Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Climate Change

Is Eco-Friendly Unmanly? The Green-Feminine Stereotype and Its Effect on Sustainable Consumption

Citation:

Brough, Aaron R., James E. B. Wilkie, Jingjing Ma, Mathew S. Isaac, and David Gal. 2016. “Is Eco-Friendly Unmanly? The Green-Feminine Stereotype and Its Effect on Sustainable Consumption.” Journal of Consumer Research 43 (4): 567–82.

Authors: Aaron R. Brough, James E. B. Wilkie, Jingjing Ma, Mathew S. Isaac, David Gal

Abstract:

Why are men less likely than women to embrace environmentally friendly products and behaviors? Whereas prior research attributes this gender gap in sustainable consumption to personality differences between the sexes, we propose that it may also partially stem from a prevalent association between green behavior and femininity, and a corresponding stereotype (held by both men and women) that green consumers are more feminine. Building on prior findings that men tend to be more concerned than women with gender-identity maintenance, we argue that this green-feminine stereotype may motivate men to avoid green behaviors in order to preserve a macho image. A series of seven studies provides evidence that the con- cepts of greenness and femininity are cognitively linked and shows that, accordingly, consumers who engage in green behaviors are stereotyped by others as more feminine and even perceive themselves as more feminine. Further, men’s willingness to engage in green behaviors can be influenced by threatening or affirming their masculinity, as well as by using masculine rather than conventional green branding. Together, these findings bridge literatures on identity and environmental sustainabil- ity and introduce the notion that due to the green-feminine stereotype, gender-identity maintenance can influence men’s likelihood of adopting green behaviors.

Keywords: gender identity maintenance, green marketing, environmental sustainability, stereotypes, motivated consumption

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies

Year: 2016

A Green Fatwā? Climate Change as a Threat to the Masculinity of Industrial Modernity

Citation:

Anshelm, Jonas, and Martin Hultman. 2014. “A Green Fatwā? Climate Change as a Threat to the Masculinity of Industrial Modernity.” NORMA: International Journal for Masculinity Studies 9 (2): 84–96.

Authors: Jonas Anshelm, Martin Hultman

Abstract:

From the autumn of 2006 and until 2009, climate change was described in Sweden as having apocalyptic dimensions. There was a parliamentary and public consensus that anthropogenic climate change was real and that society needed to take responsibility for lowering greenhouse gas emissions, though a small group of climate sceptics did not agree with the majority of the scientists or the need for drastic changes in the organization of Western societies. This small group, with only one exception, consisted of elderly men with influential positions in academia or large private companies. In this article we discuss how they described themselves as marginalised, banned and oppressed dissidents, forced to speak against a faith-based belief in climate science. They characterised themselves as having strong beliefs in a market society, great mistrust of government regulation and a sturdy belief in engineering and natural science rationality. We contend that climate sceptics in Sweden can be understood as being intertwined with a masculinity of industrial modernity that is on decline. These climate sceptics tried to save an industrial society of which they were a part by defending its values against ecomodern hegemony. This gender analysis of climate scepticism moves beyond the previous research of understanding this discourse as solely an ideologically-based outcry against science and politics, and highlights the recognition of identities, historical structures and emotions.

Keywords: climate change, masculinity studies, climate sceptics, industrial modern masculinity, ecomodern masculinity, discourse analysis

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2014

Gender Processes in Rural Out-Migration and Socio-economic Development in the Himalaya

Citation:

Tiwari, Prakash C., and Bhagwati Joshi. 2016. “Gender Processes in Rural Out-Migration and Socio-economic Development in the Himalaya.” Migration and Development 5 (2): 330-50.

Authors: Prakash C. Tiwari, Bhagwati Joshi

Abstract:

In the Himalaya, due to constraints of subsistence economy a large proportion of youth male population out-migrates in search of livelihood. Women are therefore considered as primary resource developers, and they make implicit contribution towards mountain economy. However, women enjoy a highly restricted ownership of natural resources and limited access to the opportunities of social and economic development, and this further leads to the feminization of poverty. Moreover, depletion of natural resources and climate change have further accelerated the trends of male out-migration which have enhanced women’s roles, and responsibilities and increased their workload rendering them more vulnerable to environmental changes. However, this study found that the increasing trends of male out-migration not only provided stability to rural economies in terms of remittances, but also marginally improved women’s access to education, development opportunities, leadership, decision-making power, natural resource management and growing market. These changes are contributing towards social, economic and political empowerment of rural women. Furthermore, women have developed critical traditional knowledge to understand, visualize and respond to environmental changes including the climate change. Hence, it is highly imperative to improve rural livelihood in rural areas, and extend the good practices of women’s mainstreaming in other areas across the Himalayan mountains.

Keywords: subsistence economy, climate change, educational, economic and political empowerment, feminization of agriculture and resource development process, rural livelihood improvement

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2016

Agrarian Stress and Climate Change in the Eastern Gangetic Plains: Gendered Vulnerability in a Stratified Social Formation

Citation:

Sugden, Fraser, Niki Maskey, Floriane Clement, Vidya Ramesh, Anil Philip, and Ashok Rai. 2014. “Agrarian Stress and Climate Change in the Eastern Gangetic Plains: Gendered Vulnerability in a Stratified Social Formation.” Global Environmental Change 29: 258-69. 

Authors: Fraser Sugden, Niki Maskey, Floriane Clement, Vidya Ramesh, Anil Philip, Ashok Rai

Abstract:

This paper reviews the complex impact of climate change on gender relations and associated vulnerability on the Eastern Gangetic Plains of Nepal and India. Field research has identified that gendered vulnerability to climate change is intricately connected to local and macro level political economic processes. Rather than being a single driver of change, climate is one among several stresses on agriculture, alongside a broader set of non-climatic processes. While these pressures are linked to large scale political- economic processes, the response on the ground is mediated by the local level relations of class and caste, creating stratified patterns of vulnerability. The primary form of gendered vulnerability in the context of agrarian stress emerges from male out-migration, which has affected the distribution of labour and resources. While migration occurs amongst all socio-economic groups, women from marginal farmer and tenant households are most vulnerable. While the causes of migration are only indirectly associated with climate change, migration itself is rendering women who are left behind from marginal households, more vulnerable to ecological shocks such as droughts due to the sporadic flow of income and their reduced capacity for investment in off-farm activities. It is clear that policies and initiatives to address climate change in stratified social formations such as the Eastern Gangetic Plains, will be ineffective without addressing the deeper structural intersections between class, caste and gender.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerability, Eastern Gangetic Plains, gender, class, caste

Topics: Agriculture, Caste, Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2014

Climate Change, Gender, Decision-Making Power, and Migration into the Saiss Region of Morocco

Citation:

Najjar, Dina, Boubaker Dhehibi, Aden Aw-Hassan, and Abderrahim Bentaibi. 2017. “Climate Change, Gender, Decision-Making Power, and Migration into the Saiss Region of Morocco.” Working Paper 1102, The Economic Research Forum (ERF), Giza.

Authors: Dina Najjar, Boubaker Dhehibi, Aden Aw-Hassan, Abderrahim Bentaibi

Abstract:

Studies on migration in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have so far focused on migration to urban areas (local cities and European countries). Little research has explored internal migration into rural areas. Yet in Morocco rural-rural migration is an important strategy for many who are escaping climate variability and unemployment in their hometowns to take advantage of labor opportunities in thriving agricultural enterprises. Gender remains largely missing from migration research in Morocco especially for migrant women. Gender differences are important to account for as men and women have diverse motives, strategies and experiences with migration, and thus require different interventions. In light of gender differences and climate-induced migration and investments in irrigation, this research follows up on the ground to understand the experiences of men and women laborer as the migration continues in three rural areas in the Saiss region (Morocco). These are chosen based on differences in socio-economic, gender norms, and biophysical dynamics to capture as diverse experiences as possible with labor work and migration as possible. These areas also represent both sending and receiving communities. Data was collected through a survey administered to 400 laborers (179 women and 221 men) employed in the intensified agricultural sector of Saiss in Morocco. Using gender analysis, logistic regression models framework and political ecology approach, our findings emphasize that men should be sensitized in their attainment of tertiary education on gender equality and the importance soliciting women’s participation in decisionmaking, particularly with regards to assets (house). For the economic advancement of women, there should be a sustained focus on their ownership and control over unalienable assets (such as housing). The same recommendation applies to the youth. Finally, we found that migrants were less likely to control houses that they owned probably due to a general lack of title deeds. We recommend formalizing their ownership of housing in the settlement areas.

Keywords: gender analysis, Decision-making, migration, rural livelihoods, climate change, logistic regression, Morocco

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, MENA Countries: Morocco

Year: 2017

Climate Change and Women’s Place-Based Vulnerabilities – A Case Study from Pakistani Highlands

Citation:

Nizami, Arjumand, and Jawad Ali. 2017. "Climate Change and Women’s Place-Based Vulnerabilities – A Case Study from Pakistani Highlands." Climate and Development 9 (7): 662-70.

Authors: Arjumand Nizami, Jawad Ali

Abstract:

Changes in temperature and hydro-meteorological patterns due to climate change are believed to be impacting farming communities in different ways. From a gender neutral perspective, climate change implications affect members of communities alike. From a gender perspective however, impacts of change vary from place to place, household to household and for individual members of the household due to a multiplicity of factors including expectation of individual members of a household to take additional responsibilities in difficult times. Taking empirical evidence from the hazard affected region of Chitral Pakistan, we argue that climate change vulnerabilities are contextually determined, are place based and impact individual members of households differently. As an unavoidable coping strategy, the affected communities are compelled to send male members away from home in search of alternate sources of livelihoods. This compels women to take additional responsibilities at farm household and the community levels. These responsibilities give birth to new vulnerabilities for women. Female members are forced to contribute to communal tasks traditionally performed by male member. Therefore, differentiated analysis of climate change impacts, based on gender roles and responsibilities, is crucial to understand impacts of climate change on different segments of the society even individual members of the same households.

Keywords: climate change, migration, women, vulnerability, Pakistan

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2017

Gender, Environment and Migration in Bangladesh

Citation:

Evertsen, Kathinka Fossum, and Kees van der Geest. 2019. "Gender, Environment and Migration in Bangladesh." Climate and Development, April, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2019.1596059.

Authors: Kathinka Fossum Evertsen, Kees van der Geest

Abstract:

This article addresses how gender norms impact the process of migration, and what this means for the use of migration as an adaptation strategy to cope with environmental stressors. Data was collected through qualitative fieldwork, taking the form of semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions from a Dhaka slum and three villages in Southern Bangladesh's Bhola district. Our data revealed that women migrate when environmental stress threatens livelihoods and leave male household members unable to earn enough income for their families. Employing an analytical framework that focuses on the perceptions of individuals, this article shows how gender norms create social costs for women who migrate. Women thus have ambivalent feelings about migration. On the one hand, they do not wish to migrate, taking on a double work load, forsaking their purdah, and facing the stigma that follows. On the other hand, women see migration as a means to help their families, and live a better life. While social costs negatively affect the utilization and efficiency of female migration as an adaptation strategy to environmental stressors, it becomes clear that female migration is imperative to sustain livelihoods within the Bhola community.

Keywords: gender, environment, climate change, migration, adaptation

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Climate Change and Gender Equality in Developing States

Citation:

Eastin, Joshua. 2018. "Climate Change and Gender in Developing States." World Development 107: 289-305.

Author: Joshua Eastin

Abstract:

It is commonly accepted that women can be more vulnerable than men to the adverse environmental effects of climate change. This paper evaluates whether the unequal distribution of costs women bear as a result of climate change are reflected across broader macro-social institutions to the detriment of gender equality and women's rights. It argues that gender disparities in climate change vulnerability not only reflect preexisting gender inequalities, they also reinforce them. Inequalities in the ownership and control of household assets and rising familial burdens due to male out-migration, declining food and water access, and increased disaster exposure can undermine women's ability to achieve economic independence, enhance human capital, and maintain health and wellbeing. Consequences for gender equality include reductions in intra-household bargaining power, as women become less capable of generating independent revenue. Outside the home, norms of gender discrimination and gender imbalances in socio-economic status should increase as women are less able to participate in formal labor markets, join civil society organizations, or collectively mobilize for political change. The outcome of these processes can reduce a society's level of gender equality by increasing constraints on the advancement of laws and norms that promote co-equal status. I empirically test this relationship across a sample of developing states between 1981 and 2010. The findings suggest that climate shocks and climatic disasters a broadly negative impact on gender equality, as deviations from long-term mean temperatures and increasing incidence of climatological and hydro-meteorological disasters are associated with declines in women's economic and social rights. These effects appear to be most salient in states that are relatively less-democratic, with greater dependence on agriculture, and lower levels of economic development.

Keywords: climate change, gender equality, women's rights, development, vulnerability, developing states

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2018

Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration

Citation:

Rothe, Delf. 2017. "Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration." Global Policy 8 (1): 40-7.

Author: Delf Rothe

Abstract:

The research article critically investigates recent European policy proposals that promote migration as an adaptation strategy to increase the resilience of communities vulnerable to the environmental crisis. Such proposals have been welcomed for breaking with alarmist discourses that framed climate-induced migration as a threat to national or international security. The present article seeks to contribute to this ongoing debate by bringing in a fresh perspective that has so far been neglected: the perspective of gender. Drawing on a poststructuralist perspective on gender the article reveals that policy debates on climate-induced migration take place within highly gendered discourses. Applying this perspective to recent policy reports on climate change, migration and resilience, the article helps to paint a more nuanced picture of the highly criticized notion of resilience. The analysis shows that, on the one hand, resilience thinking helped overcoming a masculinized discourse of security as control. On the other hand, it reproduces a series of ‘gender myths’ about the role of women in the so-called Global South.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Discourses

Year: 2017

Water Security Across the Gender Divide

Citation:

Fröhlich, Christiane, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, and Henri Myrttinen. 2018. Water Security Across the Gender Divide. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, Henri Myrttinen

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines water security as a prime example of how the economic, socio-cultural and political-normative systems that regulate access to water reflect the evolving and gendered power relations between different societal groups. Access to water is characterized by inequalities: it depends not only on natural water availability, but also on the respective socio-political context. It is regulated by gender-differentiated roles and responsibilities towards the resource, which are strongly influenced by, among others, tradition, religion, customary law, geographical availability, as well as the historical and socio-political context. While gender has been recognized as a key intervening variable in achieving equitable water access, most studies fail to acknowledge the deep interrelations between social structures and patterns of water use. Proof of these shortcomings is the enduring lack of data on water accessibility, availability and utilization that sufficiently acknowledges the relational nature of gender and other categories of power and difference, like class and socioeconomic status, as well as their comprehensive analysis. This book addresses this major research gap. (Summary from Springer International Publishing)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Bridging Troubled Waters: Water Security Across the Gender Divide
Henri Myrttinen, Roger Cremades, Christiane Fröhlich and Giovanna Gioli
 
2. Gender and Water in a Changing Climate: Challenges and Opportunities
Farhana Sultana
 
3. More than Women and Men: A Framework for Gender and Intersectionality Research on Environmental Crisis and Conflict
Amber J. Fletcher
 
4. Gender and Water in the Middle East. Local and Global Realities
Mauro van Aken and Anita De Donato
 
5. Land and Water Reforms in South Africa: "Men in White Coats"
Deepa Joshi, Natasha Donn-Arnold, and Mart Kamphuis
 
6. Integrating Gender Equality in WASH Emergency Response in the Central African Republic 
Beatrice Mosello, Virginie Le Masson, Gladys Le Masson, Elena Diato, and Véronique Barbelet
 
7. Engaging with Gender in Water Governance and Practice in Kenya 
Chinwe Ifejika Speranza and Edward Bikketi
 
8. When Water Security Programmes Seek to Empower Women - A Case Study from Western Nepal 
Floriane Clement and Emma Karki 
 
9. "Just Women" is Not Enough: Toward a Gender-Relational Approach to Water and Peacebuilding 
Janpeter Schilling, Rebecca Froese, and Jana Naujoks 
 
10. Calming the Waters, Ploughing the Sea - Can Gender-Responsive Appraoches to Intra-State Water Conflicts Lead to Peacebuilding? Evidence from Lebanon and Nepal 
Henri Myrttinen
 
11. The Role of Women in Transboundary Water Dispute Resolution 
Lynette de Silva, Jennifer C. Veilleux, and Marian J. Neal

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Intersectionality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security

Year: 2018

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Climate Change