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Climate Change

Recreating Men’s Relationship with Nature: Toward a Profeminist Environmentalism

Citation:

Pease, Bob. 2019. “Recreating Men’s Relationship with Nature: Toward a Profeminist Environmentalism.” Men and Masculinities 22 (1): 113–23.

Author: Bob Pease

Abstract:

While feminist and profeminist scholars are increasingly in agreement with the thesis that hegemonic and destructive forms of masculinity are the source of current environmental crises, there is less agreement on how to address this issue or on the way forward for ecologically conscious and profeminist men. Some forms of ecofeminism essentialize women as being closer to nature than men, while arguing that men are closer to culture. There seems little capacity for men to change in this view. In a parallel development, some ecomasculinity theorists argue that the problem is not with the nature of masculinity per se but with the separation of men’s natural maleness from forms of masculinity that suppress their infinite capacity to care. It will be argued that such latter approaches espouse either an ecofeminine or ecomasculinist perspective rather than a social ecofeminist view. This article will explore the implications of the social ecofeminist critique (or what some writers refer to as feminist environmentalism) for understanding socially constructed masculinism, and what men can do about it, in the context of the social divisions between men across the world.

Keywords: environmental crises, ecofeminism, hegemonic masculinity, ecological masculinities, profeminist environmentalism

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism

Year: 2019

Cool Dudes in Norway: Climate Change Denial among Conservative Norwegian Men

Citation:

Krange, Olve, Bjørn P. Kaltenborn, and Martin Hultman. 2019. “Cool Dudes in Norway: Climate Change Denial among Conservative Norwegian Men.” Environmental Sociology 5 (1): 1–11.

Authors: Olve Krange , Bjørn P. Kaltenborn, Martin Hultman

Abstract:

In their article ‘Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States’ the authors state: ‘Clearly the extent to which the conservative white male effect on climate change denial exists outside the US is a topic deserving investigation.’ Following this recommendation, we report results from a study in Norway. McCright and Dunlap argue that climate change denial can be understood as an expression of protecting group identity and justifying a societal system that provides desired benefits. Our findings resemble those in the US study. A total of 63 per cent of conservative males in Norway do not believe in anthropogenic climate change, as opposed to 36 per cent among the rest of the population who deny climate change and global warming. Expanding on the US study, we investigate whether conservative males more often hold what we term xenosceptic views, and if that adds to the ‘cool dude-effect’. Multivariate logistic regression models reveal strong effects from a variable measuring ‘xenosceptic cool dudes’. Interpreting xenoscepticism as a rough proxy for right leaning views, climate change denial in Norway seems to merge with broader patterns of right-wing nationalism.

Keywords: climate change denial, public opinion, xenoscepticism, political ideology, gender, Norway

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Men, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Norway

Year: 2019

Representing Disaster with Resignation and Nostalgia: Japanese Men's Responses to the 2011 Earthquake

Citation:

Kambe, Naoki. 2017. “Representing Disaster with Resignation and Nostalgia: Japanese Men’s Responses to the 2011 Earthquake.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 15–22.

Author: Naoki Kambe

Annotation:

Summary:
Naoki Kambe explores the masculinist rhetoric of Japanese male intellectuals’ reactions to the 2011 earthquake. Through an analysis of several responses by Japanese male intellectuals and writers, Kambe explores how, in times of disaster, these intellectuals and writers express the cultural and masculine ideals of akirame, or resignation—which is linked to mujō, or the impermanence of nature—and of nostalgia for the remote past. In doing so, Kambe makes observations about the connections between masculinity and nation in the Japanese context. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Nationalism Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2017

Ecological Masculinities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Guidance

Citation:

Hultman, Martin, and Paul Pulé. 2018. Ecological Masculinities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Guidance. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Martin Hultman, Paul Pulé

Annotation:

Summary:
Around the globe, unfettered industrialisation has marched forth in unison with massive social inequities. Making matters worse, anthropogenic pressures on Earth’s living systems are causing alarming rates of thermal expansion, sea-level rise, biodiversity losses in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and a sixth mass extinction. As various disciplines have shown, rich white men in the Global North are the main (although not the only) perpetrators of this slow violence. This book demonstrates that industrial/breadwinner masculinities have come at terrible costs to the living planet and ecomodern masculinities have failed us as well, men included.
 
This book is dedicated to a third and relationally focused pathway that the authors call ecological masculinities. Here, they explore ways that masculinities can advocate and embody broader, deeper and wider care for the global through to local (‘glocal’) commons. Ecological Masculinities works with the wisdoms of four main streams of influence that have come before us. They are: masculinities politics, deep ecology, ecological feminism and feminist care theory. The authors work with profeminist approaches to the conceptualisations and embodiments of modern Western masculinities. From there, they introduce masculinities that give ADAM-n for Earth, others and self, striving to create a more just and ecologically viable planet for all of life.
 
This book is interdisciplinary. It is intended to reach (but is not restricted to) scholars exploring history, gender studies, material feminism, feminist care theory, ecological feminism, deep ecology, social ecology, environmental humanities, social sustainability, science and technology studies and philosophy. (Summary from Routledge) 
 
Table of Contents: 
Prologue: Separate Paths Towards A Common Future
 
1. Introduction: Interrogating Masculinities 
 
2. Masculine Ecologisation: From Industrial/Breadwinner and Ecomodern to Ecological Masculinities 
 
3. Men and Masculinities: A Spectrum of Views
 
4. Connecting Inner and Outer Nature: A Deeper Ecology for the Global North 
 
5. Lessons from Ecological Feminism
 
5. Caring for the 'Glocal' Commons 
 
6. Headwaters: Previous Research on Men, Masculinities and Earth 
 
7. Ecological Masculinities: Giving ADAM-n

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2018

Natures of Masculinities: Conceptualising Industrial, Ecomodern and Ecological Masculinities

Citation:

Hultman, Martin. 2017. “Natures of Masculinities: Conceptualising Industrial, Ecomodern and Ecological Masculinities.” In Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations, edited by Susan Buckingham and Virginie Le Masson, 87-103. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Martin Hultman

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This chapter takes this knowledge to further conceptualise historically situated and contemporary enacted forms of masculinities in rich, western countries with high per capita emissions. It introduces the configurations of ‘industrial masculinities’, ‘ecological masculinities’ and ‘ecomodern masculinities’. I will discuss how industrial masculinities portray Nature as bits and pieces and work with it accordingly as well as how ecomodern masculinities are able to depict nature as alive and in need of care, but only if it fits with neoliberal market mechanisms and end-of-pipe technologies. Then, I discuss the possibility of ecological masculinities enacted with care, interconnectedness and the need for small-scale and localization of resources. These configurations of masculinities display the entanglements of discourses in actors, and of actors in discourses of contemporary environmental politics. Exploring different configurations of masculinities might shed further light on how gender identities are constructed. In so doing, this text both elaborates on new concepts of masculinities and broadens our understanding of material cultural formations in the present form of global politics” (Hultman 2017, 87).

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Exploring Industrial, Ecomodern, and Ecological Masculinities

Citation:

Hultman, Martin. 2017. “Exploring Industrial, Ecomodern, and Ecological Masculinities.” In Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, edited by Sherilyn MacGregor, 239-53. London: Routledge.

Author: Martin Hultman

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This chapter introduces, and endeavours to situate historically, the study of masculinities in environmental politics. I discuss three concepts – ‘industrial masculinities’, ‘ecomodern masculinities’, and’ ecological masculinities’ – and illustrate them by drawing on findings from empirical research that I have developed at length elsewhere (Hultman 2013, 2014b, 2015; Anshelm and Hultman 2014a; Hultman and Pulé forthcoming). Examples from the discourse of climate change scepticism in the United States and Sweden, from mainstream American politics, and from sustainable transitions in New Zealand provide insights into how different forms of masculinities are performed against the backdrop of political, social, and environmental change. This empirical research enables me to theorize how three distinct discourses have been co-constructed with figurations (or types) of masculinities that have developed within environmental politics. Exploring these different figurations and their discursive construction opens up space for further research on how masculinities shape and are shaped by environmental politics” (Hultman 2017, 239). 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2017

The Making of an Environmental Hero: A History of Ecomodern Masculinity, Fuel Cells and Arnold Schwarzenegger

Citation:

Hultman, Martin. 2013. “The Making of an Environmental Hero: A History of Ecomodern Masculinity, Fuel Cells and Arnold Schwarzenegger.” Environmental Humanities 2 (1): 79–99.

Author: Martin Hultman

Abstract:

In 2007, Arnold Schwarzenegger received the European Campaigner of the Year award. Chosen by the readers of European Voice for his work on solving global environmental problems, he was hailed as a visionary environmental hero, at the pinnacle of his popularity as a politician. In Sweden the public was told to follow his lead and politicians were advised to learn from his example. How could this happen? How could Schwarzenegger be portrayed as an environmental role model, even in countries such as Sweden, a country known around the world for progressive policies in gender equality and the environment? This paper introduces and investigates the notion of ‘ecomodern masculinity,’ through the assemblage of Schwarzenegger's gender identity, environmental politics, and image in Sweden. While there has been research on gender inequity in relation to environmental and developmental goals, there has been little concern with constructions of how shifting hegemonic masculinity is embedded in environmental policy. As former California governor, actor, and Mr. Universe, Schwarzenegger's connection to the ecomodern politics that he prescribed is researched within a framework combining insights from the fields of gender and environmental studies. Ecomodern environmental politics and Kindergarten Commando masculinity are understood as attempts to incorporate and deflect criticism in order to perpetuate hegemony, to ensure that practices remain in effect, ‘business as usual.’ By looking at the historical changes in Schwarzenegger's identity intertwined with the rise of ecomodern discourse, this article illustrates those changes and broadens our understanding of global politics in the fields of energy and the environment.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2013

Rural Masculinities in Tension: Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2017. “Rural Masculinities in Tension: Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in Nicaragua.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 69–76.

Author: Noémi Gonda

Annotation:

Summary: 
Noémi Gonda explores the role of the masculine figure of the cattle rancher in local explorations of climate change adaptation in Nicaragua. Cattle ranchers generally refuse to take part in local projects that encourage cocoa production because it jeopardizes the traditional normative rural masculinity associated with cattle ranchers. Using a case study in El Pijibay, Gonda argues that many climate change projects fail because they do not take the rural population’s gendered subjectivities into account. Instead, these failed projects reinforce both existing inequalities and their intersection with environmental degradation. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Rural Male Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2012. “Rural Male Suicide in Australia.” Social Science & Medicine 74 (4): 515-22.

Author: Margaret Alston

Abstract:

The rate of suicide amongst Australia’s rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men.

Keywords: Australia, suicide, men, rural, gender relations, masculinity, climate, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Mental Health Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2012

Insurgent Vulnerability and the Carbon Footprint of Gender

Citation:

Alaimo, Stacy. 2009. “Insurgent Vulnerability and the Carbon Footprint of Gender.” Kvinder Køn & Forskning 3–4: 22–35.

Author: Stacy Alaimo

Annotation:

Summary: 
Gendered stances, styles, practices, and modes of thought permeate the representations of the science of climate change, the activist response to climate change, and modes of consumerism responsible for releasing massive quantities of carbon into the atmosphere. This article critiques the masculinity of aggressive consumption that has increased the carbon footprint of the U.S. and the free-floating, transcendent perspective presented by the official U.S. accounts of climate change. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2009

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