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Climate Change

Impacts of Climate Change Induced Migration on Gender: A Qualitative Study from the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Citation:

Sams, Ishita Shahid. 2019. "Impacts of Climate Change Induced Migration on Gender: A Qualitative Study from the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh." International Journal of Social Science Studies 7 (4): 57-68.

Author: Ishita Shahid Sams

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the gender variation of the impact of climate change induced migration. This paper highlights the gender dimensions of climate change induced migration where gender is a vital element for determining vulnerability to climate change which influences the subsequent migration. Actually, the impacts of climate change induced natural disasters are not gender neutral because the experiences, needs and priorities of the climate migrants are varied by gender roles and position. In this research, we explore the socioeconomic impacts of the climate migrants on gender from the evidence of the southwest coastal women and men of Bangladesh. The qualitative data were collected from the cyclone-affected migrants who were migrated internally from the disaster-prone southwest coastal region and lived in the city slums of Khulna in Bangladesh. This study is described the gender differentiation between women and men in case of climate change induced migration according to social, economical, ecological, organizational, occupational, educational, and physical aspects which tend to be highly gendered. The study results show that among climate migrants, women are more vulnerable than men due to theri socioeconomic condition and gender discrimination in the patriarchal society of Bangladesh who are likely to be poorer, less educated, have a lower social status and have limited access to and control over natural resources.

Keywords: climate change, natural disaster, migration, gender, vulnerability, coastal region, Bangladesh

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Exploring Potential Climate-Related Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Challenges for Rural Nigerian Women

Citation:

Akinbami, C. A. O., J. E. Olawoye, F. A. Adesina, and V. Nelson. 2019. "Exploring Potential Climate-Related Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Challenges for Rural Nigerian Women." Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research 9.

Authors: C. A. O. Akinbami, J. E. Olawoye, F. A. Adesina, V. Nelson

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship is a tool for facilitating rural economic development, which is becoming increasingly needed to respond to the growing impacts of accelerating climate change on rural women’s livelihoods in less developed countries creating constraints on sustainable development. This study examines the awareness of and impacts of climatic changes as perceived by women in South West Nigeria in diverse vegetation zones. It elicits the challenges facing women and which constrain their entrepreneurial activities. It therefore identifies potential adaptation strategies and opportunities, including drawing on a review of wider developments in at international development level, such as technological, institutional and infrastructural innovations. The study employed explorative, mixed approaches, including quantitative and qualitative methods. Five hundred and ninety-five questionnaires were administered to selected respondents through multi-stage sampling technique, while Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to solicit qualitative data from two hundred and forty women. Quantitative data were analysed with SPSS for descriptive and analysis of variance, and Atlas ti. was used to thematically analyse qualitative data. Findings showed that women have high levels of awareness of changes in their climate. Analysis of variance revealed that most of the women involved in crop farming in the vegetation zones showed better understanding than women in other livelihood. They strongly agreed (with mean of approximately 5) that climate change had greatly affected soil fertility, caused less predictable, and prolonged the dry season. Over 90% of the women perceived significant impacts of these changes on their livelihood activities. Overall, there were no clear divergences in women’s attitudes towards innovation and entrepreneurship between the vegetation zones and a relatively high expectation of government support. Wider review of current practice and innovations highlights a wide range of new opportunities for building women’s adaptive capacity which could directly or indirectly catalyse increased entrepreneurship amongst women. Furthermore, the involvement of local authorities and community-based organisations, as well as diverse public and private actors, in the development of adaptation strategies is crucial to achieving this.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, climate change, adaptation strategies, rural women, challenges, opportunities

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

How Violence against Women and Girls Undermines Resilience to Climate Risks in Chad

Citation:

Le Masson, Virginie, Colette Benoudji, Sandra Sotelo Reyes, and Giselle Bernard. 2019. "How Violence against Women and Girls Undermines Resilience to Climate Risks in Chad." Disasters 43 (S3): S245-70.

Authors: Virginie Le Masson, Colette Benoudji, Sandra Sotelo Reyes, Giselle Bernard

Abstract:

What consequences does ‘everyday violence’ have on the abilities of survivors to protect themselves from further risks? This paper seeks to establish the linkages between violence and people’s resilience capacities to survive and adapt to environmental changes, particularly those living in fragile economic and political contexts such as Chad. It investigates not only how the adverse consequences of violence against women and girls affect the health status and livelihoods of survivors, but also their capacities, and those of their household and community members, to further protect themselves from other risks. Empirical evidence collected in Chad as part of the BRACED (Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters) programme shows that ‘everyday violence’ undermines resilience-building at the individual, household, and community level. These results have serious implications for development programmes and the role they need to play to better promote both gender equality and resilience to shocks and stresses. 

Keywords: Chad, gender equality, gender-based violence, risks, Resilience

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Households, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Chad

Year: 2019

Building Capacities of Women for Climate Change Adaptation: Insights from Migrant-Sending Households in Nepal

Citation:

Banerjee, Soumyadeep, Abid Hussain, Sabarnee Tuladhar, and Arabinda Mishra. 2019. "Building Capacities of Women for Climate Change Adaptation: Insights from Migrant-Sending Households in Nepal." Climatic Change 157: 587-609.

Authors: Soumyadeep Banerjee, Abid Hussain, Sabarnee Tuladhar, Arabinda Mishra

Abstract:

Women’s capacities are often constrained due to their roles in their household and society, institutional barriers and social norms. These constraints result in low adaptive capacity of women, which make them more vulnerable to hazards. As more men seek employment opportunities away from home, women are required to acquire new capacities to manage new challenges, including risks from climate change. An action research was conducted to assess impacts of capacity building interventions for women left behind in enhancing adaptive capacity of migrant-sending households in rural areas vulnerable to floods in Nepal. This study finds that capacity-building interventions, which aimed to strengthen autonomous adaptation measures (e.g. precautionary savings and flood preparedness), also positively influenced women to approach formal institutions. Besides, the intervention households were more likely to invest a part of the precautionary savings in flood preparedness measures than control households.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Understanding Gender Dimensions of Climate-Smart Agriculture Adoption in Disaster-Prone Smallholder Farming Communities in Malawi and Zambia

Citation:

Khoza, Sizwile, Dewald Van Niekerk, and Livhuwani David Nemakonde. 2019. "Understanding Gender Dimensions of Climate-Smart Agriculture Adoption in Disaster-Prone Smallholder Farming Communities in Malawi and Zambia." Disaster Prevention and Management 28 (5): 530-47.

Authors: Sizwile Khoza, Dewald Van Niekerk, Livhuwani David Nemakonde

Abstract:

Purpose – Through the application of traditional and contemporary feminist theories in gender mainstreaming, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to emergent debate on gender dimensions in climate-smart agriculture (CSA) adoption by smallholder farmers in disaster-prone regions. This is important to ensure that CSA strategies are tailored to farmer-specific gender equality goals. 
 
Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory-sequential mixed methods research design which is qualitatively biased was applied. Key informant interviews and farmer focus group discussions in two study sites formed initial qualitative phase whose findings were explored in a quantitative cross-sectional household survey. 
 
Findings – Findings shared in this paper indicate the predominant application of traditional gender mainstreaming approaches in CSA focusing on parochial gender dichotomy. Qualitative findings highlight perceptions that western gender approaches are not fully applicable to local contexts and realities, with gender mainstreaming in CSA seemingly to fulfil donor requirements, and ignorant of the heterogeneous nature of social groups. Quantitative findings establish that married men are majority adopters and nonadopters of CSA, while dis-adopters are predominantly de jure female household heads. The latter are more likely to adopt CSA than married women whose main role in CSA is implementers of spouse’s decisions. Access to education, intra-household power relations, productive asset and land ownership are socio-cultural dynamics shaping farmer profiles. 
 
Originality/value – By incorporating African feminisms and intersectionality in CSA, value of this study lies in recommending gender policy reforms incorporating local gender contexts within the African socio-cultural milieu. This paper accentuates potential benefits of innovative blend of both contemporary and classic gender mainstreaming approaches in CSA research, practice and technology development in disaster-prone regions.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change adaptation, DRR, climate-smart agriculture adoption, gender and DRRM, gender policy

Topics: Agriculture, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Intersectionality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi, Zambia

Year: 2019

Women's Vulnerability Due to Climate Change in the Coastal Area of Bangladesh

Citation:

Hasan, Syed Monibul, and Md. Be-Nozir Shah Shovon. 2019. "Women's Vulnerability Due to Climate Change in the Coastal Area of Bangladesh." In Proceedings on International Conference on Disaster Risk Management, 349-54. Dhaka: BUET-Japan Institute of Disaster Prevention and Urban Safety.

Authors: Syed Monibul Hasan, Md. Be-Nozir Shah Shovon

Abstract:

The study has been conducted to identify the women vulnerabilities, and explore the consequences of climate change on women in Kaikhali and Ramjannagar union under Shyamnagar upazila in Satkhira district. A detailed questionnaire survey has been carried out to achieve the key objectives of the study. A total of 142 household respondents, especially women have been selected by using simple random sampling. The study has found that the important roles and responsibilities of women in the family make them more vulnerable such as food collection and preparation (85.21% as first important responsibility); taking care of the children, elderly and sick (75.35% as second most important responsibility) during and after a disaster. The tendency to save their domestic materials and animals (92.25%), not taking decisions during emergency period (86.61%) and wearing traditional sari (89.43%) are the main barriers for the women to move to a secured place during disaster. Women is highly affected by different water borne diseases during disaster such as skin disease (76% in rank one), diarrhoea (60% in rank two). The study has found that the cyclone shelters in the study area are not women friendly. The destruction of houses and homestead (94.36%), crop production loss (92.25%), and livestock death (revealed by 81.69%) affect on women’s economic livelihoods during cyclone and tidal surges. Adolescent girls are forced into early marriage (55.63%), their educational activities (89.43%) are disrupted; lactating mothers are severely affected with the lack of balanced nutrition (92.25%), and pregnant women don’t get proper health care services (75.35%) in the aftermath of a disaster. The scarcity of safe drinking water (71.84% in rank one), and lack of proper shelters (41.55% in rank two) are the most important difficulties and complications for women during post disaster.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Enhancing Resilience of Women to Hazards through Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Risk Reduction Policies in Botswana

Citation:

Moyo, Nkosiyabo F. 2019. "Enhancing Resilience of Women to Hazards through Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Risk Reduction Policies in Botswana." PhD diss., North-West University.

Author: Nkosiyabo F. Moyo

Abstract:

The absence of a gender perspective in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a matter of serious concern for both research and practice. This is despite overwhelming evidence that women are disproportionately affected by disasters. During the past decade, there has been a worldwide alarming increase in the impact and frequency of disasters, especially hydro-meteorological hazards (heavy rain storms) as a result of climate change. It is estimated that two-thirds of the world's disasters are related to climate change (Mitchell and van Aalst, 2008:1). Likewise, Botswana is currently experiencing an increase in the number of localised disasters climatological as well as non climatological disasters, which hardly reached global headlines, but silently and persistently eroded the capacities of Batswana to survive and prosper. However, these disasters did not affect people equally. Women, especially those in rural female-headed households were profoundly impacted the most. In Botswana and other developing countries, existing and entrenched social inequalities contribute to the disparity in vulnerability. As a result Women are at a greater disadvantage, even before a disaster strikes, due to the implications of inequalities and how they manifest and influence existing historical, social, cultural, economic and political conditions in Botswana.

Generally, there is paucity of research on sex and gender differences regarding vulnerability to disasters. The limited data available suggests a pattern of gender differentiation in the various phases of disaster risk reduction. While studies in DRR include gender as demographic variable, they provide only basic information on gender, but do not engage in any thorough explanation or analysis of women’s experiences in a disaster situation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of disasters on women in Botswana and provide concrete recommendations on how to address the practical (food, shelter, income) and strategic (human rights, skills and leadership training) gender needs and interests of women, without necessarily alienating men. This would help realise Vision 2036, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve these goals, it was posited that gender issues should be mainstreamed into DRR. 

Based on the premise above, the study examined the origins and the evolution of the concepts of disaster, gender and mainstreaming. It also examined best international practices in these fields. Such practices were analysed and discussed from within a global perspective and operationalised to Botswana's context. Following a qualitative design, the research used focus group discussions of households affected by disasters and subject-matter specialists (practitioners, scholars, politicians, traditional leaders and activists) to collect data. 

The findings confirmed the differential vulnerabilities between men and women and their differing adaptive capacities regarding disaster situations. These capacities were found to be influenced largely by culture and its institutional frameworks. The study affirmed the central role played by culture and institutions in marginalising women. 

Keywords: disaster risk reduction, climate-change adaptation, gender, mainstreaming, women, social vulnerability, Resilience, sustainable development, Botswana

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Botswana

Year: 2019

Effects of Climate Change on Women

Citation:

Dimitrov, B. E. George. 2019. "Effects of Climate Change on Women." Research Review International Journal of Multidisciplinary 4 (5): 210-5.

Author: B. E. George Dimitrov

Abstract:

Women hold half of the world population which is considered as one of the largest human resource in the organized and unorganized sectors. Though they share equal population with men they are often considered to be weak and vulnerable. In many circumstances they are often exploited, discriminated in the grounds of gender and their rights are being neglected. Most of the worlds developed and under developed nations has the large disparity of women participation in politics, decision making, policy and advocacy are not yet reached them, instead all the positions are occupied by men. The countries which are highly developed in economy, science and technology do not have proper representation.

Keywords: climate change, women, vulnerability, health

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Health, Political Participation

Year: 2019

Gender, Climate Change and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Citation:

Maguire, Rowena. 2019. "Gender, Climate Change and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change." In Research Handbook on Feminist Engagement with International Law, edited by Susan Harris Rimmer and Kate Ogg, 63-80. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Rowena Maguire

Abstract:

This chapter explores gender representation within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and seeks to examine why greater focus has not been placed on gender within the modalities of the regime. It argues that there are three main reasons which have diverted attention away from the development of: gender targets, gender reporting and the development of gender tools for use at the national level. First, the conceptualisation of vulnerability within the regime has traditionally been based upon North/South classifications, meaning that the regime has focused on the vulnerability of nations as compared with assessing vulnerability of certain groups (including but not limited to women) to climate change. Secondly, the climate change regime has prioritised scientific knowledge over other types of knowledge, including knowledge of the lived experience of climate change. And thirdly, parties to the regime have been preoccupied with getting all major emitters to accept mitigation commitments, which has resulted in feminist issues, along with other stakeholders’ interests, being sidelined in the global interests of solving climate change.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, International Organizations

Year: 2019

Introspecting Climate Change from the Lens of Feminism

Citation:

Kalinga, Kirti. 2019. "Introspecting Climate Change from the Lens of Feminism." Journal of Energy Research and Environmental Technology 6 (3): 264-8.

Author: Kirti Kalinga

Abstract:

Climate change is a widespread problem whose ramifications are felt across sectors, economies and geo-spatial location. But the degree to which one will be affected depends on the power relations, social positioning and the cultural milieu. Though, there are limited studies exploring the nexus between climate change and gender but it is not difficult to discern that the ravaging effects of climate change will have disproportionate impact on women increasing their burden, hardship and vulnerability which will ultimately exacerbate gender inequalities. Therefore, climate justice is nothing without gender justice and feminist epistemologies and standpoint theories help to unravel the layers of climate injustice. Many studies have been conducted at the micro level that explores climate change related vulnerability. But they have been limited to either community level vulnerability or household level. This implies that there is a dearth of gender segregated data that will elucidate the gender specific impacts of climate change. The present paper looks at the vulnerabilities of women in climate change hotspot Satavaya village in Rajnagar block of Kendrapara district in Odisha. Satavaya is under constant threat of coastal erosion due to sea level rise. The research findings reflect that climate change has aggravated livelihood insecurity, thus, inducing a male dominated mass labour migration. As they leave behind their family, the entire responsibility of running the household remains with the women, who have to carry the “double burden” of care and earning responsibilities. Health risks, especially reproductive problems are very high for women in Satavaya. They are also confronted with water and food insecurities. Climate change induced extreme events further trap them in cycle of poverty and amplifies their vulnerabilities. There is a need to develop women centric coping and adaptation strategies. 

Keywords: climate change, gender inequality, vulnerability, Satavaya, feminism, migration

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

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