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Climate Displacement

Climate Change, Migration and Women: Analysing Construction Workers in Odisha

Citation:

Patel, Amrita and Jasmine Giri. 2019. "Climate Change, Migration and Women: Analysing Construction Workers in Odisha." Social Change 49 (1): 97-113.

Authors: Amrita Patel, Jasmine Giri

Abstract:

The research article seeks to focus on the status of women from the coastal districts of Odisha who have become migrants essentially because of repeated floods and extreme climatic events. Fluctuating weather conditions, the consequent depletion of agricultural work and availability of other forms of employment in their place of origin are some reasons behind the migration of these women. The study particularly looks at Bhubaneswar where women, largely illiterate and landless, mostly belonging to Scheduled Caste groups, have been able to find work on construction sites. Despite evident hardship, they have been able to meet the challenges of living in new urban destinations and in the process better their living conditions. This can be seen in the improvement of their financial status, a new-found focus of educating their daughters, the development of levels of self-confidence and the overcoming of some deeply entrenched social barriers. However, in other areas, the marginalisation of such groups continues, and vulnerabilities prevail in many forms, evident, for instance, in the lack of land ownership by women, the absence of opportunities to upgrade skills to access better work opportunities and issues of safety and security of young girls.

Keywords: women, migrants, climate change, construction workers

Topics: Agriculture, Caste, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Climate-induced Migration in South Asia: Migration Decisions and the Gender Dimensions of Adverse Climatic Events

Citation:

Bhatta, Gopal Datt, Pramod Kumar Aggarwal, Santosh Poudel, and Debbie Anne Belgrave. 2015. "Climate-induced Migration in South Asia: Migration Decisions and the Gender Dimensions of Adverse Climatic Events." Journal of Rural and Community Development 10 (4): 1-23.

Authors: Gopal Datt Bhatta, Pramod Kumar Aggarwol, Santosh Poudel, Debbie Anne Belgrave

Abstract:

There is significant interest in determining the role of climate-induced shocks as a prominent driver on migration decisions of different groups of farmers in South Asia. Using data from a survey of 2,660 farm-families and focused group discussions in Bihar (India), Terai (plains) (Nepal) and coastal Bangladesh, we employed logistic regression to investigate household response towards migration and gender dimensions of adverse climatic events. The results suggest that migration decisions depend on farmers’ unique resource profiles: (a) households that use migration to improve their resilience, mostly resource rich households; (b) households that have no alternative but to migrate, mostly poor farmers; and (c) households who cannot migrate due to different socio-economic obligations, mostly farmers with intermediate level of income that also includes women, children and elderly of different income profiles. These profiles represent a spectrum with households within a profile being closer to one or the other of the profiles on either side. They are not mutually exclusive and serve as a point of departure for further research to refine key explanatory variables. Given that some members of the household pursue migration as a result of adverse climatic events, government strategies are required to mitigate risks at destinations and create opportunities for the trapped populations.

Keywords: distress migration, climatic risks, extreme events, rainfall variability, gender dimensions, South Asia

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, India, Nepal

Year: 2015

Gender-wise Rural-to-Urban Migration in Orissa, India: An Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change

Citation:

Velan, Nirmala and Ranjan Kumar Mohanty. 2016. "Gender-wise Rural-to-Urban Migration in Orissa, India: An Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change." In Inequality and Climate Change: Perspectives from the Soutlh, edited by Carlo Delgado Ramos, 137-70. Oxford: African Books Collective.

Authors: Nirmala Velan, Ranjan Kumar Mohanty

Annotation:

Summary:

"Overall, [this paper] attempts to gauge the determinants of rural to urban migration and the adaptability of rural households under environmental change. An understanding of who migrates, under what circumstances, how far and why, would provide a deeper insight into the nature, type and cause of migration, facilitating policy making for their welfare and for those who do not migrate. Therefore, the main objectives of the study are to:

i) gain an overview the variations in socio-economic background of the
respondent households by migrant status before and after migration/given
period by gender in Puri district, Orissa;

ii) analyse the factors inducing gender-wise rural to urban migration among
the rural households in the study area;

iii) examine the impacts of migration in terms of the benefits gained and
problems experienced by the migrants and their families;

iv) survey the reasons for non-migration by gender; and

v) assess the impact of climate change on poverty and income inequality of
the sample households by gender and migrant status" (Velan and Mohanty 2016, 139-40).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

The Complex Ties that Bind: Gendered Agency and Expectations in Conflict and Climate Change-related Migration

Citation:

Myrttinen, Henri. 2017. "The Complex Ties that Bind: Gendered Agency and Expectations in Conflict and Climate Change-related Migration." Global Policy 8 (1): 148-54.

Author: Henri Myrttinen

Abstract:

For the past decade, western public discourse and the policy world have become increasingly concerned about ‘irregular’ migration and, to a slightly lesser extent perhaps, what driving role conflict and climate change play in triggering it. Addressing the causes and effects requires having a better understanding of the impacts that climate change has on multi‐dimensional crises and the knock‐on effect this has on migration. A key factor in understanding how these processes affect different women, girls, men, boys and other gender identities is gender. Much of the analysis, however, has tended to be based on relatively simplistic teleological models and gender stereotypes. Based on case studies, this article argues for more nuanced understandings of how gender and other societal markers affect people differently in different contexts of crisis and climate change‐related migration to better formulate policy responses.

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis

Year: 2017

Resilience, Female Altruism, and Bodily Autonomy: Disaster-Induced Displacement in Post-Haiyan Philippines

Citation:

Tanyag, Maria. 2018. "Resilience, Female Altruism, and Bodily Autonomy: Disaster-Induced Displacement in Post-Haiyan Philippines." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 43 (3): 563-85.

Author: Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

Natural disasters are increasingly causing displacements globally, and such negative impacts of climate change are expected to increase exponentially. Women and girls in particular distinctly endure long-term or gradual harms while in displacement, such as heightened risks of sexual and gender-based violence, including exposure to sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, maternal mortality, and forced or unwanted pregnancies. This article examines the Philippines as a case study to unveil the growing gendered security threats embodied by disaster-induced displacements. In the aftermath of the disaster caused by supertyphoon Haiyan, which struck in November 2013, the mantra of developing a “disaster-resilient nation” has gained currency among national and international actors in the country. Building on critical feminist political economy analysis, this article argues that the Haiyan postdisaster relief and reconstruction efforts constitute gendered processes that intimately rely on and mobilize women’s unremunerated social reproductive labor, particularly through their role as primary caregivers. Data for this research is drawn from twenty-six interviews with key informants and from secondary sources such as official reports of governmental, nongovernmental, and international humanitarian organizations. The findings underscore the importance of deploying a feminist lens to critique the material and discursive power of “resilience” through which norms of female altruism are harnessed at household and community levels while postdisaster responsibilities are increasingly diverted away from the state. In so doing, resilience discourses may serve to reinforce the structural roots of gendered vulnerability, including political, cultural, and economic barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health services and supplies—thereby undermining bodily autonomy.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Gender and Climate Change-Induced Migration: Proposing a Framework for Analysis

Citation:

Chindarkar, Namrata. 2012. "Gender and Climate Change-Induced Migration: Proposing a Framework for Analysis." Environmental Research Letters 7 (2): 1-7.

Author: Namrata Chindarkar

Abstract:

This paper proposes frameworks to analyze the gender dimensions of climate change-induced migration. The experiences, needs and priorities of climate migrants will vary by gender and these differences need to be accounted for if policies are to be inclusive. Among the vulnerable groups, women are likely to be disproportionately affected due to climate change because on average women tend to be poorer, less educated, have a lower health status and have limited direct access to or ownership of natural resources. Both the process (actual movement) and the outcomes (rural–rural or rural–urban migration, out-migration mainly of men) of climate change-induced migration are also likely to be highly gendered.

Keywords: migration, gender, vulnerability assessment, climate change

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women

Year: 2012

Climate Variability, Land Ownership and Migration: Evidence from Thailand about Gender Impacts

Citation:

Curran, Sara R., and Jacqueline Meijer-Irons. 2014. "Climate Variability, Land Ownership and Migration: Evidence from Thailand About Gender Impacts." Washington Journal of Environmental Law & Policy 4 (1): 37-74.

Authors: Sara R. Curran, Jacqueline Meijer-Irons

Abstract:

Scholars point to climate change, often in the form of more frequent and severe drought, as a potential driver of migration in the developing world, particularly for places where populations rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. To date, however, there have been few large-scale, longitudinal studies that explore the relationship between climate change and migration. This study significantly extends current scholarship by evaluating distinctive effects of climatic variation and models these effects on men’s and women’s responsiveness to drought and rainfall. Our study also investigates how land ownership moderates these effects. We find small, but significant, increases in migration above existing migratory levels during periods of prolonged climatic stress, and that these patterns differ both by gender and land tenure.

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Land Tenure, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2014

Climate Change, Gender Inequality and Migration in East Africa

Citation:

Abebe, Medhanit A. 2014. "Climate Change, Gender Inequality and Migration in East Africa." Washington Journal of Environmental Law & Policy 4 (1): 104-140.

Author: Medhanit A. Abebe

Abstract:

East Africa, one of the most volatile regions in Africa, has been suffering from enormous problems caused by population growth, weak governance, war, and famine. Recently, the advent of climate change has exacerbated these pre-existing problems. These impacts are not felt equally across populations, and, according to various studies, disproportionately affect women. Despite reforms, rural East African women still struggle to access resources or participate in decision-making processes. As a result, they have a weaker ability to adapt to climate change than men. This weaker adaptive capacity influences migration patterns between the genders, and creates its own set of problems. Indeed, migration influenced by climate change forces women to take greater roles at home and confront increased violence. While not fully understood, there is growing evidence of the connection between climate change, migration, and gender disparities. Addressing these issues in isolation cannot bring a sustainable solution, but this article will explore the legal and policy measures needed to solve the complex societal and ecological problems facing the region. Through international collaboration, East Africa can take action to improve the lives of women, limit violence, and fight back against the rapidly changing climate.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, East Africa

Year: 2014

Climate Change and Migration: Considering the Gender Dimensions

Citation:

Hunter, Lori M., and Emmanuel David. 2009. "Climate Change and Migration: Considering the Gender Dimensions." Working Paper, Population Program 09-13, University of Colorado, Boulder. 

Authors: Lori M. Hunter, Emmanuel David

Annotation:

"Discussions within public, policy and academic realms regarding climate change and migration are often gender neutral (WEDO 2008). As a result, important differences in the migration experiences of women and men are neglected. Yet migration is a social process – actually, migration is a social process embedded within a variety of other social processes. More specifically, gender-influenced cultural expectations, policies, and institutions intersect to shape migration’s causes and consequences. In this way, migration is inherently gendered and climate change will, therefore, yield different migratory experiences and impacts for the world’s women and men. This chapter explores these potential gender dimensions." (Hunter and David 2009, 1)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women

Year: 2009

Migration as a Driver of Changing Household Structures: Implications for Local Livelihoods and Adaptation

Citation:

Singh, Chandni. 2019. “Migration as a Driver of Changing Household Structures: Implications for Local Livelihoods and Adaptation.” Migration and Development, March 15. https://doi.org/10.1080/21632324.2019.1589073.

Author: Chandni Singh

Abstract:

Rapid environmental change, increasing climate variability, land fragmentation, and underlying institutional lacunae have shaped rural livelihoods in India. Increasingly, rural-urban migration has been a significant livelihood strategy to manage risks, meet aspirations, and move out of increasingly unprofitable agriculture. I argue that this movement of people is changing shape household structures, and the metrics to assess these transitions, often through categories of male- and female-headed households, fall short in understanding the experiences and outcomes of migration. Using a household survey (n = 825) and life history interviews (n = 16) to study rural-urban migration in South India, I demonstrate that shifting household configurations due to migration and commuting have implications for the risk management strategies people undertake. This calls for an expanded understanding of the ‘household’, which captures the realities of multi-local households, and consequently, for an expanded conceptualisation of ‘local adaptation’. Such an understanding is sensitive to the ‘beyond-local’ flows and networks that shape household risk management behaviour and has implications for improving the effectiveness of climate change adaptation interventions.

Keywords: migration, aspirations, intra-household dynamics, gender, adaptation, India, climate change

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

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