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Climate Change

Addressing Women in Climate Change Policies: A Focus on Selected East and Southern African Countries

Citation:

Nhamo, Godwell. 2014. “Addressing Women in Climate Change Policies: A Focus on Selected East and Southern African Countries.” Agenda 28 (3): 156-67.

Author: Godwell Nhamo

Abstract:

This Article responds to claims in the literature that gender mainstreaming is lacking in international and national climate change policy regimes. A scan of climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries was conducted to assess whether climate change policies include gender and women. The focus on women is deliberate given women’s greater vulnerability to climate change impacts than men. The research analysis used a framework modified from the United Nations Environment Programme’s (2011) recommendations on women’s needs in climate change. The main finding is that although the national policies reviewed are in their infancy, with the oldest, the National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia having been put in place only in 2010, the mainstreaming of women’s needs in climate change has gained momentum. However, the empowerment of women by climate change policy varies significantly from country to country.

Keywords: women, gender, mainstreaming, climate change policy, East and Southern Africa

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2014

Only Resist: Feminist Ecological Citizenship and the Post-Politics of Climate Change

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn. 2014. “Only Resist: Feminist Ecological Citizenship and the Post-Politics of Climate Change.” Hypatia 29 (3): 617–33.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Abstract:

European political theorists have argued that contemporary imaginaries of climate change are symptomatic of a post-political condition. My aim in this essay is to consider what this analysis might mean for a feminist green politics and how those who believe in such a project might respond. Whereas much of the gender-focused scholarship on climate change is concerned with questions of differentiated vulnerabilities and gendered divisions of responsibility and risk, I want to interrogate the strategic, epistemological, and normative implications for ecological feminism of a dominant, neoliberal climate change narrative that arguably has no political subject, casts Nature as a threat to be endured, and that replaces democratic public debate with expert administration and individual behavior change. What hope is there for counter-hegemonic political theories and social movements in times like these? I suggest that rather than give in and get on the crowded climate change bandwagon, an alternative response is to pursue a project of feminist ecological citizenship that blends resistance to hegemonic neoliberal discourses with a specifically feminist commitment to reclaiming democratic debate about social-environmental futures.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Governance

Year: 2014

Non-Innocent Intersections of Feminism and Environmentalism

Citation:

Lykke, Nina. 2009. “Non-Innocent Intersections of Feminism and Environmentalism.” Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no. 3–4, 36-44.

Author: Nina Lykke

Annotation:

Summary:
"It was a great pleasure to act as discussant to the key-note address of Stacy Alaimo at conference Gendering Climate and Sustainability in Copenhagen, March 2009. Alaimo’s feminist materialist and eco-critical stance resonates a lot with my own take on the debate on sustainability and eco-critical feminism. I agree very much with Alaimo that a radical rethinking of epistemologies and ethics is urgently needed, and that the issue of climate change makes it even more important to push for new approaches. I also think that feminist epistemologies and reflections on ethics can make important contributions to the general discussion. I shall comment on two issues: 1) Alaimo’s notion of transcorporeality and its epistemological implications, and 2) the question of intersectionalities between feminism and environmentalism" (Lykke 2009, 36). 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2009

Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective

Citation:

Kheel, Marti. 2008. Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 

Author: Marti Kheel

Annotation:

Summary: 
In Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective, Marti Kheel explores the underlying worldview of nature ethics, offering an alternative ecofeminist perspective. She focuses on four prominent representatives of holist philosophy: two early conservationists (Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold) and two contemporary philosophers (Holmes Rolston III, and transpersonal ecologist Warwick Fox). Kheel argues that in directing their moral allegiance to abstract constructs (e.g. species, the ecosystem, or the transpersonal Self) these influential nature theorists represent a masculinist orientation that devalues concern for individual animals. Seeking to heal the divisions among the seemingly disparate movements and philosophies of feminism, animal advocacy, environmental ethics, and holistic health, Kheel proposes an ecofeminist philosophy that underscores the importance of empathy and care for individual beings as well as larger wholes. (Summary from Rowman & Littlefield) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Finding a Niche for All Animals in Nature Ethics
 
2. Masculine Identity: Born Again 'Man'
 
3. Origins of the Conservation Movement: Preserving Manhood
 
4. Thinking Like a Mountain or Thinking Like a Man?
 
5. The Ecophilosophy of Holmes Rolston
 
6. The Transpersonal Ecology of Warwick Fox
 
7. Ecofeminist Holist Philosophy

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2008

Ecofeminism and Climate Change

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 2015. "Ecofeminism and Climate Change." Women's Studies International Forum 49: 20-33. 

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary: 
Issues that women traditionally organize around—environmental health, habitats, livelihoods— have been marginalized in debates that treat climate change as a scientific problem requiring technological and scientific solutions without substantially transforming ideologies and economies of domination, exploitation and colonialism. Issues that GLBTQ people organize around—bullying in the schools, hate crimes, marriage equality, fair housing and health care—aren't even noted in climate change discussions. Feminist analyses are well positioned to address these and other structural inequalities in climate crises, and to unmask the gendered character of first-world overconsumption; moreover, both feminist animal studies and posthumanism bring awareness of species as an unexamined dimension in climate change. A queer, posthumanist, ecological and feminist approach—brought together through the intersectional lens of ecofeminism—is needed to tackle the antifeminist threads companioning the scientific response to climate change: the linked rhetorics of population control, erotophobia and ecophobia, anti-immigration sentiment, and increased militarism. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2015

The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers

Citation:

Musinguzi, Laban, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, and Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo. 2018. “The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers.” Climate and Development 10 (6): 566-76.

Authors: Laban Musinguzi, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo

Abstract:

Climate change disproportionately affects marginalized groups, especially women. To guide the integration of gender roles in interventions to improve adaptation, we examined gender roles among fishers on Lake Wamala, Uganda, which has been increasingly affected by climate change. We found lower participation of women than men in preharvest and postharvest fishing activities, with 99% of fishers and 92.9% of fish processors and traders combined being men. The men had more fishing experience, started fishing at a younger age and exited at a later age, targeted more species, used more fishing gears and bought more fish for processing and trading. Although we observed diversification to non-fishery livelihoods, such as crop and livestock production to increase food security and income among others, income from these activities was not controlled or shared equally between men and women. Compared to men, women worked longer hours, engaging in more simultaneous activities both in and out of the home and reported less time resting. The income controlled by women was used directly to meet household needs. The implications of these differences for adaptation, what men and women can do best to enhance adaptation and how some adaptation practices and interventions can be implemented to benefit both men and women are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, small-scale fishers, gender, livelihoods, Uganda

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies

Citation:

Molua, Ernest L. 2011. “Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies.” Sustainability Science 6: 21-35. 

Author: Ernest L. Molua

Abstract:

This paper explores the response to risk of smallholder agricultural producers in the face of variable and changing climate in Cameroon. The low rainfall distribution in some regions of the country and the high inter-seasonal variability of rainfall makes crop production, on which the livelihood of rural inhabitants is based, a risky enterprise. Women farmers in Cameroon are an important group for whom risk aversion influences production outcomes and welfare. This study identifies and analyses the effect of climate risks on the productive activities and the management options of male and female farmers. Women-owned farms, on average, record profits of US$ 620 per hectare to about US$ 935 for crop enterprises across the different agroecological zones. Comparatively static results indicate that increases in climate variability and the uncertainty of climate conditions have an explicit impact on farm profit. The impacts of increased uncertainty in climate and risk aversion are ambiguous depending on the agroecology. Ex-ante and ex-post risk management options reveal that female-owned farms in the northern Sahel savannah zone rely on more sophisticated strategies to reduce the impact of shocks. While adapting to uncertain climate positively influences profit levels, risk measured as the variance of rainfall or temperature per unit variation in profit is significant. This analysis stresses the increased importance of climate risk management as a prelude to the panoply of adaptation choice in response to expected climatic change. 

Keywords: Cameroon, agriculture, female-owned farm, climate, uncertainty, risk aversion

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2011

Climate Change through a Gendered Lens: Examining Livestock Holder Food Security

Citation:

McKune, Sarah L., Erica C. Borresen, Alyson G. Young, Thérèse D Auria Ryley, Sandra L. Russo, Astou Diao Camara, Meghan Coleman, and Elizabeth P. Ryan. 2015. “Climate Change through a Gendered Lens: Examining Livestock Holder Food Security.” Global Food Security 6: 1-8.

Authors: Sarah L. McKune, Erica C. Borresen, Alyson G. Young, Thérèse D Auria Ryley, Sandra L. Russo, Astou Diao Camara, Meghan Coleman, Elizabeth P. Ryan

Abstract:

Livestock holders experience increased food insecurity because of climate change. We argue that development programs, public health specialists, and practitioners must critically examine gendered impacts of climate change to improve food security of livestock producers. This review illustrates the differential experiences of men and women and how vulnerability, adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to climatic stimuli are gendered in distinct ways between and among livestock holding communities. We propose a gendered conceptual framework for understanding the impact of climate change on food security among livestock holders, which highlights potential pathways of vulnerability and points of intervention to consider in global health strategies for improving household food security.

Keywords: food security, climate change, livestock, gender, vulnerability

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Health, Households, Security, Food Security

Year: 2015

Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 1998. Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
Beginning with the ecofeminists, this title describes the paths environmental causes, the feminist peace movement, the feminist spirituality movement, the animal liberation movement, and the anti-toxics movement, as well as experiences of interconnectedness that have led women (and a few men) to articulate an ecofeminist perspective. (Summary from WorldCat) 
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
 
1. Ecofeminist Roots
 
2. The U.S. Greens: From Movement to Party
 
3. The U.S. Greens as a Social Movement
 
4. Ecofeminists in the Greens
 
5. Divisions among the Greens
 
6. Democracy, Ecofeminism, and the Nader Presidential Campaign 
 
Conclusion 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Governance, Political Participation

Year: 1998

Fertile Ground : Women, Earth, and the Limits of Control

Citation:

Diamond, Irene. 1994. Fertile Ground : Women, Earth, and the Limits of Control. Boston: Beacon Press

Author: Irene Diamond

Annotation:

Table of Contents: 
1. Feminism, Fertility, and the Living Earth
2. Bodies, Sex, and Feminist Politics: Echoes of Anger and Celebration
3. Sex Without Consequences: From Sexual Freedom to the Sexuated Body
4. Children Without Turmoil: From Sex Without Reproduction to Reproduction Without Sex
5. Food Without Sweat: From Abundance for All to the Poisoning of the Planet
6. Our Bodies, Our Earth: The Politics of Renewal, Restructuring, and Re-Evolution
Afterword: Coming to Rest

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Rights, Reproductive Rights

Year: 1994

Pages

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