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Les femmes dans le mouvement nationaliste marocain


Benadada, Assia. 1999. “Les femmes dans le mouvement nationaliste marocain”. Clio. Histoire, femmes et sociétés, 9, en ligne. DOI: 10.4000/clio.1523

English: Benadada, Assia. 1999. “Women in the Moroccan national movement.” Clio. History, women and societies, 9, online. DOI: 10.4000/clio.1523

Author: Assia Benadada


L'article cherche à dégager le rôle des femmes dans le mouvement nationaliste marocain. Il s'appuie sur une lecture attentive des sources écrites coloniales et sur des sources orales que l'auteur a collectées auprès de quelques actrices du mouvement.

English Abstract:

This article seeks to uncover the role of women in the Moroccan nationalist movement. It is based on a careful reading of written sources from the colonial period and on oral sources that the author has collected from participants in the movement. (Clio)

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Morocco

Year: 1999

Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood Among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers


Henry, Marsha. 2012. “Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood Among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers.” Globalizations 9 (1): 15–33. doi:10.1080/14747731.2012.627716.

Author: Marsha Henry


As a result of UNSCR 1325, the UN has been eager to decrease incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations, improve local women's security, and balance out the number of women and men in the police and military at both local and international levels. As peacekeeping missions begin to include more female peacekeepers, questions are raised about what this means for women in national militaries, local women in peacekeeping missions, and soldiers or militarized laborers from the ‘developing’ world. While countries such as Uruguay have been sending increasing numbers of female peacekeepers to various UN missions, it was not until 2007 that an all-female contingent was first deployed from India to Liberia and hailed as a gendered success. But in altering the gendered landscape, will the UN merely continue to exploit the cheap military labor of the global South? Will countries like India and Uruguay (major troop-contributing countries to UN peacekeeping operations) continue to bear the burden of providing security? This article examines the limits of a conventional interest in gender and gender relations in thinking about peacekeepers and advocates for an intersectional approach to the issue of female peacekeepers, importantly including the role of geography (and therefore ‘race’, empire and colonialism) in the thinking through the social, cultural, and political effects of peacekeeping deployments.

Keywords: femininity, gender, geopolitics, global south, Haiti, humanitarian intervention, India, Liberia, masculinity, peacekeeping, United Nations, Uruguay

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Globalization, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Race, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Liberia, Uruguay

Year: 2012

Rebellious Youth in Colonial Africa


Waller, Richard. 2006. “Rebellious Youth in Colonial Africa.” The Journal of African History 47 (01): 77-92. doi:10.1017/S0021853705001672.

Author: Richard Waller


That rebellious youth alarmed colonial authorities and elders alike is increasingly an issue for historians. This article surveys the issue as an introduction to the two studies that follow. It considers both the creation of images of youthful defiance as part of a debate about youth conducted largely by their seniors and the real predicaments faced by young people themselves. Concern revolved around the meanings of maturity in a changing world where models of responsible male and female adulthood, gendered expectations and future prospects were all in flux. Surviving the present and facing the future made elders anxious and divided as well as united the young. The article concludes by suggesting a number of areas, including leisure and politics, where the voice of youth might be more clearly heard, and proposes comparisons – with the past, between racial groups and between ‘town’ and ‘country’ – that link the varied experiences of the young.

Keywords: gender, colonial, generational conflict, masculinity, youth

Topics: Age, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Race Regions: Africa

Year: 2006

“‘Sitting on a Man’: Colonialism and the Lost Political Institutions of Igbo Women”


Allen, Judith van. 1972. “‘Sitting on a Man’: Colonialism and the Lost Political Institutions of Igbo Women.” Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 6 (2): 165–81.

Author: Judith van Allen

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Tribe Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 1972

Celibacy, Sexuality, and the Transformation of Gender into Nationalism in North India


Alter, Joseph S. 1994. “Celibacy, Sexuality, and the Transformation of Gender into Nationalism in North India.” The Journal of Asian Studies 53 (1): 45–66.

Author: Joseph S. Alter


JOSEPH ALTER examines the present-day use of the Hindu concept of brahmacharya (celibacy) as it relates to questions of gender and nationalism in North India. He argues that the practice of celibacy can be best understood as a form of political action directed against the post-colonial forces of desire. He shows how the discourse on celibacy has focused on the bio-moral nature of semen, and on how semen is taken to embody truth. Because semen is inherently male, he argues, the present-day discourse on nationalism has become increasingly centered on males as the source of truth. Celibacy thus has become the agency for a form of gendered nationalism.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Men, Nationalism, Religion, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 1994

The Gender−Culture Double Bind in Israeli−Palestinian Peace Negotiations: A Narrative Approach


Aharoni, Sarai B. 2014. “The Gender-Culture Double Bind in Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations: A Narrative Approach.” Security Dialogue 45 (4): 373–90. doi:10.1177/0967010614537329.

Author: Sarai B. Aharoni


This article investigates structural conditions for women’s inclusion/exclusion in peace negotiations by focusing on the linkage between acts of gender stereotyping and cultural framing. Through a narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Israeli negotiators and administrators who participated in official negotiations during the Oslo peace process, I link two recent claims about how gender may affect negotiators’ understandings of strategic exchange: the gendered devaluation effect and the gender–culture double bind hypothesis. Building upon postcolonial feminist critique, I argue that narratives about women and cultural difference (a) demonstrate and engage with Israeli essentialist and Orientalist discourses about Arab culture and masculinity; (b) manifest how ideas about strategic dialogue and negotiations are gendered; and (c) convey how policymakers and negotiators may use cultural claims to rationalize women’s exclusion from diplomatic and strategic dialogue. Furthermore, the study implies that dominant framings of Israeli–Palestinian negotiations as a binary East–West encounter need to be replaced by a more nuanced conceptualization of cultural identity that captures contextual aspects of difference, including the existence of military power and masculine dominance.

Keywords: gender, Narratives, Peace Negotiations, postcolonial feminism, Israeli-Arab conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2014

Sex in the Shadow of Rome: Sexual Violence and Theological Lament in Talmudic Disaster Tales


Belser, Julia Watts. 2014. “Sex in the Shadow of Rome: Sexual Violence and Theological Lament in Talmudic Disaster Tales.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 30 (1): 5–24.

Author: Julia Watts Belser


This article analyzes the representation of rape in three narratives from the Babylonian Talmud’s account of the Roman destruction of Jerusalem and discusses the connection between sexual violence, enslavement, and colonial domination. These narratives mimic pervasive Roman symbolism of imperial dominance as a form of “sexual conquest,” using that symbolism to express rabbinic lament and violation at the hands of Rome. These stories express elements of rabbinic resistance to imperial domination, emphasizing Jewish resilience even in the midst of intense suffering. Yet the symbolic and theological significance afforded to rape in these narratives also reinscribes the vulnerability and invisibility of women and enslaved people in both rabbinic and Roman cultures. By using rape to conceptualize divine woundedness and rabbinic lament, these narratives privilege the theological significance of Roman violation over the brutal body cost of imperial conquest.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Religion, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against women, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2014

Indian Clubs and Colonialism: Hindu Masculinity and Muscular Christianity


Alter, Joseph S. 2004. “Indian Clubs and Colonialism: Hindu Masculinity and Muscular Christianity.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 46 (3): 497–534.

Author: Joseph S. Alter


Following Edward Said's Orientalism (1978), there has been considerable interest in studying gender images and engendered practices that emerged out of colonialism, both during the era of colonialism (Cooper and Stoler 1997; R. Lewis 1996; Stoler 1991; 1995; 2002), and subsequently (Altman 2001; Enloe 1993). Many of these studies have shown how colonized women were subject to the gendered and often sexualized gaze of Western men (Carrier 1998; Doy 1996; Grewal 1996; Yegenoglu 1998), and how colonized men were often regarded as either effeminate or “martial” by virtue of their birth into a particular group. Arguably, the latent ambiguity of regarding all colonized men as effete, and yet categorizing some colonized men as strong and aggressively virile, points to one of the many complex contradictions manifest in the cultural politics of colonialism. A similar point could be made with regard to nationalism, wherein women, and the image men want women to present of themselves, reflects masculine ambivalence about modernity (Chatterjee 1993). In any case, even when colonial discourse essentializes the virile masculinity of various subject groups—in particular the so-called martial castes of South Asia (Hopkins 1889; MacMunn 1977)—the putative masculinity of these groups is ascribed to breeding and latent “savagery,” and is rarely, if ever, conceived of as an achieved status, much less something an individual from some other group might achieve on the basis of training or practice. (Cambridge Journals).

Topics: Caste, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Nationalism, Religion, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2004

Contending Masculinities: the Gendered (re) Negotiation of Colonial Hierarchy in the United Nations Debates on Decolonization


Patil, Vrushali. 2009. “Contending Masculinities: the Gendered (re) Negotiation of Colonial Hierarchy in the United Nations Debates on Decolonization.” Theory and Society 38 (2): 195-215.

Author: Vrushali Patil


The emergence of legal decolonization in the mid-twentieth century, as evidenced by the 1960 United Nations Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, is often understood through the lens of race and the disruption of racial hierarchy. If we take seriously the transnational feminist contention that the colonial racial order was also gendered, however, how might this perspective shift our understanding of decolonization? In this article, I explore the debates on decolonization that take place in the UN General Assembly from 1946–1960 that lead to the 1960 Declaration from a transnational feminist perspective to answer this question. Specifically, I use comparative historical and discourse methods of analysis to explore how colonialists and anti-colonialists negotiate the onset of legal decolonization, focusing especially on how colonialist hierarchies of race, culture, and gender are addressed in these debates. I argue that, on the one hand, colonialists rely on a paternalist masculinity to legitimate their rule (i.e., our dependencies require our rule the way a child requires a father). In response, anti-colonialists reply with a resistance masculinity (i.e., “colonialism is emasculating;” “decolonization is necessary for a return of masculine dignity”). I argue that decolonization in the United Nations transpires via contentions among differentially racialized masculinities. Ultimately, a transnational feminist perspective that centers the intersection of race and gender offers a richer analysis than a perspective that examines race alone.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, International Law, International Organizations, Race

Year: 2009

Middle East Masculinity Studies: Discourses of "Men in Crisis," Industries of Gender in Revolution


Amar, Paul. 2011. “Middle East Masculinity Studies: Discourses of ‘Men in Crisis,’ Industries of Gender in Revolution.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 7 (3): 36–70. doi:10.2979/jmiddeastwomstud.7.3.36.

Author: Paul Amar


This article examines how everyday theories of masculinity and vernacular discourses of “masculinities in crisis” play crucial roles in misrecognizing, racializing, moralistically-depoliticizing, and class-displacing emergent social forces in the Middle East. Public discourses and hegemonic theories of male trouble render illegible the social realities of twenty-first-century multipolar geopolitics and the changing shapes of racialism, humanitarianism, nationalism, security governance, and social movement. In order to help generate new kinds of critical research on Middle East masculinities, this article creates a larger map of discourses and methods, drawing upon studies of coloniality and gender in and from the global South. This mapping puts masculinity studies into dialogue with critiques of liberalism and security governance and with work in postcolonial queer theory, public health studies, and feminist international relations theory.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, LGBTQ, Race Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2011


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