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conflict

Implications of Customary Practices on Gender Discrimination in Land Ownership in Cameroon

Citation:

Fonjong, Lotsmart, Irene Fokum Sama-Lang, and Lawrence Fon Fombe. 2012. “Implications of Customary Practices on Gender Discrimination in Land Ownership in Cameroon.” Ethics and Social Welfare 6 (3): 260-74.

Authors: Lotsmart Fonjong, Irene Fokum Sama-Lang, Lawrence Fon Fombe

Abstract:

Africa, before European colonization, knew no other form of legal system outside customary arrangements. Based on secondary sources and a primary survey conducted between 2009 and 2010 on the situation of women and land rights in anglophone Cameroon, this paper examines the grounds for discrimination in customary laws against women's rights to land in the context of legal pluralism, and discusses the implications of this custom of gender discrimination. In drawing from Cameroon as an exemplar, it concludes that the strong influence and impact of customs on current land tenure systems have global implications on women's land rights, food security and sustainable development, and that gender equality in land matters can be possible only where the critical role of ethics is recognized in pursuit of the economic motive of land rights.

Keywords: women's rights, land tenure, customary practices, discrimination, development

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, peace and security, Governance, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2012

Revisiting the World Bank’s Land Law Reform Agenda in Africa: The Promise and Perils of Customary Practices

Citation:

Collins, Andrea, and Matthew I. Mitchell. 2018. “Revisiting the World Bank’s Land Law Reform Agenda in Africa: The Promise and Perils of Customary Practices.” Journal of Agrarian Change 18 (1): 112–31.

Authors: Andrea Collins, Matthew I. Mitchell

Abstract:

This paper revisits the World Bank's land law reform agenda in Africa by focusing on two central issues: (1) land law reform as a tool for resolving land conflicts, and (2) the role of land law reform in addressing gender inequalities. While the Bank's recent land report provides insights for improving land governance in Africa, it fails to acknowledge the exploitative and contentious politics that often characterize customary land tenure systems, and the local power dynamics that undermine the ability of marginalized groups to secure land rights. Using insights from recent fieldwork, the paper analyses the links between land law reform and conflict in Ghana, and the gendered dynamics of reforming land governance in Tanzania. These “crucial cases” illustrate how land law reform can provoke conflicts over land and threaten the rights of vulnerable populations (e.g. migrants and women) when customary practices are uncritically endorsed as a means of improving land governance. As such, the paper concludes with a series of recommendations on how to navigate the promise and perils of customary practices in the governance of land.

Keywords: africa, customary practices, Ghana, land law reform, tanzania, World Bank

Topics: Conflict Prevention, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, Governance, International Financial Institutions, International Organizations, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Tanzania

Year: 2018

The Battle After the War: Gender Discrimination in Property Rights and Post-Conflict Property Restitution

Citation:

Mohan, Sharanya Sai. 2011. "The Battle After the War: Gender Discrimination in Property Rights and Post-Conflict Property Restitution." The Yale Journal of International Law 36 (2): 461-95.

Author: Sharanya Sai Mohan

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This note argues that property restitution programs in transitional justice settings need to correct barriers to women's property ownership. In so doing, efforts by government, civil society, and the displaced themselves to achieve transitional justice can also create long-lasting property rights reform that moves a post-conflict society toward both reconstruction and equality. After considering the existing international legal framework as well as several case studies of transitional justice schemes, this Note will argue that actors in transitional justice should take certain steps at the very beginning of the transitional process to ensure that women's property rights are protected as they return to their lives” (Mohan 2011, 463).

Topics: Civil Society, conflict, peace and security, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Law, Justice, Transitional Justice, Land grabbing, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2011

Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach

Citation:

Santillan, Karina R. 2015. “Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 15–30.

Author: Karina R. Santillan

Abstract:

The conflict in Mindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.

Keywords: Mindanao, women's livelihoods, post-conflict reconstruction, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, conflict, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study From Mindanao, Philippines

Citation:

Chandra, Alvin, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, and Dante Dalabajan. 2017. “Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study from Mindanao, Philippines.” Journal of Rural Studies 50 (February): 45–59.

Authors: Alvin Chandra, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers in the Philippines are typically considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet, relatively little is known about how that vulnerability differs between men and women farmers, particularly in conflict-prone areas. Using the region of Mindanao in Philippines as a case study, this paper presents an analysis of focus groups (n = 14) and interviews (n = 77) to showcase gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change. This analysis reveals that both climate change and conflict significantly increase smallholder vulnerability, resulting in loss of livelihoods, financial assets, agricultural yield and the worsening of debt problems. Women and men are affected differently, resulting in changing farming patterns and coping strategies. Women are more disadvantaged and as such tend to farm in smaller plots, work shorter hours or limit farming to cash crops. Extreme climate events in conflict-prone agrarian communities appear to subject women to forced migration, increased discrimination, loss of customary rights to land, resource poverty and food insecurity. The paper concludes by recommending implementing climate-smart agriculture solutions that are both gender and conflict sensitive.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, gender, Mindanao, smallholder, Loss and damage

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, conflict, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

Grounding the International Norm on Women, Peace and Security: The Role of Domestic Norm Entrepreneurs and the Challenges Ahead

Citation:

Veneracion-Rallonza, Lourdes. 2013. “Grounding the International Norm on Women, Peace and Security: The Role of Domestic Norm Entrepreneurs and the Challenges Ahead.” Femina Politica - Zeitschrift für feministische Politikwissenschaft 22 (2): 67–85.

Author: Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza

Annotation:

Summary:
"One of the gaps in the study of international norms is the process by which they are institutionalized and accepted at the national level. As the international norm negotiates its way through various national (and even grassroots) levels, a point of inquiry would be how domestic norm entrepreneurs have enabled its localization. This study looks at the narrative of a loose network of peace and women’s human rights groups that worked together to localize United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on women, peace and security in the Philippines. Specifically, it reviews how the network evolved to become a domestic norm entrepreneur within the context of the creation of the Philippine National Action Plan on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and the initiatives it took to localize the norm in the national arena. Within this frame, this study argues that the network continues to evolve as it responds to current and unfolding realities of peace and women’s human rights in armed conflict situations. Particularly, as domestic norm entrepreneur, the network is trying to transcend the usual top-down strategy of grounding an international norm and is now shifting gears toward the value of bottom-up approaches in order to achieve desired results at the grassroots level" (Veneracion-Rallonza 2013, 67). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, conflict, peace and security, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2013

How Women's Silence Secures the Peace: Analysing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in a Low-Intensity Conflict

Citation:

Davies, Sara E., Jacqui True, and Maria Tanyag. 2016. “How Women’s Silence Secures the Peace: Analysing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in a Low-Intensity Conflict.” Gender & Development 24 (3): 459–73.

Authors: Sarah E. Davies, Jacqui True, Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

Most studies of the gendered impact of conflict focus on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) atrocities committed in high-intensity conflict environments. In contrast, this article focuses on the patterns of SGBV in Mindanao, Philippines – an environment of protracted low-intensity conflict within a fragile state. We examine the current Mindanao peace process to highlight the disempowerment of survivors of SGBV, due in large part to the reporting constraints that affect those most likely to be targeted for sexual violence by rival groups, some of whom are closely associated with the peace process. By making visible the significant social, political-economic, and institutional barriers affecting the recognition and reporting of SGBV, we discuss how and why conflict-related SGBV continues in fragile and low-intensity conflict environments.

Keywords: peace process, Mindanao, clan violence, sexual violence, gender

Topics: Clan, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, conflict, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2016

Finding Women in the Zimbabwean Transition

Citation:

Dendere, Chipo. 2018. "Finding Women in the Zimbabwean Transition." Meridians 17 (2): 376-81.

Author: Chipo Dendere

Abstract:

This essay is a feminist response to the 2017 coup in Zimbabwe that brought to an end Robert Mugabe’s thirty-seven-year on power. Mugabe came into power in 1980 after his party, the Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front (ZANU PF), successfully negotiated for an end to the civil war. The male-dominated ZANU PF has stayed in power because they consolidated power around Mugabe’s leadership. However, as the aging Mugabe became frail and his fifty-two-year-old energetic wife found her political voice, ZANU PF became deeply fractured and was facing electoral defeat in the 2018 elections. Grace Mugabe’s rise to power became the rallying point for ZANU PF to evict their longtime leader. Her fall from power has been used to restrict the voices of women even in this new era of political openness.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Feminisms, Gender, conflict, Governance, Elections, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2018

Gender Justice: "Gender" in the Bangsamoro Development Plan

Citation:

Jopson, Teresa Lorena. 2017. “Gender Justice: ‘Gender’ in the Bangsamoro Development Plan.” In Enlarging the Scope of Peace Psychology: African and World-Regional Contributions, edited by Mohamed Seedat, Shahnaaz Suffla, and Daniel J. Christie, 221–38. Cham: Springer.

Author: Teresa Lorena Jopson

Abstract:

This chapter is a preliminary inquiry into gender, conflict, and peace in Mindanao, Southern Philippines. I look into the role of gender in the conflict, women’s participation in peace negotiations, and gender equality as a component of peace and development. I suggest that gender inequality, in the form of a gender order, has historically shaped conflict in Mindanao. I review women’s participation in peace negotiations in Southeast Asia through the cases of Aceh, Myanmar, and the Philippines. Finally, using critical frame analysis, I look at how gender has been framed in the Bangsamoro Development Plan, a roadmap for sustainable peace of the proposed Bangsamoro government. I find that the gender order has shaped the roles men and women have taken in Bangsamoro history and that women’s participation does not necessarily translate to having gender on the agenda of peace negotiations. I underscore the relevance of increased women’s participation in peace and development processes and critically framing gender on peace agendas. I maintain that attending to the quality of gender discourse by (re)politicising “gender” to bring back its emancipatory aim is an aspect of a sustainable peace. 

Keywords: Peace Negotiations, gender, development, bangsamoro, Philippines

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

Building Peace in Bougainville: Gender, Development and Education for Post-Conflict Recovery

Citation:

Ninnes, Peter. 2004. “Building Peace in Bougainville: Gender, Development and Education for Post-Conflict Recovery.” Paper Presented at the 2004 ANZCIES Conference, Melbourne, December 3-5. 

Author: Peter Ninnes

Annotation:

Summary:
"The Bougainville Crisis disrupted life in the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea from 1988-1998. A wide range of government and civil society organizations were involved in attempts at ending the conflict and ameliorating its effects. Since 1998, peace-building efforts have been widespread, and again have involved a range of local, national and international actors. In particular a number of locally initiated and managed grassroots non-government organizations (NGOs) have been established in Bougainville. These NGOs undertake a variety of tasks, including humanitarian relief, advocacy, counselling, development projects, and education. This paper reports on a case study of one local Bougainville NGO, the Leitana Nehan Women’s Development Organisation (LNWDA). LNWDA was formed in 1992, and has managed to survive and thrive in both war and peace, while other local NGOs have disappeared or remained relatively limited in their capacity to contribute to the peace-building efforts. This paper seeks to analyse how it is that LNWDA has managed to adapt to changing circumstances in Bougainville and continue to garner local, national and international support for its education, advocacy and counselling programs" (Ninnes 2004, 317). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Education, Gender, conflict, peace and security, International Organizations, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2004

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