Coloniality/Post-Coloniality

Gendering Indigenous Subjects: An Institutional Ethnography of Corporate Social Responsibility in Ecuador

Citation:

Billo, Emily. 2020. “Gendering Indigenous Subjects: An Institutional Ethnography of Corporate Social Responsibility in Ecuador.” Gender, Place & Culture 27 (8): 1134–54.

Author: Emily Billo

Abstract:

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs are institutions of governance and development designed to respond to socio-ecological impacts of resource extraction. I argue that CSR programs are an overlooked tool of the neoliberal project of gendered indigenous subject formation in Ecuador. The article contributes to feminist political ecology through its use of institutional ethnography, a feminist methodology. It advances feminist commitments to everyday, embodied analyses of resource struggles, illustrating how gender and indigeneity are intersectional subjectivities provoked by the socio-spatial relationships of CSR programs. Postcolonial intersectional analysis of CSR programs demonstrates how power expands through gender and indigeneity contributing to indigenous women’s ongoing marginalization in Ecuador.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, Ecuador, gendered indigenous subjects, institutional ethnography, resource governance

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Indigenous, Intersectionality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2020

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Necro-Populationism of ‘Climate-Smart’ Agriculture

Citation:

Shaw, Amanda, and Kalpana Wilson. 2020. “The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Necro-Populationism of ‘Climate-Smart’ Agriculture.” Gender, Place & Culture 27 (3): 370–93.

Authors: Amanda Shaw, Kalpana Wilson

Abstract:

Agricultural and reproductive technologies ostensibly represent opposing poles within discourses on population growth: one aims to ‘feed the world,’ while the other seeks to limit the number of mouths there are to feed. There is, however, an urgent need to critically interrogate new discourses linking population size with climate change and promoting agricultural and reproductive technologies as a means to address associated problems. This article analyses the specific discourses produced by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in relation to these ‘population technologies’ and ‘climate-smart’ agriculture in particular. Drawing on concepts and approaches developed by Black, postcolonial and Marxist feminists including intersectionality, racial capitalism, social reproduction, and reproductive and environmental justice, we explore how within these discourses, the ‘geo-populationism’ of the BMGF’s climatesmart agriculture initiatives, like the ‘demo-populationism’ of its family planning interventions, mobilises neoliberal notions of empowerment, productivity and innovation. Not only do these populationist discourses reinforce neoliberal framings and policies which extend existing regimes of racialised and gendered socio-spatial inequality, but they also underwrite global capital accumulation through new science and technologies. The BMGF’s representations of its climate-smart agriculture initiatives offer the opportunity to understand how threats of climate change are mobilised to reanimate and repackage the Malthusian disequilibrium between human fertility and agricultural productivity. Drawing upon our readings of these discourses, we critically propose the concept of ‘necro-populationism’ to refer to processes that target racialised and gendered populations for dispossession, toxification, slow death and embodied violence, even while direct accountability for the effects of these changes is dispersed. We also identify a need for further research which will not only trace the ways in which the BMGF’s global policies are materialised, spatialised, reproduced and reoriented by multiple actors in local contexts, but will also recognise and affirm the diverse forms through which these ‘necro-populationist’ processes are disavowed and resisted.

Topics: Agriculture, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Race, Rights, Reproductive Rights

Year: 2020

‘We Are Not Poor Things’: Territorio Cuerpo-Tierra and Colombian Women’s Organised Struggles

Citation:

Rodriguez Castro, Laura. 2020. “‘We Are Not Poor Things’: Territorio Cuerpo-Tierra and Colombian Women’s Organised Struggles.” Feminist Theory (March). doi: 10.1177/1464700120909508.

Author: Laura Castro Rodriguez

Abstract:

In this article, I use Lorena Cabnal’s notion of territorio cuerpo-tierra to analyse seventeen in-depth interviews with women leaders of rural social movements and other organisations in Colombia. In the interviews, social leaders condemn violence that is epistemic, systemic, militarised and that permeates all ambits of life. They denounce how the coloniality of power operates, while at the same time they propose alternatives for a better life from their own cosmovisions by enacting food sovereignty and constructing feminisms from ‘below’. I demonstrate how these social leaders’ actions are entangled in decolonial feminist struggles, which undermine the way in which women in the Global South have been constructed as ‘objects’ or ‘in need of saving’. These women are not ‘victims who need saving’, but politically active subjects who enact change locally and nationally through their ‘territories bodies-lands’. Not only do their narratives highlight the intimate relationship of the body with the land, but I argue that we must follow their lead in order to dismantle the coloniality of power.

Keywords: decoloniality, feminism, food sovereignty, global south, rurality, territory

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

The Women’s Movement in Timor-Leste and Potential for Social Change

Citation:

Niner, Sara Louise, and Hannah Loney. 2019. “The Women’s Movement in Timor-Leste and Potential for Social Change.” Politics & Gender 16 (3): 874-902.

Authors: Sara Louise Niner, Hannah Loney

Abstract:

The postconflict period in Timor-Leste is significant for the status of women and the struggle for gender equality. Women today face cultural and political pressure to conform to patriarchal demands, driven by a complex history of conflict, colonialism and changing customary practices. The contemporary East Timorese women’s movement, largely a coalition of local NGOs, key women leaders and parliamentarians, has successfully driven the introduction of progressive egalitarian laws and policy, but it continues to grapple with the deeper changes in social practices required for systemic change. We argue that a better understanding of the history of the women’s movement, forged within an anticolonial, nationalist independence movement, alongside a conceptualization of the intersecting structures that have shaped the capacity for East Timorese women to effect social change in their communities and nation, is necessary to fully realize the movement’s goals and potential. Situating the movement within this framework provides new perspectives on these successes and on strategizing for the transformation of gender relations to make gender equality a lasting reality in everyday practice in contemporary Timor-Leste.

Keywords: women and politics, women's movements, gender, Timor-Leste

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Post-Conflict Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2019

The Exclusionary Politics of Digital Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money, Gendered Walls

Citation:

Natile, Serena. 2020. The Exclusionary Politics of Digital Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money, Gendered Walls. Abingdon-on-Thames, UK: Routledge.

Author: Serena Natile

Annotation:

Summary:
Focusing on Kenya’s path-breaking mobile money project M-Pesa, this book examines and critiques the narratives and institutions of digital financial inclusion as a development strategy for gender equality, arguing for a politics of redistribution to guide future digital financial inclusion projects. 

One of the most-discussed digital financial inclusion projects, M-Pesa facilitates the transfer of money and access to formal financial services via the mobile phone infrastructure and has grown at a phenomenal rate since its launch in 2007 to reach about 80 per cent of the Kenyan population. Through a socio-legal enquiry drawing on feminist political economy, law and development scholarship and postcolonial feminist debate, this book unravels the narratives and institutional arrangements that frame M-Pesa’s success while interrogating the relationship between digital financial inclusion and gender equality in development discourse. Natile argues that M-Pesa is premised on and regulated according to a logic of opportunity rather than a politics of redistribution, favouring the expansion of the mobile money market in preference to contributing to substantive gender equality via a redistribution of the revenue and funding deriving from its development.

 This book will be of particular interest to scholars and students in Global Political Economy, Socio-Legal Studies, Gender Studies, Law & Development, Finance and International Relations. (Summary from Routledge)

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Economies, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2020

Fixing Gender: The Paradoxical Politics of Peacekeeper Training

Citation:

Holvikivi, Aiko. 2019. "Fixing Gender: The Paradoxical Politics of Peacekeeper Training." PhD diss., The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).

Author: Aiko Holvikivi

Abstract:

Over the past two decades, gender training for military and police peacekeepers has become institutionalised in the global governance of peace and security. Such training purports to respond to gendered harms previously ignored in, or actively caused by, peacekeeping operations. This evolving transnational practice involves the introduction of gender knowledge – indebted to feminist theorising and activism – into police and military organisations – commonly characterised as institutions of hegemonic masculinity. This thesis takes the tension between feminism and martial institutions as its point of departure to investigate what meaning the term gender acquires in training for uniformed peacekeepers, asking: What epistemic and political work does gender training do in martial institutions? Investigating the pedagogical practices of gender training through a multi-sited ethnography, I approach this question with the help of feminist, postcolonial, (and) queer epistemic perspectives. I conceptualise gender training as involving the production of knowledges around gender; knowledges which enable ways of being and acting in the world. I suggest that training practices often produce an understanding of gender that serves martial politics and reproduces colonial logics in the peacekeeping enterprise, thereby emptying the term of the transformative political hopes that feminist theorists typically invest in the concept. At the same time, I identify moments of tension, in which gender training appears to be destabilising hierarchical martial logics and engaging in subversive pedagogy. In sum, I argue that ambivalence is an integral feature of gender training, and locate political potential in the cultivation of resistant pedagogies, which exploit the margins of hegemonic discourses to engage in subversive strategies of destabilisation and delinking. This thesis provides an empirical contribution to an under-studied area of global governance, as well as forwarding feminist theorising on political strategies for engaging with and against institutions of state power.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping

Year: 2019

Glaciers, Gender, and Science: A Feminist Glaciology Framework for Global Environmental Change Research

Citation:

Carey, Mark, M. Jackson, Alessandro Antonello, and Jaclyn Rushing. 2016. “Glaciers, Gender, and Science: A Feminist Glaciology Framework for Global Environmental Change Research.” Progress in Human Geography 40 (6): 770-93

Authors: Mark Carey, M. Jackson, Alessandro Antonello, Jaclyn Rushing

Abstract:

Glaciers are key icons of climate change and global environmental change. However, the relationships among gender, science, and glaciers – particularly related to epistemological questions about the production of glaciological knowledge – remain understudied. This paper thus proposes a feminist glaciology framework with four key components: 1) knowledge producers; (2) gendered science and knowledge; (3) systems of scientific domination; and (4) alternative representations of glaciers. Merging feminist postcolonial science studies and feminist political ecology, the feminist glaciology framework generates robust analysis of gender, power, and epistemologies in dynamic social-ecological systems, thereby leading to more just and equitable science and human-ice interactions.

Keywords: feminist glaciology, feminist political ecology, feminist postcolonial science studies, folk glaciology, glacier impacts, glaciers and society

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender

Year: 2016

Between Despair and Hope: Women and Violence in Contemporary Guyana

Citation:

Trotz, D. Alissa. 2004. “Between Despair and Hope: Women and Violence in Contemporary Guyana.” Small Axe 8 (1): 1–20.

Author: D. Alissa Trotz

Abstract:

The immediate aftermath of the 1997 and 2001 elections in Guyana was marked by violence, most of which targeted members of the Indo-Guyanese community. While far more men than women were directly assaulted in the recent waves of political violence, this essay specifically addresses the violence that women experience as members of racially marked communities and asks three questions: How is gender implicated in racialized electoral violence and community responses to such assaults? How can we account for women's different responses to violence? How might we begin to realistically construct a viable opposition against all forms of violence against women? I begin by outlining some gendered aftereffects of the 1997 and 2001 elections. As a way of making sense of these events, I raise some questions about colonial inheritances and contemporary inequalities in an effort to suggest linkages between pasts and presents, private and public domains. I then explore how women come to symbolize racialized difference, and the investments women themselves may have in such self-other notions, as racialized subjects who are gendered female. The final section draws on the work of Red Thread, a women's organization in Guyana, in an effort to stimulate discussion of antiracist and antiviolence work that centrally acknowledges differences among women. The example is used here not as a final word on the subject but rather as a provisional gesture toward inclusion and conversation.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Governance, Elections, NGOs, Race, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against Women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Guyana

Year: 2004

Caught between the Orientalist–Occidentalist Polemic: Gender Mainstreaming as Feminist Transformation or Neocolonial Subversion?

Citation:

Clisby, Suzanne, and Enderstein, Athena-Maria. 2017. "Caught between the Orientalist-Occidentalist Polemic: Gender Mainstreaming as Feminist Transformation or Neocolonial Subversion?" International Feminist Journal of Politics 19 (2): 231-46.

Authors: Suzanne Clisby, Athena-Maria Enderstein

Abstract:

Here we provide a critical reading of gender mainstreaming as a potential emancipatory force that has been co-opted within orientalist-occidentalist polemics. This remains a critical period in the "mainstreaming" debate, where feminist reappropriation is necessary to repoliticize the concept and reorient development sector focus from tokenistic inclusivity to social transformation. We consider two sides of the debate. In the first scenario, the requirement for gender mainstreaming in international development discourse has not only failed to address its original feminist goals, but has become (or remained) an extension of orientalist, neocolonial projects to control and "civilize" developing economies. Here, a putative concern for gender equality in development is used as a means to distinguish between the modern, civilized One and the colonial, traditional Other. In the second scenario, gender mainstreaming is held up as all that these "othered" occidentalist forces stand against; an exemplar of the inappropriate imposition of "western" moralistic paradigms in non-western contexts. Ultimately, the co-optation of gendered discourses in development through these orientalist-occidentalist polemics serves to obfuscate the continued depoliticization of mainstreaming. A critical question remains: can gender mainstreaming ever transcend this discursive impasse and reassert its feminist transformatory potential?

Keywords: co-optation, feminism, gender mainstreaming, occidentalism, orientalism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming

Year: 2017

Somos tierra, semilla, rebeldía: Mujeres, tierra y territorios en América Latina

Citation:

Korol, Claudia. 2016. Somos tierra, semilla, rebeldía: Mujeres, tierra y territorios en América Latina. Barcelona: GRAIN; Buenos Aires: Biodiversidad en América Latina y el Caribe; América Libre.

Author: Claudia Korol

Annotation:

Resumen:
"El acceso a la tierra es uno de los problemas más graves que enfrentan las mujeres rurales en América Latina y en el mundo, y está en la base de muchos otros problemas “invi- sibles” para la sociedad. Este trabajo intenta analizar esta situación, como uno de los fundamentos materiales y cultu- rales del sistema patriarcal, capitalista y colonial de domi- nación. Intenta también establecer sus implicancias para millones de mujeres en nuestro continente" (Korol 2016, 9).
 
Tabla de contenidos:
1. La tenencia de la tierra de las mujeres en América Latina
Presentación general del tema
Algunos enfoques con los que nos aproximamos a este análisis
 
2. Una perspectiva histórica sobre el problema de la tierra en América Latina
La estructura de tenencia de la tierra: herencia del colonialismo patriarcal capitalista
Reformas agrarias en el siglo XX y en el siglo XXI
La contrarreforma neoliberal
 
3. Las relaciones patriarcales en el campo
El trabajo invisible de las mujeres y la división sexual del trabajo 89 Feminización de la agricultura campesina
El debate sobre el concepto de agricultura campesina
Las mujeres y la agricultura campesina       
El acceso de mujeres a la tierra     
                           
4. Las propuestas de los movimientos populares y de los movimientos feministas      
Reforma Agraria Integral y Popular    
Las mujeres en la Reforma Agraria Integral  
Soberanía alimentaria     
Soberanía alimentaria o seguridad alimentaria     
Las mujeres en la lucha por la Soberanía Alimentaria    
El cuidado de las semillas    
El cuidado de los saberes y de las prácticas     
 
5. Algunas conclusiones y nuevos debates

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Agriculture, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Tenure Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2016

Pages

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