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Climate Displacement

Displacement, Climate Change and Gender

Citation:

Hunter, Lori M., and Emmanuel David. 2011. “Displacement, Climate Change and Gender.” In Migration and Climate Change, edited by Etienne Piquet, Antoine Pécoud, and Paul de Guchteneire, 306-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Authors: Lori M. Hunter, Emmanuel David

Annotation:

Summary:
“Discussions within public, policy and academic realms regarding climate change and migration are often gender neutral (WEDO, 2008). As a result, important differences in the migration experiences of women and men are neglected. Yet migration is a social process – actually, migration is a social process embedded within a variety of other social processes. More specifically, gender-influenced cultural expectations, policies, and institutions intersect to shape migration’s causes and consequences. In this way, migration is inherently gendered and climate change will, therefore, yield different migratory experiences and impacts for women and men. This chapter explores these potential gender dimensions” (Hunter & David 2011, 306).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender

Year: 2011

A Literature Review of the Gender-Differentiated Impacts of Climate Change on Women’s and Men’s Assets and Well-Being in Developing Countries

Citation:

Goh, Amelia H. X. 2012. “A Literature Review of the Gender-Differentiated Impacts of Climate Change on Women’s and Men’s Assets and Well-Being in Developing Countries.” CAPRi Working Paper 106, Washington, DC, International Food Policy Research Institute. 

Author: Amelia H. X. Goh

Abstract:

Climate change increasingly affects the livelihoods of people, and poor people experience especially negative impacts given their lack of capacity to prepare for and cope with the effects of a changing climate. Among poor people, women and men may experience these impacts differently. This review presents and tests two hypotheses on the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on women and men in developing countries. The first hypothesis is that climate-related events affect men’s and women’s well-being and assets differently. The second hypothesis is that climate-related shocks affect women more negatively than men. With limited evidence from developing countries, this review shows that climate change affects women’s and men’s assets and well-being differently in six impact areas: (i) impacts related to agricultural production, (ii) food security, (iii) health, (iv) water and energy resources, (v) climate-induced migration and conflict, and (vi) climate-related natural disasters. In the literature reviewed, women seem to suffer more negative impacts of climate change in terms of their assets and well-being because of social and cultural norms regarding gender roles and their lack of access to and control of assets, although there are some exceptions. Empirical evidence in this area is limited, patchy, varied, and highly contextual in nature, which makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions. Findings here are indicative of the complexities in the field of gender and climate change, and signal that multidisciplinary research is needed to further enhance the knowledge base on the differential climate impacts on women’s and men’s assets and well-being in agricultural and rural settings, and to understand what mechanisms work best to help women and men in poor communities become more climate resilient.

Keywords: climate change, gender, assets, impacts, developing countries

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Health, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security

Year: 2012

Impact of Flood-Induced Migration on Livelihood and Gender Relations: A Study on Chulmari, Kurigram

Citation:

Chowdhury, Mahabub, and Marjina Masud. 2020. “Impact of Flood-Induced Migration on Livelihood and Gender Relations: A Study on Chulmari, Kurigram.” International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology 5 (5): 1–7.

Authors: Mahabub Chowdhury, Marjina Masud

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of flood induced migration on people’s livelihood and gender relations within households. Kurigram is the severely poverty affected and one of the most disaster prone districts of Bangladesh. Different studies show that people of this district face disasters like flood, river bank erosion, extreme cold and cyclones every year. Chilmari (a sub-district of Kurigram) is known as one of the most flood affected areas of the district. To escape the adverse impact of flood, people use to migrate both permanently and temporarily to nearby and far cities and towns in search of livelihood. Using qualitative research techniques including semi-structured interview, focus group discussion, informal group discussion, conversational exchange and case study method, this study revealed that people migrate permanently and temporarily to escape flood in search of alternative livelihood which has an impact on their livelihood such as a rise in income and alternative earning source during flood and gender relations such as changed role of men and women, women’s access to decision making and their mobility compare to the male counterparts as well. The findings of this study will help the policy makers, development experts and concerned stakeholders to understand the insights and act accordingly.

Keywords: flood, gender relations, livelihood, migration

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Climate Refugees

Citation:

Sen Roy, Shouraseni. 2018. “Climate Refugees.” In Linking Gender to Climate Change Impacts in the Global South, 93–115. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Shouraseni Sen Roy

Annotation:

Summary:
“The impacts of climate change driving forced displacement of population from their homes can be classified under three main categories, which include extreme weather events (such as hurricanes, floods), sea level rise, and food insecurity resulting from severe and prolonged droughts (Fig. 5.1). Some of these impacts, particularly food has led to conflicts, such as observed in the case of Syria and Darfur, Sudan. In the majority of the cases, the forced displacement of population is internal within the national borders. However, in many cases it has led to the displacement and out migration of people across international borders. This has resulted in an unprecedented crisis in the receiving countries, which are not prepared to accommodate this influx of population. However, this displacement of vulnerable population from their familiar surroundings puts them at very high risk in terms of security, health, and exploitation. Therefore, the focus of this chapter will be on impact of climate change induced migration and displacement of population, and their impacts on women and girls through specific case studies and analyses of limited available empirical data” (Sen Roy 2018, 96).

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Girls, Women, Security, Food Security

Year: 2018

The Smokescreen Effect: Rethinking the Gender Dimension of Climate, Migration and Security

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P., and Edsel E. Sajor. 2012. “The Smokescreen Effect: Rethinking the Gender Dimension of Climate, Migration and Security.” In Climate Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia, edited by Lorraine Elliott Edito, 60-73. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.

Authors: Bernadette P. Resurrección, Edsel E. Sajor

Annotation:

Summary:
“The starting point for this chapter, as with others in the volume, is that people may adapt to the negative effects of climate change by migrating. Their choice may be constrained, and at the same time influenced, by gender-related vulnerabilities embedded in norms and relations of power. Yet, one of the big silences in the discourse on the securitization of climate change-induced migration is the gender dimensions of such migration. At the same time, the rapidly growing literature on gender and climate change has largely ignored migration issues. It appears that scholars who work on issues related to gender and the environment do not also work on gender and migration issues. In general terms, gender-blind research neglects the fundamental ways in which climate change-induced migration and its impacts will differ for women and men. The focus of this chapter then is to shed light on the complex workings of gender in climate change-induced migration. It takes the view that there is much to learn from the literature on gender and disaster, where displacement and resettlement figure as responses to hazards and extreme events. First, the chapter argues that there should be more sustained focus on the gender-related vulnerabilities that may influence and constrain migration as an adaptation option. These vulnerabilities may lead to adverse ways and outcomes of migration, with attendant implications for the human security of women migrants. Second, it is emphasised that vulnerability is not intrinsic to, nor does it derive from, any one factor such as “being a woman” or “being a migrant”. Instead, some groups and persons are more vulnerable than others because of the specific configuration of practices, processes and power relations embedded in particular societies. Finally, the chapter signposts possible pathways for enhancing people’s human security by addressing gender-related vulnerabilities when migration is employed as an option for climate change adaptation” (Resurreccion & Edsel 2012, 60-1).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Security, Human Security

Year: 2012

Gender and Climate-Induced Migration in the Mediterranean: From Resilience to Peace and Human Security

Citation:

Braham, Monia. 2018. “Gender and Climate-Induced Migration in the Mediterranean: From Resilience to Peace and Human Security.” In MediTerra: Migration and Inclusive Rural Development in the Mediterranean, 181-207. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.

Author: Monia Braham

Abstract:

Summary:
“The research presented in the following sections explores the interaction between gender, migration and climate change, as well as the way forward for a proactive protection of climate migrants in the cases of countries of origin, transit and destination through the Mediterranean routes in addition to the protection of those considered as internally displaced persons within southern and eastern Mediterranean countries after extreme weather events leading usually to conflicts. This chapter will attempt to explore the causal link between migration and climate change through gender lenses. Three main questions drove the research: What are the links between gender, migration and climate change in the context of the Mediterranean region? What are the inclusive policies that we need to identify as responses for internally displaced persons among men, women, boys and girls at national level and the particular protection challenges for cross border movements of climate migrants through the different routes in the Mediterranean? Finally, how will international agendas on gender, climate change, migration and sustainable development proactively protect climate migrants and seek durable solutions to displacement and climate-induced migration in the Mediterranean region?” (Braham 2018, 184).

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, IDPs, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Europe, Southern Europe

Year: 2018

Indigenous Perspectives on Gender, Power and Climate-Related Displacement

Citation:

Pentlow, Sarah. 2020. "Indigenous Perspectives on Gender, Power and Climate-Related Displacement." Forced Migration Review 64: 28-31.

 

Author: Sarah Pentlow

Abstract:

The impacts of climate change are most severely felt by those who live closest to their natural habitats. Indigenous Peoples in the Greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia are facing threats to their livelihoods and traditional ways of life and are being forced to migrate as an adaptation strategy. Within these communities, women bear the brunt of the work to adapt as they, culturally, are responsible for the food supply and livestock care. In this context, the Climate Smart Women initiative undertook village-level field research in selected Indigenous communities in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam to understand the gendered impacts of climate change at a community level and how communities are responding. Pre-existing inequalities are exacerbated by climate change, resulting in differentiated vulnerabilities.

 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Indigenous, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam

Year: 2020

Gendered Dimensions of Migration in Relation to Climate Change

Citation:

Lama, Phudoma, Mo Hamza, and Misse Wester. 2020. “Gendered Dimensions of Migration in Relation to Climate Change.” Climate and Development (June). doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2020.1772708

Authors: Phudoma Lama, Mo Hamza, Misse Wester

Abstract:

It is widely accepted that climate change may be contributing to population movement and has gendered effects. The relationship between climate change as a direct cause of migration continues to give rise to debates concerning vulnerabilities, while at the same time gendered dimensions of vulnerabilities remain limited to binary approaches. There is limited cross-fertilization between disciplines that go beyond comparison between males and females but interrogate gender in association with climate change and migration. Here, we seek to develop an analytical lens to the nexus between gender, migration and climate change in producing, reproducing and sustaining at risk conditions and vulnerabilities. When gender and mobility are conceptualized as a process, and climate change as a risk modifier, the nexus between them can be better interrogated. Starting by using gender as an organizing principle that structures and stratifies relations entails viewing gender not as a category that distinguishes males and females but as a discursive process of social construction that (re)produces subjectivities and inequalities. Gender is a dynamic process that shapes and (re)produces vulnerabilities and consequently shapes mediation of climate impacts and migration and is also shaped by symbolic processes that go beyond households and communities.

Keywords: climate change, climate adaptation, migration, gender dynamics

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2020

Climate Change and Violence against Women: Study of a Flood-Affected Population in the Rural Area of Sindh, Pakistan

Citation:

Memon, Falak Shad. 2020. "Climate Change and Violence against Women: Study of a Flood-Affected Population in the Rural Area of Sindh, Pakistan." Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies 27 (1): 65-85.

Author: Falak Shad Memon

Abstract:

Climate-induced gender-based violence is an emerging area of study. Although studies on women and climate change are not new, a fresh understanding of gender-based issues and related problems are becoming of greater concern now. Women in Pakistan are generally at a disadvantage due to their societally- perceived norms, roles and responsibilities. This study aims to examine the experiences of women in flood settlement camps and to identify an association between natural disasters and violence against women. For this study, with the help of qualitative research methodology, 20 women were interviewed in the flood-prone areas of Sindh. Findings show that most women experience different types of violence, physical as well as emotional, committed by partners and even by complete strangers. The rate of such violence rises when women are displaced and are in temporary shelter facilities during a post-disaster period. Committing violence under such situations results in critical implications for both women victims and the development and implementation of gender sensitive climate change and disaster planning policies.

Keywords: climate change, disaster, gender-based violence, Pakistan, flood shelter-homes

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Gender-Based Violence after a Natural Disaster

Citation:

Reddy, Himabindu, and Annekathryn Goodman. 2019. "Gender-Based Violence after a Natural Disaster." Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 34 (1).

Authors: Himabindu Reddy, Annekathryn Goodman

Abstract:

Introduction: Gender-based violenceis endemic across theworld. The current evidence suggests that gender-based violence increases after natural disasters. Factors leading to this increase following natural disasters include physical displacement, loss of community supports and protections, economic hardship, and gendered differences in coping. Multiple agencies are mobilized in response to natural disasters, however, personnel are often not adequately trained to recognize or address gender-based violence.

Aim: To identify challenges faced by disaster responders in recognizing and responding to gender-based violence in disaster settings, and to advocate for gender-sensitive training prior to deployment by responding personnel. Methods: The world’s literature was reviewed to identify challenges for disaster teams in recognizing and responding to gender-based violence, and to identify principles of training which may be applicable for pre-deployment competency building by disaster response personnel. 

Results: Disaster response programs should ensure:
• Collection of data to identify vulnerable populations
• Establishment of procedures for monitoring and reporting
• Inclusion of female staff at all levels of planning and response
• Implementation of holistic services including physical and psychosocial care and legal response
• Safety in designing accommodations and distribution centers

Pre-Deployment training should include:
• Gender-sensitive approach, knowledge of prevalence and impact of gender-based violence
• Familiarity with behaviors and conditions associated with gender-based violence
• Non-judgmental, supportive, and validating approach to inquiry and response
• Familiarity with risk assessment tools • Mobilization of social supports
• Knowledge of resources, including medical and legal services

Discussion: Natural disasters are destabilizing events which expose vulnerable populations, particularly women, to increased violence. Disaster response teams should be adequately trained on the prevalence and impact of gender-based violence to ensure gender-sensitive interventions. Standard training of response personnel can ensure adequate identification of victims of gender-based violence and referral to appropriate services.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence

Year: 2019

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