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Climate Change

Green Practices Are Gendered: Exploring Gender Inequality Caused by Sustainable Consumption Policies in Taiwan

Citation:

Wang, Sumei. 2016. “Green Practices Are Gendered: Exploring Gender Inequality Caused by Sustainable Consumption Policies in Taiwan.” Energy Research & Social Science 18 (August): 88–95.

Author: Sumei Wang

Abstract:

In the context of climate change, governments and international organizations often promote a “sustainable lifestyle.” However, this approach has been criticized for underestimating the complexity of everyday life and therefore being inapplicable to households and consumers. In addition, procedures for promoting sustainable consumption seldom incorporate domestic workers’ opinions and often increase women’s housework loads. This article employs a practice-based approach to examine the “Energy-Saving, Carbon Reduction” movement, a series of sustainable consumption policies that have been advocated by the Taiwanese government since 2008. The goal of the movement is to encourage an eco-friendly lifestyle. On the basis of empirical data collected through ethnographic interviews, this article argues that existing policies unexpectedly increase women’s burdens and exacerbate gender inequality.

Keywords: sustainable consumption, gender inequality, Taiwan, global warming

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, International Organizations Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Taiwan

Year: 2016

A Feminist Perspective on Carbon Taxes

Citation:

Chalifour, Nathalie J. 2010. “A Feminist Perspective on Carbon Taxes.” Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 22 (1): 169–212.

Author: Nathalie J. Chalifour

Abstract:

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Il y a un besoin urgent d'adopter des politiques canadiennes efficaces pour contrer le changement climatique. On consacre beaucoup d'énergie au choix et à la conception d'instruments de politique optimale et les questions d'efficacité environnementale et d'efficience économique dominent le débat. Il est néanmoins tout aussi important d'analyser comment ces politiques vont agir sur différents segments de la société et de s'assurer qu'elles soient conçues de manière juste afin de ne pas aggraver les inégalités systémiques. Le présent article traite de cette question de justice sociale en examinant les taxes sur le carbone d'une perspective féministe, plus particulièrement en analysant comment les taxes sur le carbone produisent des conséquences pour les femmes. L'article propose une analyse de genres dans le cadre des taxes environnementales, qui va au-delà de l'évaluation des impacts distributionnels pour tenir compte aussi des impacts qui ne touchent pas le revenu, des implications de l'allègement connexe et des politiques concernant l'utilisation des revenus aussi bien que le résultat de la mise en oeuvre de ces taxes. L'application de ce cadre d'analyse à la taxe sur le carbone en Colombie-Britannique ainsi qu'à la redevance annuelle prélevée par le Québec révèle que les femmes vont vraisemblablement souffrir de façon disproportionnée des augmentations de coûts créées par les taxes sur le carbone. L'analyse démontre également que les politiques destinées à mitiger l'impact des taxes sur le carbone pour les familles à faible revenu ne tiennent pas compte des disparités de revenus entre les femmes et les hommes, ni du statut socio-économique des femmes. En conclusion, l'auteure recommande d'adopter des politiques concernant le coût du carbone qui évitent de perpétuer les inégalités systémiques actuelles entre les femmes et les hommes et qui pourraient même aider à corriger ces inégalités.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Effective domestic policies are urgently needed to address climate change. A great deal of energy is devoted to selecting and designing the optimal policy instruments, with questions of environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency dominating the debate. However, it is equally important to consider how those policies will impact upon different segments of society and to ensure that they are designed in a way that is fair and does not further entrench systemic inequalities. This article approaches this social justice issue by examining carbon taxes from a feminist perspective, specifically considering how carbon taxes impact upon women. The article proposes the gender analysis of environmental taxes framework, which goes beyond the evaluation of distributional impacts to consider non-income impacts, implications of related mitigation, and revenue-use policies as well as the outcome of the measure. Applying the framework to British Columbia's carbon tax and Québec’s redevance annuelle reveals that women may bear a disproportionate burden of the increased prices created by carbon taxes. The article also demonstrates that policies designed to mitigate the impact of carbon taxes on low-income households do not address income disparities between women and men, nor do they take into account the socio-economic status of women. The author concludes with recommendations for developing carbon pricing policies that avoid perpetuating existing systemic inequalities between women and men and that might even help to overcome these inequalities.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2010

Economists, Value Judgments, and Climate Change: A View from Feminist Economics

Citation:

Nelson, Julie A. 2008. “Economists, Value Judgments, and Climate Change: A View from Feminist Economics.” Ecological Economics 65 (3): 441–7.

Author: Julie A. Nelson

Abstract:

A number of recent discussions about ethical issues in climate change, as engaged in by economists, have focused on the value of the parameter representing the rate of time preference within models of optimal growth. This essay examines many economists' antipathy to serious discussion of ethical matters, and suggests that the avoidance of questions of intergenerational equity is related to another set of value judgments concerning the quality and objectivity of economic practice. Using insights from feminist philosophy of science and research on high reliability organizations, this essay argues that a more ethically transparent, real-world-oriented, and flexible economic practice would lead to more strongly objective, reliable, and useful knowledge. 

Keywords: environment, methodology, climate change, objectivity, ethics, feminist economics

Topics: Economies, Feminist Economics, Environment, Climate Change

Year: 2008

Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Ecological and Feminist Economics in Policy Debates

Citation:

Nelson, Julie A. 2009. “Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Ecological and Feminist Economics in Policy Debates.” Ecological Economics 69 (1): 1–8. 

Author: Julie A. Nelson

Abstract:

The field of ecological economics includes both economic analysis on the one hand, and discussions of normative values and visions for society, on the other. Using feminist insights into cultural beliefs about the relative “hardness” and “softness” of these two sides, this essay discusses how ecological economists can use this unique “between” space in order to better inform policy. The current crisis of global climate change, it is argued, requires that economists move beyond modeling and measurement, while ecological thinkers need to re-examine beliefs about markets and profit.

Keywords: climate, feminist economics, policy, profit, modeling

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender

Year: 2009

Geoengineering: A Gender Issue?

Citation:

Bronson, Diana. 2014. “Geoengineering: A Gender Issue?” In The Remaking of Social Contracts: Feminists in a Fierce New World, edited by Gita Sen and Marina Durano. London: Zed Books.

Author: Diana Bronson

Annotation:

Summary:
“With no reliable empirical evidence on gender differences with regard to views on geoengineering, this is an exploratory attempt to deconstruct geoengineering discourse from a gender perspective and argues that civil society movements – feminist, environmentalist, human rights – will need to intervene on these questions in the coming years. The point is to prevent a self-selected group of narrow scientific experts from the global North from standing in for a real global conversation where different views, experiences and visions of the future can be heard, understood and acted upon. Especially when the control of the global climate is at stake” (Bronson 2014). 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2014

Climate Technology, Gender, and Justice: The Standpoint of the Vulnerable

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2019. Climate Technology, Gender, and Justice: The Standpoint of the Vulnerable. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Tina Sikka

Annotation:

Summary:
This book is the first to undertake a gendered analysis of geoengineering and alternative energy sources. Are either of these technologies sufficiently attendant to gender issues? Do they incorporate feminist values as articulated by the renowned social philosopher Helen Longino, such as empirical adequacy, novelty, heterogeneity, complexity and applicability to human needs? The overarching argument in this book contends that, while mitigation strategies like solar and wind energy go much further to meet feminist objectives and virtues, geoengineering is not consistent with the values of justice as articulated in Longino's feminist approach to science. This book provides a novel, feminist argument in support of pursuing alternative energy in the place of geoengineering. It provides an invaluable contribution for academics and students working in the areas of gender, science and climate change as well as policy makers interested in innovative ways of taking up climate change mitigation and gender. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
 
1. Geoengineering
 
2. FCE and Empirical Adequacy
 
3. Ontological Heterogeneity
 
4. Novelty
 
5. Mutuality of Interaction
 
6. Diffusion of Power
 
7. Applicability to Human Needs
 
8. Conclusion

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice

Year: 2019

Technology, Gender, and Climate Change: A Feminist Examination of Climate Technologies

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2018. “Technology, Gender, and Climate Change: A Feminist Examination of Climate Technologies.” Societies 8 (4): 109.

Author: Tina Sikka

Abstract:

In this article, I examine the subject of justice as it relates to gender and climate change by focusing on two specific strategies, namely, the geoengineering strategy of ocean fertilization, and renewable energy as a means of mitigation (where mitigation is understood as the adoption of technologies and practices that aim to slow the rise of greenhouse gas emissions). My overarching argument is that iron fertilization geoengineering is not consistent with the feminist values of justice embedded in feminist standpoint theory and feminist contextual empiricism. Alternative mitigation strategies, on the other hand, go much further in meeting these objectives and virtues. 

Keywords: feminism, climate change, gender, geoengineering, environment, standpoint

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Justice

Year: 2018

Technofeminism and Ecofeminism: An Analysis of Geoengineering Research

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2017. "Technofeminism and Ecofeminism: An Analysis of Geoengineering Research." In Ecofeminism in Dialogue, edited by Douglas A. Vakoch and Sam Mickey. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Author: Tina Sikka

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2017

Smallholder Farmers and Climate Smart Agriculture: Technology and Labor-Productivity Constraints amongst Women Smallholders in Malawi

Citation:

Murray, Una, Zewdy Gebremedhin, Galina Brychkova, and Charles Spillane. 2016. "Smallholder Farmers and Climate Smart Agriculture: Technology and Labor-Productivity Constraints amongst Women Smallholders in Malawi." Gender, Technology and Development 20 (2): 117-48. 

Authors: Una Murray, Zewdy Gebremedhin, Galina Brychkova, Charles Spillane

Abstract:

Climate change and variability present a major challenge to agricultural production and rural livelihoods, including livelihoods of women small- holder farmers. There are significant efforts underway to develop, deploy, and scale up Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices and technologies to facilitate climate change adaptation for farmers. However, there is a need for gender analysis of CSA practices across different farming and cultural systems to facilitate adoption by, and livelihood improvements for, women smallholder farmers. Climate change poses challenges for maintaining and improving agricultural and labor productivity of women smallholder farmers. The labor productivity of many women smallholders is constrained by lack of access to labor-saving technologies and the most basic of farm tools. Poorer smallholders face a poverty trap, due to low agricultural and labor productivity, from which they cannot easily escape without access to key resources such as rural energy and labor- saving technologies. In Malawi, the agricultural system is predominantly rainfed and largely composed of smallholders who remain vulnerable to climate change and variability shocks. Despite the aspirations of women smallholders to engage in CSA, our research highlights that many women smallholders have either limited or no access to basic agricultural tools, transport, and rural energy. This raises the question of whether the future livelihood scenarios for such farmers will consist of barely surviving or “hanging in”; or whether such farmers can “step up” to adapt better to future climate constraints; or whether more of these farmers will “step out” of agriculture. We argue that for women smallholder farmers to become more climate change resilient, more serious attention to gender analysis is needed to address their constraints in accessing basic agricultural technologies, combined with participatory approaches to develop and adapt CSA tools and technologies to their needs in future climates and agro-ecologies.

Keywords: climate change, women smallholders, labor productivity, participatory technology design, agriculture, economic growth

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2016

Gender and Geoengineering

Citation:

Buck, Holly Jean, Andrea R. Gammon, and Christopher J. Preston. 2014. "Gender and Geoengineering." Hypatia 29 (3): 651-69.

Authors: Holly Jean Buck, Andrea R. Gammon, Christopher J. Preston

Abstract:

Geoengineering has been broadly and helpfully defined as “the intentional manipulation of the earth’s climate to counteract anthropogenic climate change or its warming effects” (Corner and Pidgeon 2010, 26). Although there exists a rapidly growing literature on the ethics of geoengineering, very little has been written about its gender dimensions. The authors con- sider four contexts in which geoengineering appears to have important gender dimensions: (1) the demographics of those pushing the current agenda, (2) the overall vision of control it involves, (3) the design of the particular technologies, and (4) whom geoengineering will most affect and benefit. After detailing these four gender dimensions, we consider three ways in which the geoengineering discourse could be enriched if it became more sensitive to issues of gender. These include increasing the focus on the concrete other, recognizing the socially transformative potential of geoengineering technologies, and engaging in value-sensitive design. Although ultimately remaining agnostic on the desirability of geoengineering, the paper brings gender considerations into a discussion from which they have been conspicuously absent.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender

Year: 2014

Pages

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