Case for Sierra Leone.” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 8 (1): 18–20.

Author: Jonah Leff

Abstract:

Following the end of the Cold War, the international community shifted its attention from duelling ideological warfare to the many intra-state, or internal armed conflicts occurring globally. In response, the United Nations, along with a wide array of aid agencies, have invested greater and greater time and resources in post-conflict environments. When peace is reached after conflict, economic and social conditions are not conducive for ex-combatants to reintegrate on their own. Programmes that address ex-combatants as well as broader post-conflict recovery are essential. Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration (DDR) is one such programme that has received widespread attention. Policy analysts have debated the factors that contribute to a successful DDR programme. This study examines reintegration, the final phase of DDR, arguing that in order to achieve successful reintegration of ex-combatants, a community-focused approach that generates social capital must be implemented. Using a comprehensive literature review of social capital and community-based reintegration and a thorough case study from Sierra Leone, this paper will demonstrate the relationship between social capital and reintegration.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Reaching the Girls: Study on Girls Associated with Armed Forces and Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Citation:

Verhey, Beth. 2004. Reaching the Girls: Study on Girls Associated with Armed Forces and Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo. London: Save the Children UK.

Author: Beth Verhey

Abstract:

This study analyses the situation of girls associated with armed forces and groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In particular, this study seeks to understand why girls are not reached by the efforts to gain the release of children associated with armed groups in DRC and to support their reintegration. Indeed, it is widely acknowledged by child protection organisations globally that knowledge about the involvement of girls in armed groups, and how to support their particular needs in reintegration efforts, is insufficient. Undertaken as a partnership between four international non- governmental organisations (NGOs), Save the Children UK and the NGO Group of CARE, IFESH and IRC, the study featured two months of in-depth fieldwork covering the five Provinces of Eastern DRC -- Maniema, North Katanga, North and South Kivu and Orientale.

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Girls, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2004

Girlhoods Stolen: The Plight of Girl Soldiers During and After Armed Conflict

Citation:

McKay, Susan. 2006. “Girlhoods Stolen: The Plight of Girl Soldiers during and after Armed Conflict.” In A World Turned Upside Down: Social Ecological Approaches to Children in War Zones, edited by Neil Boothby, Alison Strang, and Michael Wessells, 89–110. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, Inc.

Author: Susan McKay

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Girls, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2006

Girls and Small Arms in Sierra Leone: Victimization, Participation, and Resistance

Citation:

Denov, Myriam, and Richard Maclure. 2005. “Girls and Small Arms in Sierra Leone: Victimization, Participation, and Resistance.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Honolulu, March 5.

Authors: Myriam Denov, Richard Maclure

Abstract:

Despite the protections provided to children under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the issue of child soldiers has become a major global concern. More than 300,000 soldiers under the age of 18 are fighting in conflicts in 41 countries around the world. During Sierra Leone's decade-long civil war, close to 20,000 children were actively engaged as participants in armed struggle. While there is ample descriptive evidence of the conditions and factors underlying the rise of child soldiery in Sierra Leone and elsewhere in the developing world, most of the literature has portrayed this as a uniquely male phenomenon. Yet in Sierra Leone an estimated 30 percent of child soldiers in oppositional forces were girls. So far, however, there is little empirical information that distinguishes the experiences of these girls from those of boys. In particular, very little is known about the forces that propelled girls into armed conflict, about their experiences and perceptions of war, or about their unique psycho-social needs. Likewise, while demobilization and reintegration have been recognized as essential to sustainable peace-building in Sierra Leone, there are clear risks that implementation of such programmes will proceed according to conditionalities that fail to acknowledge gender distinctions and the ideal of 'empowering' female and male youth. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 32 Sierra Leonean girls formerly in fighting forces, this paper traces girls' perspectives and experiences with small arms and the implications of their involvement in armed conflict. It highlights the multi-faceted world that girls were forced to contend with - one in which the realities of victimization, perpetration, and resistance were experienced in a shifting and dialectical fashion.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Girls, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Weapons /Arms Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2005

The Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration of Child Soldiers: Social and Psychological Transformation in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Williamson, John. 2006. “The Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration of Child Soldiers: Social and Psychological Transformation in Sierra Leone.” Intervention, The International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict 4 (3): 185-205.

Author: John Williamson

Abstract:

This article gives an overview of the processes of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of child soldiers in Sierra Leone. In contrast to many other situations, in Sierra Leone there has been an effective, integrated response involving a large number of civil society organizations and committees as well as the government. Nine areas of intervention were identified as having contributed to successful family and community reintegration: community sensitization, formal disarmament and demobilization, a period of transition in an Interim Care Centre, tracing and family mediation, family reunification, traditional cleansing and healing ceremonies and religious support, school or skills training, ongoing access to health care for those in school or training, and individual supportive counselling, facilitation and encouragement. Most children who have been demobilized appear to be doing as well as other children in their community.

Keywords: child soldiers, Sierra Leone, reintegration

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2006

High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Betancourt, Theresa S., Stephanie Simmons, Ivelina Borisova, Stephanie E. Brewer, Uzo Iweala, and Marie de la Soudière. 2008. “High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone.” Comparative Education Review 52 (4): 565–87.

Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Stephanie Simmons, Ivelina Borisova, Stephanie E. Brewer, Uzo Iweala, Marie de la Soudière

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, DDR, Gender, Girls, Boys Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

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