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Climate Displacement

Climate Change and Violence against Women: Study of a Flood-Affected Population in the Rural Area of Sindh, Pakistan

Citation:

Memon, Falak Shad. 2020. "Climate Change and Violence against Women: Study of a Flood-Affected Population in the Rural Area of Sindh, Pakistan." Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies 27 (1): 65-85.

Author: Falak Shad Memon

Abstract:

Climate-induced gender-based violence is an emerging area of study. Although studies on women and climate change are not new, a fresh understanding of gender-based issues and related problems are becoming of greater concern now. Women in Pakistan are generally at a disadvantage due to their societally- perceived norms, roles and responsibilities. This study aims to examine the experiences of women in flood settlement camps and to identify an association between natural disasters and violence against women. For this study, with the help of qualitative research methodology, 20 women were interviewed in the flood-prone areas of Sindh. Findings show that most women experience different types of violence, physical as well as emotional, committed by partners and even by complete strangers. The rate of such violence rises when women are displaced and are in temporary shelter facilities during a post-disaster period. Committing violence under such situations results in critical implications for both women victims and the development and implementation of gender sensitive climate change and disaster planning policies.

Keywords: climate change, disaster, gender-based violence, Pakistan, flood shelter-homes

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Gender-Based Violence after a Natural Disaster

Citation:

Reddy, Himabindu, and Annekathryn Goodman. 2019. "Gender-Based Violence after a Natural Disaster." Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 34 (1).

Authors: Himabindu Reddy, Annekathryn Goodman

Abstract:

Introduction: Gender-based violenceis endemic across theworld. The current evidence suggests that gender-based violence increases after natural disasters. Factors leading to this increase following natural disasters include physical displacement, loss of community supports and protections, economic hardship, and gendered differences in coping. Multiple agencies are mobilized in response to natural disasters, however, personnel are often not adequately trained to recognize or address gender-based violence.

Aim: To identify challenges faced by disaster responders in recognizing and responding to gender-based violence in disaster settings, and to advocate for gender-sensitive training prior to deployment by responding personnel. Methods: The world’s literature was reviewed to identify challenges for disaster teams in recognizing and responding to gender-based violence, and to identify principles of training which may be applicable for pre-deployment competency building by disaster response personnel. 

Results: Disaster response programs should ensure:
• Collection of data to identify vulnerable populations
• Establishment of procedures for monitoring and reporting
• Inclusion of female staff at all levels of planning and response
• Implementation of holistic services including physical and psychosocial care and legal response
• Safety in designing accommodations and distribution centers

Pre-Deployment training should include:
• Gender-sensitive approach, knowledge of prevalence and impact of gender-based violence
• Familiarity with behaviors and conditions associated with gender-based violence
• Non-judgmental, supportive, and validating approach to inquiry and response
• Familiarity with risk assessment tools • Mobilization of social supports
• Knowledge of resources, including medical and legal services

Discussion: Natural disasters are destabilizing events which expose vulnerable populations, particularly women, to increased violence. Disaster response teams should be adequately trained on the prevalence and impact of gender-based violence to ensure gender-sensitive interventions. Standard training of response personnel can ensure adequate identification of victims of gender-based violence and referral to appropriate services.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence

Year: 2019

Lingu, Bomba Talu and Naombo: Triple Disaster in Central Sulawesi: A Gender Analysis

Citation:

Fatimah, Dati, and Fiona Roberts. 2019. Lingu, Bomba Talu and Naombo: Triple Disaster in Central Sulawesi: A Gender Analysis. Oxfam.

Authors: Dati Fatimah, Fiona Roberts

Annotation:

Summary:
On 28 September 2018, a major earthquake (lingu in the local language) with a magnitude of 7.4 struck Central Sulawesi in Indonesia, triggering a near-field tsunami (bomba talu), large-scale soil liquefaction (naombo) and landslides. As part of the subsequent humanitarian response, Oxfam and humanitarian networking partners JMK, including local organizations LBH APIK Palu and PKBI Palu, conducted research in camps for internally displaced persons in affected areas. The aim was to find out how the impacts of the disaster differed for women, men, boys and girls, as well as the variations in their roles and their access to and control of resources. As part of the assessment, the researchers carried out a rapid analysis of care work and also made efforts to identify how different groups might participate in the humanitarian response. This gender analysis is based on those research findings. It makes recommendations on how to respond to immediate and life-saving practical and strategic needs, with a focus on gender. It can also be used to inform and improve future responses to similar disasters in the same geographical area. (Summary from Oxfam)

 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Care Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2019

Psychosocial Support during Displacement due to a Natural Disaster: Relationships with Distress in a Lower-Middle Income Country

Citation:

Zahlawi, Tatiana, Amanda B. Roome, Chim W. Chan, Jacqueline J. Campbell, Bev Tosiro, Max Malanga, Markleen Tagaro, Jimmy Obed, Jerry Iaruel, George Taleo, Len Tarivonda, Kathryn M. Olszowy, and Kelsey N. Dancause. 2019. "Psychosocial Support during Displacement due to a Natural Disaster: Relationships with Distress in a Lower-Middle Income Country." International Health 11 (6): 472-9.

Authors: Tatiana Zahlawi, Amanda B. Roome, Chim W. Chan, Jacqueline J. Campbell, Bev Tosiro, Max Malanga, Markleen Tagaro, Jimmy Obed, Jerry Iaruel, George Taleo, Len Tarivonda, Kathryn M. Olszowy, Kelsey N. Dancause

Abstract:

Background: Past studies show relationships between disaster-related displacement and adverse psychosocial health outcomes. The development of psychosocial interventions following displacement is thus increasingly prioritized. However, data from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. In October 2017, the population of Ambae Island in Vanuatu, a lower-middle income country, was temporarily displaced due to volcanic activity. We analyzed distress among adults displaced due to the event and differences based on the psychosocial support they received. 
 
Methods: Data on experiences during displacement, distress and psychosocial support were collected from 443 adults 2–3 wk after repatriation to Ambae Island. Four support categories were identified: Healthcare professional, Traditional/community, Not available and Not wanted. We analyzed differences in distress by sex and group using one-way ANOVA and generalized linear models. 
 
Results: Mean distress scores were higher among women (1.90, SD=0.97) than men (1.64, SD=0.98) (p<0.004). In multivariate models, psychosocial support group was associated with distress among women (p=0.033), with higher scores among women who reported no available support compared with every other group. Both healthcare professional and traditional support networks were widely used. 
 
Conclusions: Women might be particularly vulnerable to distress during disaster-related displacement in LMICs, and those who report a lack of support might be at greater risk. Both healthcare professional and traditional networks provide important sources of support that are widely used and might help to ameliorate symptoms.

Keywords: developing country, intervention, mental health, Pacific, Psychological distress, psychosocial health

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Mental Health Regions: Oceania Countries: Vanuatu

Year: 2019

Women's Vulnerability to Climate Change: Gender-skewed Implications on Agro-based Livelihoods in Rural Zvishavane, Zimbabwe

Citation:

Chidakwa, Patience, Clifford Mabhena, Blessing Mucherera, Joyline Chikuni, and Chipo Mudavanhu. 2020. "Women's Vulnerability to Climate Change: Gender-skewed Implications on Agro-based Livelihoods in Rural Zvishavane, Zimbabwe." Indian Journal of Gender Studies 27 (2): 259-81.

Authors: Patience Chidakwa, Clifford Mabhena, Blessing Mucherera, Joyline Chikuni, Chipo Mudavanhu

Abstract:

Climate change presents a considerable threat to human security, with notable gender disproportions. Women's vulnerability to climate change has implications on agro-based livelihoods, especially the rural populace. The primary purpose of this study was to assess women's vulnerability to climate change and the gender-skewed implications on agro-based livelihoods in rural Zvishavane, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach that used purposive sampling techniques was adopted. Data was collected through 20 in-depth interviews with 11 de jure and 9 de facto small-scale female-headed farmer households. Two focus group discussions with mixed de facto and de jure small-scale female-headed farmer households were also conducted. Five key informant interviews were held with departmental heads of the Ministry of Women's Affairs, Gender and Community Development; the Agriculture Technical Extension Service Department; the Livestock Production Department; the Runde Rural District Council and the Meteorological Services Department. Gendered effects were noted in terms of increased roles and responsibilities for women. Observations showed that there was an increase in distances travelled by women to fetch water owing to a depleted water table. Climate-induced migration of men due to depleted livelihoods in rural areas has also increased roles and responsibilities for women. The traditional male responsibilities assumed by women included cattle herding and ox-driven ploughing. This study concluded that adaptation strategies towards vulnerability to climate change have to be gender-sensitive and area-specific. This study also recommended that response programmes and policies meant to curb existing gendered vulnerabilities should be informed by evidence because climate-change effects are unique for different geographical areas. Moreover, adaptation activities should be mainstreamed in community processes so as to reduce the burden on women and increase sustainability opportunities.

Keywords: de facto household head, de jure household head, gender, smallholder farmers, vulnerability, climate change

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2020

Climate Migration, Gender and Poverty

Citation:

Borrás, Susana. 2019. "Climate Migration, Gender and Poverty." In Research Handbook on Global Climate Constitutionalism, edited by Jordi Jaria-Manzano and Susana Borrás, 216-34. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Author: Susana Borrás

Annotation:

Summary:
This chapter explains that climate migration is a reality in which gender perspective is very important. It reveals both the vulnerabilities and strengths of women – whether in transit or in refugee camps; in their country of origin or at their ultimate destination. Women play a key role in the care, support and reconstruction of their communities. However, the political and legal failure to recognize climate change as a factor of added vulnerability, which is generating poverty and population movements, has increased gender inequality and injustice. This chapter argues the need to approach ‘gender climate migration’ realities from a gender justice and climate justice perspective. (Summary from ElgarOnline)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2019

Women in a Climate Changing World. The Need of a Policy Solution for Cross-Border Displacement

Citation:

del Corral, Beatriz López-Fanjul Díez. 2020. "Women in a Climate Changing World. The Need of a Policy Solution for Cross-Border Displacement." In Climate Change, Hazards and Adaptation Options, edited by Walter Leal Filho, Gustavo J. Nagy, Marco Borga, and Pastor David Chávez Muñoz, 523-43. Cham: Springer, Cham.

Author: Beatriz López-Fanjul Díez del Corral

Abstract:

An international framework that addresses displacement across borders due to sudden events does not exist, and a policy embracing a gender perspective on the topic is lacking. This absence of specific regulations on the matter leaves women in a vulnerable situation. The purpose of this work is to advance knowledge in order to identify international policy conventions and agreements that consider climate change disasters, gender and migration, to provide support for women and girls of developing countries when a sudden disaster strikes their communities, a situation where cross border displacement is the only option. This report strives to clarify the importance of having an equity perspective to create equality between genders in a migration process. This is not equivalent to favor one gender upon the other, but simply stresses the fact that the “starting line” for women and girls is not the same as that for men. It is important to consider this positive discrimination of women as a first step to create gender equality by building empowerment through resilience and coping capacity.

Keywords: displacement, gender, women, sudden disaster, vulnerability assessment, climate change

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance

Year: 2020

Impacts of Climate Change Induced Migration on Gender: A Qualitative Study from the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Citation:

Sams, Ishita Shahid. 2019. "Impacts of Climate Change Induced Migration on Gender: A Qualitative Study from the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh." International Journal of Social Science Studies 7 (4): 57-68.

Author: Ishita Shahid Sams

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the gender variation of the impact of climate change induced migration. This paper highlights the gender dimensions of climate change induced migration where gender is a vital element for determining vulnerability to climate change which influences the subsequent migration. Actually, the impacts of climate change induced natural disasters are not gender neutral because the experiences, needs and priorities of the climate migrants are varied by gender roles and position. In this research, we explore the socioeconomic impacts of the climate migrants on gender from the evidence of the southwest coastal women and men of Bangladesh. The qualitative data were collected from the cyclone-affected migrants who were migrated internally from the disaster-prone southwest coastal region and lived in the city slums of Khulna in Bangladesh. This study is described the gender differentiation between women and men in case of climate change induced migration according to social, economical, ecological, organizational, occupational, educational, and physical aspects which tend to be highly gendered. The study results show that among climate migrants, women are more vulnerable than men due to theri socioeconomic condition and gender discrimination in the patriarchal society of Bangladesh who are likely to be poorer, less educated, have a lower social status and have limited access to and control over natural resources.

Keywords: climate change, natural disaster, migration, gender, vulnerability, coastal region, Bangladesh

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Building Capacities of Women for Climate Change Adaptation: Insights from Migrant-Sending Households in Nepal

Citation:

Banerjee, Soumyadeep, Abid Hussain, Sabarnee Tuladhar, and Arabinda Mishra. 2019. "Building Capacities of Women for Climate Change Adaptation: Insights from Migrant-Sending Households in Nepal." Climatic Change 157: 587-609.

Authors: Soumyadeep Banerjee, Abid Hussain, Sabarnee Tuladhar, Arabinda Mishra

Abstract:

Women’s capacities are often constrained due to their roles in their household and society, institutional barriers and social norms. These constraints result in low adaptive capacity of women, which make them more vulnerable to hazards. As more men seek employment opportunities away from home, women are required to acquire new capacities to manage new challenges, including risks from climate change. An action research was conducted to assess impacts of capacity building interventions for women left behind in enhancing adaptive capacity of migrant-sending households in rural areas vulnerable to floods in Nepal. This study finds that capacity-building interventions, which aimed to strengthen autonomous adaptation measures (e.g. precautionary savings and flood preparedness), also positively influenced women to approach formal institutions. Besides, the intervention households were more likely to invest a part of the precautionary savings in flood preparedness measures than control households.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Introspecting Climate Change from the Lens of Feminism

Citation:

Kalinga, Kirti. 2019. "Introspecting Climate Change from the Lens of Feminism." Journal of Energy Research and Environmental Technology 6 (3): 264-8.

Author: Kirti Kalinga

Abstract:

Climate change is a widespread problem whose ramifications are felt across sectors, economies and geo-spatial location. But the degree to which one will be affected depends on the power relations, social positioning and the cultural milieu. Though, there are limited studies exploring the nexus between climate change and gender but it is not difficult to discern that the ravaging effects of climate change will have disproportionate impact on women increasing their burden, hardship and vulnerability which will ultimately exacerbate gender inequalities. Therefore, climate justice is nothing without gender justice and feminist epistemologies and standpoint theories help to unravel the layers of climate injustice. Many studies have been conducted at the micro level that explores climate change related vulnerability. But they have been limited to either community level vulnerability or household level. This implies that there is a dearth of gender segregated data that will elucidate the gender specific impacts of climate change. The present paper looks at the vulnerabilities of women in climate change hotspot Satavaya village in Rajnagar block of Kendrapara district in Odisha. Satavaya is under constant threat of coastal erosion due to sea level rise. The research findings reflect that climate change has aggravated livelihood insecurity, thus, inducing a male dominated mass labour migration. As they leave behind their family, the entire responsibility of running the household remains with the women, who have to carry the “double burden” of care and earning responsibilities. Health risks, especially reproductive problems are very high for women in Satavaya. They are also confronted with water and food insecurities. Climate change induced extreme events further trap them in cycle of poverty and amplifies their vulnerabilities. There is a need to develop women centric coping and adaptation strategies. 

Keywords: climate change, gender inequality, vulnerability, Satavaya, feminism, migration

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

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