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Climate Change

Revealing the Patriarchal Sides of Climate Change Adaptation through Intersectionality: a Case Study from Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2017. “Revealing the Patriarchal Sides of Climate Change Adaptation through Intersectionality: a Case Study from Nicaragua.” In Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations, edited by Susan Buckingham and Virginie Le Masson, 173-190. London: Routledge.

 

Author: Noémi Gonda

Abstract:

Nicaragua is the third most climate change-affected country in the world and its government identifies climate change adaptation as one of its key priorities. Since the early 2010s, this national priority is translated into measures that support rural populations to adapt to climate change impacts. This chapter explains how a discursive construction of nature as 'our own Mother' in post-neoliberal Nicaragua has contributed to giving women a primary place in climate change discourses and projects while the mainstream masculinist and science-oriented discourse is underlying the way climate change adaptation interventions are conceived. It also presents an argument that feminist scholars and practitioners need to engage more systematically with gendered climate change politics, in particular by mobilizing the intersectional perspective that simultaneously addresses the multifaceted oppressions climate change politics may reproduce, even though they include 'gender concerns'.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Masculinism Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Masculinities and Environment

Citation:

Paulson, Susan, and William Boose. 2019. “Masculinities and Environment.” CAB Reviews 14 (30): 1-12.

Authors: Susan Paulson, William Boose

Abstract:

This review article supports researchers and practitioners to strengthen attention to variously positioned men and masculine identities in order to increase the rigour of empirical research and to enhance outcomes of work addressing environmental issues. Masculinities interact with other factors to shape patterns of environmental management and to influence responses to environmental challenges; at the same time, human-environment dynamics produce differing expressions and experiences of masculinity. Yet, environmental initiatives implemented in many contexts and scales have been hindered by lack of attention to gendered conditions, identities and expectations associated with diversely positioned men. Theoretically, studies gathered here strive to overcome these limitations by applying concepts of plural masculinities, intersectionality and hegemonic masculinity. Methodologically, this body of work challenges universalizing stereotypes about men by situating empirical studies in specific sociocultural, ethnoracial, ecological and geographical contexts around the world. The 160 publications reviewed here illuminate three realms: productive enterprises including logging, mining, petroleum exploitation, ranching and agroindustry; lifeways and attitudes involving care for health, families and nature; environmental crises, from disasters to refugees and climate change. Evidence in each realm suggests that some masculine-identified behaviours, attitudes and resources are intertwined with environmentally destructive processes, while others support, or can support, moves toward dynamics that are healthier for humans and non-human nature. After considering skills, tools and frameworks for further research and practice, die review ends with a look at challenges of developing more systemic approaches to gender and environment.

Keywords: agroindustrial sector, attitudes, climate change, crises, environment management, gender relations, human ecology, lifestyle, literature reviews, logging, mining, natural disasters, petroleum, ranching, refugees

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Intersectionality, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Climate Systems, Carbon-Heavy Masculinity, and Feminist Exposure

Citation:

Alaimo, Stacy. 2016. "Climate Systems, Carbon-Heavy Masculinity, and Feminist Exposure." In Exposed: Environmental Politics and Pleasures in Posthuman Times, 91-108. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Keywords: environmentalism, global warming, gender, cultural studies, posthumanism, feminism, feminist theory, materialism, sexuality

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Summary:
The fourth chapter investigates the significance of gender in relation to global warming, arguing that a feminist response to climate change must not only challenge the ostensibly universal, transcendent perspective of big science and the hegemonic masculinity of impenetrable, aggressive consumption, but also the tendency within feminist organizations and NGOs to reinforce gendered polarities, heteronormativity, and the view of nature as a resource for domestic use. The chapter offers a politics of “insurgent vulnerability,” biodiversity, and sexual diversity as an alternative.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, NGOs, Sexuality

Year: 2016

The Embodied Politics of Climate Change: Analysing the Gendered Division of Environmental Labour in the UK

Citation:

Wilson, Joanna, and Eric Chu. 2019. "The Embodied Politics of Climate Change: Analyzing the Gendered Division of Environmental Labour in the UK." Environmental Politics: 1-20. 

Authors: Joanna Wilson, Eric Chu

Abstract:

The intersection between gender and climate change action has received little scholarly attention. To facilitate a critical orientation towards the informal economies of social reproduction, the ways that the UK’s climate politics are rooted in masculinist discourses of a green economy are illustrated. Adopting an intersectional approach, it is argued that such a green economy perspective diverts attention from labouring bodies in climate politics, invisibilising the ‘who’ in the experience of climate solutions. Through critically engaging divisions of labour in climate policy, evidenced through a feminist critical discourse analysis, it is shown how a surface-level inclusion of gender perpetuates the labouring bodies associated with specific labour markets. In response, it is suggested that an intersectional approach to climate policy can account for these omissions and highlights the ways in which a more just, intersectional climate politics might be formulated.

Keywords: climate change, politics, gender, feminism, intersectionality, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Petro-Masculinity and Climate Change Denial Among White, Politically Conservative American Males

Citation:

Nelson, Joshua. 2020. "Petro‐Masculinity and Climate Change Denial among White, Politically Conservative American Males." International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies: 1-14.

Author: Joshua Nelson

Abstract:

White, politically conservative males in the United States have been widely found to maintain petro-masculine attitudes that include aspects of racism, misogyny, and climate change denial. These beliefs and their associated behaviors, including climate destructiveness, can be conceptualized as compensatory reactions to modern-day racial, gender, and climate-related anxieties that are experienced as threats to traditional white male privilege and power. They then manifest as and energize authoritarian desires and their associated sociopolitical movements, including the current Republican effort to Make American Great Again. This paper utilizes psychoanalytic concepts concerning individual and large-group identity, group psychodynamics and processes, and the intergenerational transmission of idealized myth and fantasy to further elucidate and expand upon these complex phenomena. It then suggests specific strategies for disentangling the strong links between white hegemonic masculinity, fossil fuel use, and climate change denial, thus opening doors to alternative, non climate-destructive yet still empowering notions of individual, large-group, and national identity that are, instead, based in communal concern and climate care.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2020

Industrial/Breadwinner Masculinities and Climate 4 Change: Understanding the 'White Male Effect' of Climate Change Denial

Citation:

Pulé, Paul, and Martin Hultman. 2019. "Industrial/Breadwinner Masculinities and Climate 4 Change: Understanding the 'White Male Effect' of Climate Change Denial." In Climate Hazards, Disasters, and Gender Ramifications, edited by Catarina Kinnvall and Helle Rydström. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Paul Pulé, Martin Hultman

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Summary:
Modern Western men and masculinities are shaped by socialised performances that are conditioned rather than predetermined. This chapter considers the lives of those men who occupy the most privileged positions in society in the Global North and the masculine socialisations that define them. The correlations despite class disparities are blaringly evident; they share in common an addictive allegiance to the hegemonic allegiances of hyper-masculinities or the hierarchicalisation of wealth distribution generated by natural resource exploitation. The chapter focuses on a critical analysis of industrial/breadwinner masculinities, reflective of the typology’s most acute intersections with white male effect and its compounding impacts of climate change denial. In the modern context, the beneficiaries of extractive dependent industrialisation are not only the owners of the means of production, but also include fossil fuel and mining executives, financial managers and bankers, corporate middle and senior level managers and administrators–the vast majority of direct beneficiaries being Western, white and male.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Ecomodern Masculinity, Energy Security, and Green Consumerism: the Rise of Biofuels in the United States

Citation:

Dockstader, Sue, and Shannon Elizabeth Bell. 2019. "Ecomodern Masculinity, Energy Security, and Green Consumerism: the Rise of Biofuels in the United States." Critical Sociology: 1-18. 

Authors: Sue Dockstader, Shannon Elizabeth Bell

Abstract:

Through a case study of a major biofuel company in the United States, we seek to uncover how producers and consumers promote biofuels as a solution to climate change, despite considerable evidence demonstrating that biofuels are socially and environmentally destructive. Analysis of the company’s marketing materials and interviews with the owner and customers reveals that a primary way the company puts a green spin on biofuels is the deployment of “ecomodern masculinity.” This hybrid masculinity invokes a particular class-based environmentalism that positions biofuels as the ethical choice of good men concerned about the environment. This gendered ideology embraces a variant of Ecological Modernization that strategically adopts the appearance of environmental care while promoting the American values of energy security and green consumerism. We argue that this gendered repackaging of biofuels bolsters existing social inequalities, safeguards capital accumulation, and inhibits the systemic changes needed to address the climate crisis.

Keywords: climate change, biofuels, masculinities, green consumerism, energy security, capitalism, Marxism, sociology

Topics: Class, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Ecological Masculinities: A Response to the Manthropocene Question?

Citation:

Hultman, Martin, and Paul Pulé. "Ecological Masculinities: A Response to the Manthropocene Question?" In Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity, edited by Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström, and Tamara Shefer. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Martin Hultman, Paul Pulé

Annotation:

Summary:
Environmental, natural resource and climate considerations have been marginal issues in the long tradition of masculinities research. With environmental scholars (ecofeminists in particular) highlighting that men are the main perpetrators of the slow violence of social inequities, climate crises, biodiversity losses and mounting human wastes, this chapter scrutinises the masculinities and environmental nexus more closely. Raewyn Connell (1990) provided one of the earliest sociological studies on the relationship between hegemonic masculinities and men in the environmental movement. Building on that study, we provide critical analyses of two configurations of masculinities we refer to as ‘industrial/breadwinner’ and ‘ecomodern’ masculinities that dominate politics around the world, recognising that both are acutely but distinctly in conflict with the wellbeing of the planet. We proceed to propose a third form we call ‘ecological masculinities’, which considers the insights and limitations of masculinities studies, deep ecology, ecological feminism (especially contemporary developments of queer ecology) and feminist care theory, encouraging scholarly masculinities inquiries and practices towards broader, deeper and wider care for the ‘glocal’ commons.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Disasters, Ruins, and Crises: Masculinity and Ramifications of Storms in Vietnam

Citation:

Rydström, Helle. 2020. "Disasters, Ruins, and Crises: Masculinity and Ramifications of Storms in Vietnam." Ethnos 85 (2) 351-70.

Author: Helle Rydström

Abstract:

This article explores climate disasters in the era of the Anthropocene from a gender specific crisis perspective; as conditions of unpredictable outcomes and ruination which are encroaching differentiated ramifications upon inhabitants in coastal Vietnam. The article contests the ways in which the notions of vulnerability and resilience tend to understand a disaster as an interrupting event, which could be overcome by those upon whom the damage has befallen so life can return to normal. A crisis perspective, the article argues, offers an alternative avenue to an analysis of disasters by focusing on the entanglements between a crisis of emergency and a spectrum of various crises antecedents fostered by gendered livelihoods, masculinized privileges, and violences. When various crises modalities, intensities, and temporalities intersect with one another, a crisis in context might morph into crisis as context; into a disordered order of slow harm which impedes the return to pre-disaster normalcy.

Keywords: Anthropocene, Crisis, climate disaster, gender, masculinity, violence, Vietnam

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Rural Masculinities in Tension: Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2017. “Rural Masculinities in Tension: Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in Nicaragua.” RCC Perspectives 4: 69-76.

Author: Noémi Gonda

Keywords: climate change adaptation, men, climate change, cocoa, cattle ranching, livestock farms, gender roles, pastures, hegemonic masculinity

Annotation:

Summary:
Noémi Gonda explores the role of the masculine figure of the cattle rancher in local explorations of climate change adaptation in Nicaragua. Cattle ranchers generally refuse to take part in local projects that encourage cocoa production because it jeopardizes the traditional normative rural masculinity associated with cattle ranchers. Using a case study in El Pijibay, Gonda argues that many climate change projects fail because they do not take the rural population’s gendered subjectivities into account. Instead, these failed projects reinforce both existing inequalities and their intersection with environmental degradation.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2017

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