An Experiment on Corruption and Gender


Rivas, M. Fernanda. 2008. “An Experiment on Corruption and Gender.” Working Paper, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada 806 (January).

Author: M. Fernanda Rivas


There exists evidence in the social science literature that women may be more relationship- oriented, may have higher standards of ethical behavior and may be more concerned with the common good than men are. This would imply that women are more willing to sacrifice private profit for the public good, which would be especially important for political life. A number of papers with field data have found differences in the corrupt activities of males and females, nonetheless they have drawbacks that may be overcome in a lab experiment. The aim of this paper is to see experimentally if women and men, facing the same situation behave in a different way, as suggested in the field-data studies or, on the contrary, they behave in the same way. The results found in the experiment show that women are indeed less corrupt than men. 


Keywords: corruption, gender, experiment

Topics: Corruption, Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Political Participation

Year: 2008

Engineering Elections: The Experiences of Women in 'Panchayati Raj' in Karnataka, India


Kudva, Neema. 2003. “Engineering Elections: The Experiences of Women in ‘Panchayati Raj’ in Karnataka, India.” International Journal of Politics, Culture & Society

Author: Neema Kudva


Engineering elections through gender quotas is a crucial component of strategies that seek to empower women through increased participation in the political system. In the south Indian state of Karnataka, this experiment has seen mixed results: it has made women more visible, decreased levels of corruption in Panchayati Raj institutions, and increased self-efficiency of women representatives. It is more difficult, however, to claim a substantive change in institutional priorities and state accountability. As important is the fact that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) often provide significant training and support in successful cases. Engineering elections thus highlights possibilities for change through increased participation by women.

Keywords: women, politics, Panchayati Raj, Karnataka, quotas, NGOs

Topics: Civil Society, Corruption, Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2003

Women in South Asian Politics


Jahan, Rounaq. 1987. “Women in South Asian Politics.” Third World Quarterly 9 (3): 848–70.


Author: Rounaq Jahan


This article traces the role of women in the corrupt political sphere of South Asia. While women's participation in politics may be analysed in many ways, this article will concentrate on three major issues: women in leadership, women in mainstream politics, and the new women's movement as an alternative to the mainstream. Data and examples are drawn primarily from the four South Asian countries where women have achieved leadership positions in the last few decades: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Topics: Civil Society, Corruption, Gender, Women, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Year: 1987

The Scandal of the State: Women, Law, Citizenship in Postcolonial India


Sunder Rajan, Rajeswari. 2003. The Scandal of the State: Women, Law, Citizenship in Postcolonial India. Durham: Duke University Press.

Author: Rajeswari Sunder Rajan



"The Scandal of the State is a revealing study of the relationship between the postcolonial, democratic Indian nation-state and Indian women’s actual needs and lives. Well-known for her work combining feminist theory and postcolonial studies, Rajeswari Sunder Rajan shows how the state is central to understanding women’s identities and how, reciprocally, women and “women’s issues” affect the state’s role and function. She argues that in India law and citizenship define for women not only the scope of political rights but also cultural identity and everyday life. Sunder Rajan delineates the postcolonial state in implicit contrast with the “enlightened,” postfeminist neoliberal state in the West. Her analysis wrestles with complex social realities, taking into account the influence of age, ethnicity, religion, and class on individual and group identities as well as the shifting, heterogeneous nature of the state itself."


“The Scandal of the State develops through a series of compelling case studies, each of which centers around an incident exposing the contradictory position of the Indian state vis-à-vis its female citizens and, ultimately, the inadequacy of its commitment to women’s rights. Sunder Rajan focuses on the custody battle over a Muslim child bride, the compulsory sterilization of mentally retarded women in state institutional care, female infanticide in Tamilnadu, prostitution as labor rather than crime, and the surrender of the female outlaw Phoolan Devi. She also looks at the ways the Uniform Civil Code presented many women with a stark choice between allegiance to their religion and community or the secular assertion of individual rights. Rich with theoretical acumen and activist passion, The Scandal of the State is a powerful critique of the mutual dependence of women and the state on one another in the specific context of a postcolonial modernity.” (Duke University Press)


Perception, treatment, abuse, and exploitation of women are all described as effects of corruption.

Table of Contents:
Preface ix


Acknowledgments xiii


1. Introduction: Women, Citizenship, Law, and the Indian State 1


I. Women in Custody


2. The Ameena “Case”: The Female Citizen and Subject 41


3. Beyond the Hysterectomies Scandal: Women, the Institution, Family, and State 72


II. Women in Law 


4. The Prostitution Question(s): Female Agency, Sexuality, and Work 117


5. Women Between Community and State: Some Implications of the Uniform Civil Code Debates 147


III. Killing Women 


6. Children of the State?: Unwanted Girls in Rural Tamilnadu 177


7. Outlaw Woman: The Politics of Phoolan Devi’s Surrender, 1983 212


Notes 237


References 279


Index 301

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Corruption, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2003

On Living with Negative Peace and a Half-Built State: Gender and Human Rights


Azarbaijani-Moghaddam, Sippi. 2007. “On Living with Negative Peace and a Half-Built State: Gender and Human Rights.” International Peacekeeping 14 (1): 127–42. doi:10.1080/13533310601114335.

Author: Sippi Azarbaijani-Moghaddam


This article examines the double standards associated with a precarious international peacebuilding strategy in Afghanistan based on impunity and half-truths rather than accountability and transitional justice. Many international organizations have turned a blind eye to past and current human rights atrocities through forms of rationalization based on an empowerment of cultural differences, relativization of progress and ‘policy reductionism’. Consequently, and in the absence of consistently applied rights instruments, societal divisions along gender, ethnic and other lines have intensified Afghanistan’s culture of intolerance to human rights, thereby violating the very principles the international community purports to uphold. Drawing on first-hand experiences, personal interviews and a sober analysis of trends, this article challenges some of the conventional assumptions held about the perception and knowledge of human rights among Afghans. It concludes by identifying possible areas of future study to better understand both the prospects for transitional justice and how ordinary Afghans continue to cope with widespread injustice and inequality.


Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Civil Society, Corruption, Ethnicity, Gender, International Organizations, Justice, Impunity, Transitional Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militias, Paramilitaries, Peacebuilding, Rights, Human Rights, Violence Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2007

(Re-)Conceptualizing Water Inequality in Delhi, India through a Feminist Political Ecology Framework


Truelove, Yaffa. 2011. “(Re-)Conceptualizing Water Inequality in Delhi, India through a Feminist Political Ecology Framework.” Geoforum, Themed Issue: New Feminist Political Ecologies, 42 (2): 143–52. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.01.004.

Author: Yaffa Truelove


This article demonstrates how a feminist political ecology (FPE) framework can be utilized to expand scholarly conceptualizations of water inequality in Delhi, India. I argue that FPE is well positioned to complement and deepen urban political ecology work through attending to everyday practices and micropolitics within communities. Specifically, I examine the embodied consequences of sanitation and ‘water compensation’ practices and how patterns of criminality are tied to the experience of water inequality. An FPE framework helps illuminate water inequalities forged on the body and within particular urban spaces, such as households, communities, streets, open spaces and places of work. Applying FPE approaches to the study of urban water is particularly useful in analyzing inequalities associated with processes of social differentiation and their consequences for everyday life and rights in the city. An examination of the ways in which water practices are productive of particular urban subjectivities and spaces complicates approaches that find differences in distribution and access to be the primary lens for viewing how water is tied to power and inequality.

Keywords: water, inequality, gender, Urban India, Criminality, Environmental politics, feminist political ecology

Topics: Caste, Civil Society, Class, Corruption, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

Women’s Responses to State Violence in the Niger Delta


Ekine, Sokari. 2008. “Women’s Responses to State Violence in the Niger Delta.” Feminist Africa 10: 67–83.

Author: Sokari Ekine


This paper will discuss the ways in which the women of the Niger Delta have responded to acts of violence by the Nigerian State and its allies, the multinational oil companies. I first briefly outline the background to the crises in the Niger Delta and then discuss the responses and resistance of the women.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Corruption, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Multi-National Corporations, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2008

Trafficking in Women: The Business Model Approach


Shelley, Louise. 2003. “Trafficking in Women: The Business Model Approach.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 10 (1): 119–31.

Author: Louise Shelley

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2003

The ‘Natasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women


Hughes, Donna. 2000. “The ‘Natasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women.” Journal of International Affairs 53 (2): 625–51.

Author: Donna Hughes

Topics: Corruption, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2000

Criminal Groups and Transnational Illegal Markets


Bruinsma, Gerben, and Wim Bernasco. 2004. “Criminal Groups and Transnational Illegal Markets.” Crime, Law & Social Change 41: 79–94.

Authors: Gerben Bruinsma, Wim Bernasco


In the study of organised crime, the traditional view of criminal groups as centrally controlled organisations has been replaced by the notion of criminal networks. However, little use has been made of concepts and theories of social networks that have developed in other social sciences. This paper uses concepts from social network theory to describe and tentatively explain differences in social organization between criminal groups that perform three types of transnational illegal activities: smuggling and large-scale heroine trading, trafficking in women, and trading stolen cars. Groups that operate in the large-scale heroin market tend to be close-knit, cohesive and ethnically homogenous. Groups active in the trafficking of women have a chain structure, while those that operate in the market for stolen cars are charactersed by three clusters of offenders in a chain. Both groups are less cohesive than criminal groups in the large-scale heroin market. The differences in social organisation between the three types of illegal activities appear to be related to the legal and financial risks associated with the crimes in question, and thereby to the required level of trust between collaborating criminals.

Topics: Corruption, Economies, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2004


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