Coloniality/Post-Coloniality

Subverting Economic Empowerment: Towards a Postcolonial-Feminist Framework on Gender (In)Securities in Post-War Settings

Citation:

Martin de Almagro, Maria, and Caitlin Ryan. 2019. "Subverting Economic Empowerment: Towards a Postcolonial-Feminist Framework on Gender (In)Securities in Post-War Settings." European Journal of International Relations 25 (4): 1059-79.

Authors: Maria Martin De Almagro, Caitlin Ryan

Abstract:

This article demonstrates that the inability of the United Nations Women, Peace and Security agenda to realize greater peace and security for women in post-war states stems to a great extent from its failure to engage deeply with the materiality of women’s lives under economic empowerment projects. We argue that the Women, Peace and Security agenda reproduces a neoliberal understanding of economic empowerment that inadequately captures the reality of women’s lives in post-war settings for two reasons: first, it views formal and informal economic activities as dichotomous and separate, rather than as intertwined and constitutive of each other; and, second, it conceptualizes agency as individual, disembodied, abstract, universalizing and conforming to the requirements of the competitive pressures of the market. The article then offers a three-pronged postcolonial-feminist framework to analyse international interventions in which representation, materiality and agency are interconnected. We argue that such a framework helps understand better who is empowered in post-war economies and how they are empowered. This, in turn, makes visible how post-war economies produce gendered and racialized (in)securities that need to be addressed by the Women, Peace and Security agenda. With this, we also hope to reflect on broader international political economy concerns about the problems of making conceptual distinctions between politics and economics, and to challenge the constructed borders between materiality and discourse that have pervaded peace and conflict studies.

Keywords: discourse, feminist political economy, feminist security studies, gender, materiality, postcolonialism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Feminist Foreign Policy, Peace and Security, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Race, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS

Year: 2019

Gender and Reparations: Seeking Transformative Justice

Citation:

Jones, Emily. 2020. "Gender and Reparations: Seeking Transformative Justice." In Reparations for Victims of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, edited by Carla Ferstman and Mariana Goetz, 86-118. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff.

Author: Emily Jones

Annotation:

Summary: 
"In response to concerns around often returning people to situations of inequality through the way reparations are currently applied, there have been multiple calls for and attempts to implement more transformative forms of reparations, i.e. reparations which seek to address and subvert pre-existing unequal and discriminatory structures. Section two of this chapter outlines some of these responses, focusing on transformative reparations both as an essential framing of reparations from a gender perspective as well as an area in which further gender analysis could be pursued to great gain. However, since transformative reparations are largely undefined, how and whether such reparations have been taken up, or not, depends on one's perspective on what transformative reparations exactly entail. Section three therefore draws on feminist work as a way through which to provide an analysis of what transformative reparations could and have included. I then go on, in section four, to analyse some specific examples of reparations that have been used to challenge pre-existing structural inequalities, focusing on the Cotton Fields judgment at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), and outlining the gender literature on reparations programmes. I argue that further and more radical transformative reparations are needed. Such reparations, it is posed, are possibly best implemented through guarantees of non-repetition.
 
Drawing on the examples given in sections three and four, section five outlines some possible ways in which gender-just transformative reparations can be developed further. One way that transformative reparations could be and to some extent have been applied is through communal reparations such as education, training and housing programmes seeking to challenge and change oppressive structures in society. I argue that there is a need for reparations in these forms to be applied more often and their reach to be extended both in terms of what they offer and who is included. The need for a greater recognition of the currently often marginalised framework of economic and social rights is also noted, arguing for the further integration of these rights into reparatios frameworks. I then go on to note the need for intersectional analyses within the field of transformative reparations. Such analyses are required to ensure that transformative reparations can properly understand and take full account of the various harms many people face due to discrimination, structural inequality and oppression.
 
The final section of this chapter analyses the limited of the field of gender and transformative reparations by drawing on other critical approaches to international law which have been little applied to this area, including post-colonial feminist analyses. Noting that reparations are a secondarily applied right granted in response to a primary rights violation, the limits of the human rights framework in being able to provide transformative justice is questioned. I conclude by arguing that further critical engagement is essential both in order to frame reparations in truly transformative ways as well as to understand the limits of the transformative project and, subsequently, of human rights law, in being able to provide transformation." (Jones 2020, 86-7)

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Law, International Human Rights, Intersectionality, Justice, Reparations, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2020

Amputated Men, Colonial Bureaucracy, and Masculinity in Post-World War I Colonial Nigeria

Citation:

Njung, George N. 2020. “Amputated Men, Colonial Bureaucracy, and Masculinity in Post-World War I Colonial Nigeria.” Journal of Social History 53 (3): 620-43.

Author: George N, Njung

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, several aspects of masculinity in relation to the First World War, including the image of the citizen-soldier, have been well studied. Other aspects, however, such as the experience of combat and its impact on peacetime masculinities lag well behind. Though wartime and postwar experiences in Africa provide a repertoire for gender and masculinity research, the continent has been neglected in this realm of studies. British colonial Nigeria contributed tens of thousands of combat men to the war with thousands becoming disabled and facing challenges to their masculine identities, yet there is no serious research on this topic for Nigeria. This paper contributes to this long-neglected aspect of African history. Known in colonial archival documents only as “amputated men,” war- disabled Nigerian men struggled to navigate colonial bureaucracy in order to ob- tain artificial limbs and redeem what they considered their lost manhood. Employing data collected from the Nigerian and British archives, the article’s objectives are twofold: it analyzes the diminishment of the masculine identities of war-disabled men in Nigeria following the First World War, and it explains how such diminishment was accentuated by an inefficiently structured British colonial bureaucracy, paired with British colonial racism. The article contributes to schol- arship on WWI, disability studies, gender studies, and colonial studies, through examination of the protracted legacies of the global conflict on the African continent.

 

 

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Race Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

'A Real Women Waits’ – Heteronormative Respectability, Neo-Liberal Betterment and Echoes of Coloniality in SGBV Programming in Eastern DR Congo

Citation:

Mertens, Charlotte, and Henri Myritten. 2019.“‘A Real Women Waits’ – Heteronormative Respectability, Neo-Liberal Betterment and Echoes of Coloniality in SGBV Programming in Eastern DR Congo.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 13 (4): 418-39.

Authors: Charlotte Mertens, Henri Myritten

Abstract:

Drawing on archival and field research, this article critically examines the production and distribution of gender roles and expectations in SGBV programming, in particular in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We find the underlying currents in some of these programmes reinscribe heteronormativity and focus on individual betterment which resonates with regulating gender and sexuality during colonialism. In some cases, strongly western-inspired norms of individual agency have been introduced, disregarding structural constraints of people’s lives. To conclude, we explore alternative approaches to SGBV prevention, ones in which international approaches are re-defined and vernacularized for local use – but which also at times inform global understandings.

Keywords: sexual violence, SGBV, Congo, interventions, gender, colonialism, humanitarianism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2019

Women, Peace and Security after Europe's ‘Refugee Crisis’

Citation:

Holvikivi, Aiko, and Audrey Reeves. 2020. “Women, Peace and Security after Europe's ‘Refugee Crisis.’” European Journal of International Security 5 (2): 135–54.

Authors: Aiko Holvikivi , Audrey Reeves

Abstract:

Since its inception in 2000, the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda has conceptualised the conflictaffected woman as a subject worthy of international attention, protection, and inclusion. In the wake of Europe’s ‘refugee crisis’, this article examines how the remit of WPS has broadened from women in conflict zones to refugees in Europe’s borderlands. A minority of European states now attend, in their WPS policy, to these conflict-affected women on the move. This inclusion productively challenges established notions of where conflict-affectedness is located. It exposes Europe as not always peaceful and safe for women, especially refugees who flee war. Conversely, the dominant tendency to exclude refugees from European WPS policy is built on a fantasy of Europe as peaceful and secure for women, which legitimises the fortressing of Europe and obscures European states’ complicity in fuelling insecurity at their borders, cultivating an ethos of coloniality around the WPS agenda. The inclusion of refugees is no panacea to these problems. If focused solely on protection, it repositions European states as protective heroes and conflict-affected women as helpless victims. The WPS framework nonetheless emphasises conflict-affected women’s participation in decision-making and conflict prevention, opening space for recognising the refugee women as political actors.

Keywords: refugees, women, peace and security, conflict, Europe, borders

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Political Participation, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe

Year: 2020

Indigenous Women's Activism, Ecofeminism, and Extractivism: Partial Connections in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Citation:

Sempértegui, Andrea. 2019. “Indigenous Women's Activism, Ecofeminism, and Extractivism: Partial Connections in the Ecuadorian Amazon.” Politics & Gender 1–28. doi: 10.1017/S1743923X19000023.

Author: Andrea Sempértegui

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, Latin America has witnessed a massive expansion of resource extraction. One of the most significant countermovements to emerge out of this context in Ecuador features a strong base and leadership of indigenous women from the Amazon. In their collective effort to resist extractivism, Amazonian women have drawn from elements of ecofeminist discourse and, in the process, situated their own claims within the broader indigenous territorial struggle. Ecofeminism has been transformed through this allyship as well, becoming more inclusive of indigenous women's perspectives. To shed light on these complex relationships, this article applies the framework of “partial connection” from feminist anthropology. It shows how postcolonial encounters between the state, missionaries, environmental activists, and indigenous communities in the Amazon carved out unique spaces for indigenous self-organization and politics. The historical analysis of such spaces, I argue, is crucial for grasping the allyship between Amazonian women and ecofeminists today. Rooted in a combination of positions that are partially, asymmetrically, and ambiguously connected, the allyship between Amazonian women and ecofeminists is best understood as a form of partially connected relationship.

Keywords: indigenous women, ecofeminism, state extractivism, environmental movements, indigenous politics, Ecuadorian Amazon

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2019

Women on the Frontlines of Resistance to Extractivism

Citation:

Cirefice, V’Cenza, and Lynda Sullivan. 2019. ‘Women on the Frontlines of Resistance to Extractivism.’ Policy and Practice: A Development Education Review, no. 29, 78–99.

Authors: V'Cenza Cirefice, Lynda Sullivan

Abstract:

We are living in extreme times with planetary boundaries being breached and our current economic model pushing life to collapse.  The pressure to switch to renewable energy can no longer be avoided.  However, many industry actors want to continue with our current economic model and simply switch the energy source.  For this to happen, mining needs to increase dramatically.  Rural and indigenous communities are disproportionately impacted by mining and other extractive industries, with severe negative consequences on local livelihoods, community cohesion and the environment.  In this article we will explore the gendered impacts experienced by these communities, which see women facing the worst impacts of a neoliberal extractive agenda.  Conversely, women are leading the resistance to extractivism and stepping outside of traditional gender roles to be leaders in movements fighting destructive extraction.  We will draw upon examples from the Americas, through a lens of ecofeminism and feminist political ecology, to explore how the women of these movements are demanding systematic change to the paradigms of capitalism, colonialism and patriarchy – highlighting that these forms of domination are connected and thus, need to be eliminated together.

Keywords: ecofeminism, extractivism, feminist political ecology, resistance, climate change, neoliberalism, gender, Americas

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Indigenous, Livelihoods Regions: Americas

Year: 2019

Industrial Mining and Social Investment in Santurbán: Reflections from a Gender Decolonial Approach

Citation:

Villamizar, Raquel M., and Andrea M. Jerez. 2020. “Industrial Mining and Social Investment in Santurbán: Reflections from a Gender Decolonial Approach.” Journal of International Women’s Studies, 21 (1): 30–46.

Authors: Raquel M Villamizar, Andrea M Jerez

Abstract:

The Canadian extractive company, Greystar (currently known as Eco Oro), provides diverse training and consultancy programs for entrepreneur women, as part of their social responsibility policy. This article reflects on the human talent training experience offered by Greystar in the mining towns of Vetas and California, in Santander, Colombia, from a gender decolonial perspective, and a global understanding of social practices. We followed an interpretive qualitative approach for analyzing data collected from public-dissemination brochures regarding the outreach projects offered by the extractive company, and from semi-structured interviews carried out with the studied population. This article shows how these programs emphasize sexist stereotypes, promote a gender-specific division of labor, ignore the capacities and interests of the local women, and do not generate a positive impact on their socio-economic conditions.

Keywords: mining industry, foreign investment, gender stereotypes, gender roles, Colombia

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Frontier Finance: The Role of Microfinance in Debt and Violence in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste

Citation:

Johnston, Melissa Frances. 2020. “Frontier Finance: The Role of Microfinance in Debt and Violence in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste.” Review of International Political Economy, April, 1–25. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2020.1733633. 

Author: Melissa Frances Johnston

Abstract:

Microfinance programs targeting poor women are considered a ‘prudent’ first step for international financial institutions seeking to rebuild post conflict economies. IFIs continue to visibly support microfinance despite evidence and growing consensus that microfinance neither reduces poverty nor breaks the cycle of domestic violence. In the case of Timor-Leste, a feminist political economy approach reveals how microfinance engendered debt allows for the control, extraction, and accumulation of profits and resources by an elite class and exacerbates gender-based violence. Timorese elite classes have benefitted from microfinance during the Indonesian occupation and in today’s post-conflict regime. Extractive debt relations between elite classes and ordinary citizens are enabled by a gender order that is regulated by brideprice and characterized by gendered circuits of violence. Brideprice weds the exchange of women to the class system in which the (violent) control of women is paramount to retaining political power. Microfinance adds liquidity and high interest rates to the debt relations of brideprice helping to create the very conditions for poor women’s disempowerment in a fragile state. Thus, the success of microfinance is predicated on systems of gender inequality and gendered circuits of violence, debt, and the exchange of women.

Keywords: microfinance, debt, feminist political economy, peacebuilding, brideprice, gender-based violence

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2020

Reflections on a Century of Road Transport Developments in West Africa and Their (Gendered) Impacts on the Rural Poor

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2012. “Reflections on a Century of Road Transport Developments in West Africa and Their (Gendered) Impacts on the Rural Poor.” EchoGéo, no. 20 (July). doi: 10.4000/echogeo.13116.

Author: Gina Porter

Abstract:

This paper explores broad trends in road construction and associated transport services development in two West African countries, Ghana and Nigeria, over the last hundred years and considers their impact on the rural poor, with particular reference to rural women. It draws on diverse evidence, including twentieth century colonial archives, personal ethnographic field research undertaken over a 35- year period, associated quantitative surveys, and relevant secondary literature. Following an outline of each major phase in transport development, an assessment is made of its impacts on the rural poor, with particular reference to women. The study concludes with a review of recent donor policy shifts and the prospects for positive change.

Annotation:

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Nigeria

Year: 2012

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