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Corruption

Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala

Citation:

Crystal, Valerie, Shin Imai, and Bernadette Maheandiran. 2014. “Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne D’Études Du Développement 35 (2): 285–303.

Authors: Shin Imai, Bernadette Maheandiran, Valerie Crystal

Abstract:

This case study looks at the avenues open for addressing serious allegations of murder, rape and assault brought by indigenous Guatemalans against a Canadian mining company, HudBay Minerals. While first-generation legal and development policy reforms have facilitated foreign mining in Guatemala, second-generation reforms have failed to address effectively conflicts arising from the development projects. The judicial mechanisms available in Guatemala are difficult to access and suffer from problems of corruption and intimidation. Relevant corporate social responsibility policies and mechanisms lack the necessary enforcement powers. Canadian courts have been reluctant to permit lawsuits against Canadian parent companies; however, in Choc v. HudBay and Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, Ontario judges have allowed cases to proceed on the merits of the case, providing an important, if limited, avenue toward corporate accountability.

Keywords: mining, Latin America, Chevron, HudBay, corporate social responsibility

Topics: Corruption, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, Justice, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America Countries: Canada, Guatemala

Year: 2014

Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Niger Delta Women and the Burden Of Gas Flaring

Citation:

Omeire, Edward Uche, Agbatse Augustine Aveuya, Chinedu T. Muoneme Obi, Adolphus Gold, Ufomba Akudo, and Chinemerem Adaiheoma Omeire. 2014. “Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Niger Delta Women and the Burden Of Gas Flaring.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ 10 (26): 151-62.

Authors: Edward Uche Omeire, Agbatse Augustine Aveuya, Chinedu T. Muoneme Obi, Adolphus Gold, Ufomba Akudo, Chinemerem Adaiheoma Omeire

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of gas flaring on Niger Delta Women. The findings of the study show that gas flaring impact men and women disappropriately, with women being more exposed and vulnerable due to a number of associated cultural and socio-economic factors. It was also observed that gas flaring ritual has continued endlessly in Niger Delta due to a number of factors which include: lack of political will, lack of sound and broad regulatory framework, high level of corruption and lack of patriotism among state actors and above all, insincerity and lack of environmental accountability among multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger delta. The authors therefore conclude that there is the urgent need to mainstream gender in oil and gas policies in Nigeria. There is also the need to put in place a sound and broad regulatory framework that will compel multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger delta to be environmentally accountable to the people.

Keywords: gas flaring, Niger Delta, women, degradation, environment

Topics: Corruption, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Energy, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Perceptions of Corruption and the Dynamics of Women's Representation

Citation:

Watson, David, and Amy Moreland. 2014. “Perceptions of Corruption and the Dynamics of Women’s Representation.” Politics & Gender 10 (03): 392–412. doi:10.1017/S1743923X14000233.

Authors: David Watson, Amy Moreland

Abstract:

A growing body of literature focuses on the attitudes produced by women's representation. One area of particular interest is the effect of women's representation on perceptions of corruption in government. Multiple scholars have found that citizens view women in government as more trustworthy and less corrupt. Others have suggested that the link between gender and corruption is spurious or dependent upon regime characteristics. Additionally, many studies of women's effect on corruption were published prior to the widespread adoption of gender quotas, when levels of women's representation were considerably lower. We argue that the relationship between women and perceptions of corruption can be better understood by applying an integrated model of representation, which explores the effects of formal, descriptive, and substantive representation on perceptions of corruption. Using a time-series analysis of 140 countries worldwide from 1998–2011, this study finds that women's descriptive and substantive representation are correlated with lower perceptions of corruption. However, gender quotas are correlated with higher perceptions of corruption among political elites.

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Political Participation

Year: 2014

Gender Stereotypes and Corruption: How Candidates Affect Perceptions of Election Fraud

Citation:

Barnes, Tiffany D., and Emily Beaulieu. 2014. “Gender Stereotypes and Corruption: How Candidates Affect Perceptions of Election Fraud.” Politics & Gender 10 (03): 365–91. doi:10.1017/S1743923X14000221.

Authors: Tiffany D. Barnes, Emily Beaulieu

Abstract:

How do stereotypes of female candidates influence citizens' perceptions of political fraud and corruption? Because gender stereotypes characterize female politicians as more ethical, honest, and trustworthy than male politicians, there are important theoretical reasons for expecting female politicians to mitigate perceptions of fraud and corruption. Research using observational data, however, is limited in its ability to establish a causal relationship between women's involvement in politics and reduced concerns about corruption. Using a novel experimental survey design, we find that the presence of a female candidate systematically reduces the probability that individuals will express strong suspicion of election fraud in what would otherwise be considered suspicious circumstances. Results from this experiment also reveal interesting heterogeneous effects: individuals who are not influenced by shared partisanship are even more responsive to gender cues; and male respondents are more responsive to those cues than females. These findings have potential implications for women running for office, both with respect to election fraud and corruption more broadly, particularly in low-information electoral settings.

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Women, Governance, Elections, Political Participation

Year: 2014

"Fairer Sex" or Purity Myth? Corruption, Gender, and Institutional Context

Citation:

Esarey, Justin, and Gina Chirillo. 2013. “‘Fairer Sex’ or Purity Myth? Corruption, Gender, and Institutional Context.” Politics & Gender 9 (04): 361–89. doi:10.1017/S1743923X13000378.

Authors: Justin Esarey, Gina Chirillo

Abstract:

Recent research finds that states with more women involved in government are also less prone to corruption (Dollar, Fisman, and Gatti 2001; Swamy et al. 2001). But a review of experimental evidence indicates that “women are not necessarily more intrinsically honest or averse to corruption than men” in the laboratory or in the field (Frank, Lambsdorff, and Boehm 2011, 68). Rather, the attitudes and behaviors of women concerning corruption depend on institutional and cultural contexts in these experimental situations (Alatas, Cameron, and Chaudhuri 2009; Alhassan-Alolo 2007; Armantier and Boly 2008; Schulze and Frank 2003). If women's inclination toward corruption is contextual, then what are the contexts in which we would expect female involvement in government to fight corruption? The answer is important to understand where gender equality initiatives present a cost-effective and politically feasible approach to cleaning up government.

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Women, Governance, Political Participation

Year: 2013

Women, Gender Norms, and Natural Disasters in Bangladesh

Citation:

Juran, Luke, and Jennifer Trivedi. “Women, Gender Norms, and Natural Disasters in Bangladesh.” Geographical Review 105, no. 4 (October 1, 2015): 601–11. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2015.12089.x.

Authors: Luke Juran, Jennifer Trivedi

Abstract:

Women and men are impacted differently by natural disasters, leading to claims that there exist gendered disaster vulnerabilities and a “gendered terrain of disasters” (Enarson and Morrow 1998). What makes this contention even more academically and practically relevant are recent increases in the number of natural disasters and affectees (Guha-Sapir and others 2004; Paul 2011). The confluence of gender and disaster is particularly clear in Bangladesh, a country challenging twin specters of gender issues and an array of regularly occurring natural disasters. Bangladesh’s unique geographic situation of extreme population densities overlaid on a low-lying deltaic and coastal landscape interacts with the nation’s range of social and environmental transitions: issues of democracy, government corruption, poverty, rural-urban divides, and gender parity, coupled with problems related to multihazard risk, looming effects of climate change, and issues of environmental justice that predispose certain demographics to heightened levels of risk. Thus, the topic of gender and natural disasters presents a valuable junction for practical and academic exploration,representing a space where these transitions jointly manifest, coexist, and both create and reveal vulnerability.

Topics: Corruption, Democracy / Democratization, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2015

Gender, Corruption, and Sustainable Grown in Transition Countries

Citation:

Michailova, Julija, and Inna Melnykovska. 2009. “Gender, Corruption, and Sustainable Grown in Transition Countries.” Journal of Applied Economic Sciences 4 (3 (9)): 387–401.

Authors: Julija Michailova, Inna Melnykovska

Abstract:

Numerous studies have found negative connection between corruption level and economic development. At the same time few of them demonstrate correlation between women representation in politics and corruption level. This paper analyzes correlation between gender and corruption for a specific sample of countries, sharing common cultural and historical legacy – transition countries. Relationship between higher number of women in parliament and decreasing level of corruption is supported by data. Relations with other forms of women social activity were found to be insignificant. Contribution of this paper to the research literature on this topic is twofold. First analysis on gender and corruption in transition economies has previously not been done. Second, this study could also be used for the practical policies on fighting corruption by application of gender quotas.

Keywords: gender, corruption, growth, Transition Countries

Topics: Corruption, Development, Economies, Gender, Political Participation

Year: 2009

Are Women Really the "Fairer" Sex? Corruption and Women in Government

Citation:

Dollar, David, Raymond Fisman, and Roberta Gatti. 2001. “Are Women Really the 'Fairer' Sex? Corruption and Women in Government.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization ​46 (4): 423-9.

Authors: David Dollar, Raymond Fisman, Roberta Gatti

Abstract:

Numerous behavioral studies have found women to be more trust-worthy and public-spirited than men. These results suggest that women should be particularly effective in promoting honest government. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that the greater the representation of women in parliament, the lower the level of corruption. We find this association in a large cross-section of countries; the result is robust to a wide range of specifications.

Keywords: corruption, gender, government

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Governance

Year: 2001

Women and Decentralized Water Governance: Issues, Challenges and the Way Forward

Citation:

Kulkarni, Seema. 2011. “Women and Decentralised Water Governance: Issues, Challenges and the Way Forward.” Review of Women’s Studies 46 (18): 64–72.

Author: Seema Kulkarni

Abstract:

Based on a study of water rights and women’s rights in decentralised water governance in Maharashtra and Gujarat, this paper argues that decentralisation will fail to meet its desired objectives unless the value systems, culture and the nature of institutions, including the family, change. While the policy initiative of introducing quotas for women in public bodies is welcome and necessary, it is certainly not sufficient for the success of decentralisation in a society ridden with discrimination based on class, caste and patriarchy, and where the culture of political patronage is dominant. The presence of vibrant social and political movements that propose alternative cultural, social and political paradigms would be a necessary foundation for major social changes. The success of decentralised water governance is constrained by the conceptualisation of the larger reform in water at one level and the notions of the normative woman, community, public and the private domains, and institutions at another. Unless all of these are altered, decentralised processes will not be truly democratic.

Topics: Caste, Class, Corruption, Democracy / Democratization, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Quotas Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

The Gender, Poverty, Governance Nexus: Key Issues and Current Debates

Citation:

Sever, Charlie. 2005. “The Gender, Poverty, Governance Nexus: Key Issues and Current Debates.” Development Cooperation Ireland.

Author: Charlie Sever

Topics: Civil Society, Corruption, Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Political Economies, Political Participation

Year: 2005

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