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New Plantations, New Workers: Gender and Production Politics in the Dominican Republic


Raynolds, Laura T. 2001. “New Plantations, New Workers: Gender and Production Politics in the Dominican Republic.” Gender and Society 15 (1): 7–28.

Author: Laura T. Raynolds


This study analyzes the gendered nature of recent production and labor force restructuring in the Dominican Republic. Using a longitudinal case study of work relations on a large transnational corporate pineapple plantation, the author explores the production politics involved in the initial corporate attempt to create a wage labor force and the subsequent replacement of employees with contracted labor crews. She demonstrates how female, and then male, labor forces were negotiated in this process and how labor relations became embedded in local gendered institutions. The study reveals how workforces and spheres of work are constituted through struggles over gender, as well as ethnicity and class, in intersecting arenas linking the local community to the global economy. In this case, gender proves critical in shaping both worker identity and the shifting scope and form of resistance to plantation practices.

Topics: Class, Economies, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Dominican Republic

Year: 2001

The Abject Bodies of the Maquiladora Female Workers on a Globalized Border


Taylor, Guadalupe. 2010. “The Abject Bodies of the Maquiladora Female Workers on a Globalized Border.” Race, Gender & Class 17 (3/4): 349–63.

Author: Guadalupe Taylor


 The topic of the body has been analyzed from a variety of perspectives. Although biology does not define women, it cannot be denied that women's bodies play a major role in determining their lives. This paper will question the universalism of materialist feminist theories to explain the violence against the bodies of female maquiladora workers. First, I will present Simone de Beauvoir and Judith Butler's conceptualizations of the female body. Second, I will analyze if the Socialist feminist theory is broad enough to encompass the bodies of maquiladora workers in its analysis. Finally, I will advocate the need for conceiving a transcultural-transnational feminist approach that includes class, gender, culture, state, globalization, free-trade agreements, and phenotype of women who work in the maquiladora industry. It seems necessary to formulate an approach that considers a broad scope of issues that affect maquiladora workers who form part of the proletariat on the border between the United States and México. Since the Mexican government exempt of taxes to US companies that opened factories on the border, NAFTA has turned Mexico in an excellent source of profits for transnational companies based on the exploitation of Mexican workers, mainly female workers. The patriarchal state and capitalism have reinserted women in a space where they have lost citizenship and where their bodies have become abject objects for the benefit of globalized industrial production. I suggest that a transcultural-transnational feminist approach is needed to explain and to foster an agenda for improving the plight of the maquiladora workers. This approach is suitable for this population because it includes class, gender, culture, State, capitalism, free trade agreements, and the phenotypes of all women.

Keywords: abject, maquiladora workers, borders, body, ethnicity, social class, patriarchy, gender, race, oppression, capitalism, feminism, materialism, Marxism, feminist theory, indigenous, praxis, disapora, transcultural, transnational, western, mexico, mexican

Topics: Citizenship, Class, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2010

"When Will I Get My Rest?” Neo-Liberalism, Women, Class and Ageing in Ibadan, Nigeria


Adeniyi-Ogunyankin, Grace. 2012. “‘When Will I Get My Rest?’ Neo-Liberalism, Women, Class and Ageing in Ibadan, Nigeria.” Agenda 26 (4): 29–36.

Author: Grace Adeniyi-Ogunyankin


In-depth interviews about gender and the urban political economy in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria with a sample of 24 women aged 46 to 83 years revealed that there are class differences in ageing as it pertains to women’s experiences of financial security and care work. Based on interview responses, this briefing argues that neoliberalism has exacerbated the class disparity in ageing among women in Ibadan. Neoliberalism has heightened urban inequality through policies that have led to currency devaluation, state retrenchment of social services and employment insecurity. These policies have in turn intensified women’s triple burden of reproduction, production and community management as women bear the responsibility of absorbing the shock of neoliberal economic policies. Moreover, contrary to neoliberal assumptions that older people are mainly dependants who rely on their families for financial assistance and care, poorer older women are also shock absorbers as far as economic activity and care work is concerned. This briefing highlights that neoliberalism in fact increases the burden on older people, especially women, and can have adverse effects on the ageing process in that it exacerbates deprivation and increases the social constraints faced by poor elder women and their burden of care.

Keywords: neoliberalism, gender, age, class, financial security, care work

Topics: Age, Class, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2012

Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America


Deere, Carmen Diana, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, and Claudia Ranaboldo. 2011. Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America. Translated by Sara Shields. La Paz, Bolivia: Fundación Tierra.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, Claudia Ranaboldo


The human rights of women are not yet fully respected despite the progress made in legislation at global, regional, and national levels. Apart from formal legislation, access to and control of land by women should be part of other mechanisms for recognising these rights, in communities, for example, where women are often not included in spaces for participation and decisionmaking. Although the law may protect their land rights, it is difficult for rural women to gain access to the judicial system to protest when these rights are violated.

This scenario of inequality in which women find themselves can be reversed through social and economic changes to give women the tools they need to empower themselves.
This book is the result of a collective effort by many women from several parts of Latin America. It is unique because it represents the accumulation of reflections, inputs, visits, discussions, and meetings. The document synthesises various activities taken forward by ILC and other institutions: the publication of six research studies carried out in 2009, two international discussion forums (one held in Colombia and the other in Costa Rica), and the reflections of three specialists on agrarian issues who – drawing on their own experiences and expertise – engage in a dialogue with the research studies to generate further knowledge. (ELLA)

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2011

Cultural Norms and Gender Inequality in Malaysia


Hutchings, Katherine. 2000. “Cultural Norms and Gender Inequality in Malaysia.” Race, Gender & Class 7 (2): 122–48.

Author: Katherine Hutchings


This paper presents the findings of research conducted in Malaysia which examines the equity practices of Australian and Japanese Multinational Corporations (MNCs). These organizations make human resource management (HRM) policy decisions that are influenced by a combination of the cultural and social environments in which they operate and their own company policies (and associated corporate citizenship responsibilities). Against a background of social closure/inequality and corporate citizenship theories, this paper discusses cultural and social factors and their influence on current equity responses in the workplaces of selected MNCs in Malaysia. Importantly, it also draws attention to the underlying dynamic between ethnicity, class and gender in this country and how it may be used by MNCs as justification for not utilizing the practices observed in the developed world. It concludes that the companies are "taking the line of least resistance" in their decisions with national cultural and social inequality on gender (and racial and class) lines being upheld and reinforced at the workplace level.

Keywords: multinational corporation, social inequality, gender, race, class

Topics: Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Multi-national Corporations, Race Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2000

Gendered Cultures of Conflict and Discontent: Living ‘the Crisis’ in a Newfoundland Community


Davis, Dona. 2000. “Gendered Cultures of Conflict and Discontent: Living ‘the Crisis’ in a Newfoundland Community.” Women’s Studies International Forum 24 (3): 343-53.

Author: Dona Davis


Longitudinal, participant observation research in a small southwest coast fishing village in Newfoundland, Canada, shows the dramatic and profound effects that the North Atlantic fisheries crisis can have on those who have made their living from the sea, and through forces largely out of their control, find themselves no longer able to do so. Data collected during the initial stages of the crisis show how the impact of the crisis is strongly gendered. From the perspective of everyday life as lived in the local context, gender affects both worlds of meaning and interpersonal relationships. Description and analysis of changing gender ideologies, alterations in the sexual division of labor and use of community space, and the gendering of social class demonstrate that the crisis does affect men and women in significantly different ways. However, escalating levels of conflict and violence and an emergent ethos of demoralization affect all community members in ways that transcend gender. This portrayal of a community's transition from a once successful inshore fishery to an unemployment and welfare culture of conflict and discontent calls into question the supposedly rational policies and intent of government and fisheries development planners and challenges their notions of “transition” and “adjustment” costs.

Keywords: fishing community, gender role, labor division, power relations

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2000

Zimbabwe's 'Fast Track' Land Reform: What about Women?


Goebel, Allison. 2005. “Zimbabwe’s ‘Fast Track’ Land Reform: What about Women?” Gender, Place & Culture 12 (2): 145–72. doi: 10.1080/09663690500094799.

Author: Allison Goebel


The wave of occupations of commercial farms in Zimbabwe starting in the year 2000 captured worldwide attention. By the end of that year, the government of Zimbabwe initiated the ‘fast track’ land reform process meant to formalize the occupations, and encourage further land appropriation and redistribution. Where are women in this process? The Women and Land Lobby Group (WLLG) was formed in 1998 by Zimbabwean women activists committed to the land issue. Since 1998 they have lobbied government to include women’s interests in the design of land reform, and have made some inroads in improving women’s formal rights to land as stated in policy documents. However, the current ‘fast track’ practices continue to privilege men as primary recipients of resettlement land, and the emerging role of traditional authorities in the land reform process marginalizes women. Other legal provisions that may help women struggle for changes remain weak. The contradiction between customary law, practices and attitudes and modern individual rights represents a complex battleground for women and land in Southern Africa, and calls for new feminist conceptualizations of the state as a vehicle for gender justice.

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, International Organizations, Justice, Land grabbing, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2005

The Politics of Water: Urban Protest, Gender, and Power in Monterrey, Mexico


Bennett, Vivienne. 2009. The Politics of Water: Urban Protest, Gender, and Power in Monterrey, Mexico. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Author: Vivienne Bennett


"Vivienne Bennett has crafted an insightful study of the politics of water system management and development that offers insights into urban popular movements and protest, especially by women, and the politics of public policymaking in Mexico. Students of urban politics will appreciate this work's contribution to the literature on community power. Others will find Bennett's unraveling of the respective roles of the federal, state, and municipal governments in Mexico to be a significant addition to our understanding of the changing Mexican political regime. Yet others will find this book a solid, empirically-based analysis of the emergence and development of urban popular movements and the ways in which such movements can have consequences for public policy."


Topics: Civil Society, Class, Economies, Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2009

Reframing the War on Terror: Feminist and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Activism in the Context of the 2006 Israeli Invasion of Lebanon


Naber, Nadine, and Zeina Zaatar. 2014. "Reframing the War on Terror: Feminist and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Activism in the Context of the 2006 Israeli Invasion of Lebanon." Cultural Dynamics 26 (1): 91-111.

Authors: Nadine Naber, Zeina Zaatar


This article seeks to expand the kinds of questions we ask about the diverse militarized campaigns referred to collectively as the “war on terror,” the grassroots resistance to these wars, and efforts committed to creating a world without destruction and killing. Shifting the focus of this feminist critique of war away from the center of power (the empire) to the everyday lives of feminist and queer activists living the war on terror from the ground up, this article examines a distinct feminist and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social movement that worked to respond to and resist the US-backed Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 2006. We argue along with our interlocutors in Lebanon that asymmetrical systems of gender, class, race, ethnicity, sexuality, and family are entangled in the historical conditions of transnational capital, empire, and war, and necessitate an intersectional approach that refuses to impose false binaries or hierarchies on a complex social reality. We conclude by arguing the importance of reframing the war on terror and reimagining feminist and LGBTQ policies as a critique of the post-racial discourse, beyond dominant imperialist and nationalist discourses, which are exclusionary, sexist, and homophobic in different ways.

Keywords: queer studies, feminism, armed conflict, MENA, Asia, middle east, Israel, Lebanon

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Households, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Race, Sexuality, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Lebanon

Year: 2014

Feminist Solidarity? Women’s Engagement in Politics and the Implications for Water Management in the Darjeeling Himalaya


Joshi, Deepa. 2014. “Feminist Solidarity? Women’s Engagement in Politics and the Implications for Water Management in the Darjeeling Himalaya.” Mountain Research and Development 34 (3): 243–54. doi: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D13-00097.1. 

Author: Deepa Joshi


This article explores the motivations of a diverse group of women in the Himalayan region of Darjeeling district in India to engage (or not) in politics, and discusses how women, like men, are vulnerable to power and politics. In Darjeeling, class, ethnicity, and other divides are accentuated by unresolved, decades-long identity based political conflicts that also obscure practical everyday needs and challenges. This defines which women engage in the political domain and, in the dominantly patriarchal political space, how these women relate to the region’s enduring water challenges. In such a setting, it would be ideal to wish for solidarity among women that would overcome class and ethnic divisions and individual political aspirations, making space for gendering political causes and practical challenges. Such solidarity would be especially pertinent in the Eastern Himalaya, given the region’s projected climate vulnerability and fragile democracy. However, reality is far removed from development discourse and policy which suggests an assumed camaraderie among mountain women: an imagined empathy and solidarity in relation both to environmental causes and concerns and the practice of equitable power and politics. In looking at how a diverse group of women in varying positions of power and powerlessness in Darjeeling District are unable, reluctant, or simply uninterested in addressing critical water injustices experienced by some, this paper calls for retrospection on both gender-environment myths and gender-politics fictions. 

Keywords: gender, women, identity, environment, water, politics, feminism, solidarity, Darjeeling


This article explores the realities surrounding women, political conflicts, and injustices in the Darjeeling district of the Eastern Himalaya. It explores the two stereotypes placed on women: that they are more egalitarian and support policies promoting equality, and that women have an inherent link and concern for nature. The author studied a diverse group of women who chose to engage in political discussion formally and informally. Joshi found contrary to popular belief that most women were unwilling to address the complexity of water injustices, having been affected by the same political constraints as men. The stereotype of women as sharing an inherent relationship with the environment is still prominent in policy that marginalizes women. The case study of the Himalayas demonstrates that women are not passive victims of change, especially in the case of climate change adaptation. The issue of water scarcity in the Darjeeling district is due to hydrogeological, financial, and sociopolitical constraints. Women in positions of power were found to not prioritize gender and environmental issues over personal interests. The paper concludes with a recommendation to broaden one’s understanding and defining of gender. 

Topics: Class, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2014


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