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Civil Wars

Flight

"Two young sisters who arrive in Sweden having fled the war in Syria are becoming teenagers in a new world. They try to hold on to the memories of their once beautiful home while struggling to deal with the repercussions of growing up surrounded by war."

Source: https://laurawadha.com/2017/09/30/flight/

The Pains of the Sea

"Syrian and Iraqi immigrants are trying to cross the sea to reach Turkey. A mother must choose between the life of her child and her own life in the sea."

Source: http://www.splitfilmfestival.hr/the-pains-of-the-sea-mohammad-reza-masoudi/

Black and Indigenous Territorial Movements: Women Striving for Peace in Colombia

Citation:

Gruner, Sheila, and Charo Mina Rojas. 2018. “Black and Indigenous Territorial Movements: Women Striving for Peace in Colombia.” Canadian Woman Studies 33 (1–2): 211-21.

Authors: Sheila Gruner, Charo Mina Rojas

Abstract:

In this article, we will explore Black and Indigenous peoples' efforts at peace building, particularly women, as a reflection of ethnoterritorial organizational struggles in Colombia during the recent peace negotiations and during the subsequent and ongoing "implementation phase" of the "Final Agreement to End the Conflict and Construct a Stable and Lasting Peace" (or Havana Peace Accords). First, we offer some historical context to the conflict from the perspective of Indigenous and particularly Black communities, followed by some general background on the peace agreements, emphasizing the role that women and ethnoterritorial organizations have played and are playing to ensure an "ethnic" and gendered perspective in the construction of peace. We then focus on some of the grassroots mobilization and advocacy/lobbying pivotal to the achievements related to the ethnic chapter. We also reflect briefly on how "gender" was constructed as a threat to conservative elements of Colombian society during the referendum on the peace accords. Following this, we explore contributions of the Ethnic Commission for Peace and Defense of Territorial Rights, which was formed to lobby the Havana negotiators for self-representation in the peace process.

Followed by this, we examine problems that have arisen since the signing of the peace agreements related to women, rural, Indigenous and Black movements, whose social leaders have been targeted by violence and whose communities continue to live within generalized conditions of war. Systematic threats, assassinations and significant levels of violence continue in, and against, ethnic communities, including the recent massacres of rural and Indigenous coca workers, and the selective assasinations of Black leaders in the region of Tumaco, an Afro-descendant coastal area in the Colombian south pacific and site of geopolitical and narco industry interests, and related territorial conflicts. Finally, we will conclude with considerations for advancing towards the realization of peace that includes Indigenous and Black peoples in face of significant challenges.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Challenges and Possibilities for Achieving Household Food Security in the Western Sudan Region: The Role of Female Farmers

Citation:

Ibnouf, Fatma Osman. 2011. “Challenges and Possibilities for Achieving Household Food Security in the Western Sudan Region: The Role of Female Farmers.” Food Security 3 (2): 215-31.

Author: Fatma Osman Ibnouf

Abstract:

This paper investigates the role of women in achieving household food security in the Western Region of Sudan, an area much affected by the impacts of drought and civil conflicts. The study is based on a quantitative survey and qualitative focus group discussions, supported by personal observations made during fieldwork. Additionally, the study draws upon secondary data that is publicly available. Results demonstrate that women play a major role in producing and providing food for their households in this high-risk climate and conflict area, while men are more likely to migrate seasonally and even permanently. In addition, women are responsible for food preparation, processing, and food preservation and are wholly responsible for attending to household garden plots. They therefore contribute more to household food security than men, though this contribution is not recognized in official statistics. The study findings indicate that the main problems women face as food producers and providers are a lack of access to the full package of improved production methods (improved seeds, fertilizers, modern farming methods, credit services, pesticides, appropriate technologies, and marketing facilities), in addition to gender disparities and gender-biased traditions. The impacts of natural crises and civil conflicts are gendered and therefore the responses to these crises must be gender responsive. Holistic and strategic policies and plans that take gender issues into account are thus needed in order to achieve food security.

Keywords: Sudan, women, gender, migration, food security

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2011

Rural Women in Sri Lanka's Post-Conflict Rural Economy

Citation:

Wanasundera, Leelangi. 2006. Rural Women in Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Rural Economy. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Author: Leelangi Wanasundera

Annotation:

Summary
"The major objective of this review was to assess rural women’s situation in reconstruction and rehabilitation of agriculture and the rural economy in areas emerging from armed conflict. The purpose is to ensure that gender issues are incorporated and that reconstruction and rehabilitation processes do not bypass women. The review focuses on the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and certain areas of North Central districts and Uva provinces that border the North and East. The primary focus is on the North East province that bore the brunt of the armed conflict for almost two decades" (Wanasundera 2006, 33).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Livelihood and poverty conditions in the conflict region
 
2. Rural women and livelihood activities
 
3. Social realities of rural women in the conflict region
 
4. Rehabilitation of agriculture and the rural sector in the North East
 
5. Implementation and performance for gender responsive rehabilitation 
 
6. Rural women's access to resources and assets in the conflict region
 
7. Conclusion and Recommendations
 

Topics: Agriculture, Civil Wars, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2006

Finding Women in the Zimbabwean Transition

Citation:

Dendere, Chipo. 2018. "Finding Women in the Zimbabwean Transition." Meridians 17 (2): 376-81.

Author: Chipo Dendere

Abstract:

This essay is a feminist response to the 2017 coup in Zimbabwe that brought to an end Robert Mugabe’s thirty-seven-year on power. Mugabe came into power in 1980 after his party, the Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front (ZANU PF), successfully negotiated for an end to the civil war. The male-dominated ZANU PF has stayed in power because they consolidated power around Mugabe’s leadership. However, as the aging Mugabe became frail and his fifty-two-year-old energetic wife found her political voice, ZANU PF became deeply fractured and was facing electoral defeat in the 2018 elections. Grace Mugabe’s rise to power became the rallying point for ZANU PF to evict their longtime leader. Her fall from power has been used to restrict the voices of women even in this new era of political openness.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Feminisms, Gender, Conflict, Governance, Elections, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2018

Gender Inequality and Internal Conflict

Citation:

Forsberg, Erika, and Louise Olsson. 2016. “Gender Inequality and Internal Conflict.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.34.

Authors: Erika Forsberg, Louise Olsson

Keywords: gender, gender inequality, civil war, intrastate armed conflict, gender norms, positivism, masculinity, femininity, empirical international relations theory

Annotation:

Summary: 
Prior research has found robust support for a relationship between gender inequality and civil war. These results all point in the same direction; countries that display lower levels of gender equality are more likely to become involved in civil conflict, and violence is likely to be even more severe, than in countries where women have a higher status. But what does gender inequality mean in this area of research? And how does research explain why we see this effect on civil war? To explore this, we start with reviewing existing definitions and measurements of gender inequality, noting that the concept has several dimensions. We then proceed to outline several clusters of explanations of how gender inequality could be related to civil war while more equal societies are better able to prevent violent conflict, as described in previous research. It is clear that existing misconceptions that gender inequality primarily involves the role of women are clouding the fact that it clearly speaks to much broader societal developments which play central roles in civil war. We conclude by identifying some remaining lacunas and directions for future research.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Violence

Year: 2016

Pathways Out of Poverty: Women - 'the forgotten Gender' - and the Artisanal Fisheries Sector of Sierra Leone

Citation:

Baio, Andrew, Roberta Curiazi, Ndomahina Lebbie, Thomas Lebbie, Ranita Sandi, Andy Thorpe, and David Whitmarsh. 2013. “Pathways Out of Poverty: Women - the ‘forgotten Gender’ - and the Artisanal Fisheries Sector of Sierra Leone.” African Historical Review 45 (1): 46–61.

Authors: Andrew Baio, Roberta Curiazi, Ndomahina Lebbie, Thomas Lebbie, Ranita Sandi, Andy Thorpe, David Whitmarsh

Abstract:

In a number of low-income countries the fisheries sector has been shown to be instrumental in meeting key development goals, specifically in combating malnutrition, but the crucial contribution of women within this sector has been largely overlooked. This is particularly true in Sierra Leone, despite gender featuring prominently in the country’s poverty reduction strategy. This article therefore examines the history of female involvement in the sector, how this involvement was transformed by the civil war, and assesses whether the various current initiatives to support women in the post-harvest sector offer a realistic ‘pathway out of poverty’.

Keywords: fish distribution chain, food security, women, poverty alleviation, Sierra Leone

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2013

Commander Arian: A Story of Women, War and Freedom

"On the front line of the Syrian war, 30-year-old Commander Arian guides a female battalion towards the city of Kobane to release its people from the grip of ISIS in Alba Sotorra’s empowering tale of emancipation and freedom. When the war in Syria broke, a group of women from the Kurdish resistance assembled the YPJ—Women Protection Units. Arian, who witnessed at a young age the nefarious treatment of sexual assault victims, leads the unit and dedicates her life to battling ISIS.

Mundane Heroines: Conflict, Ethnicity, Gender, and Female Headship in Eastern Sri Lanka

Citation:

Ruwanpura, Kanchana N., and Jane Humphries. 2004. “Mundane Heroines: Conflict, Ethnicity, Gender, and Female Headship in Eastern Sri Lanka.” Feminist Economics 10 (2): 173–205.

Authors: Kanchana N. Ruwanpura, Jane Humphries

Abstract:

For the last twenty years, eastern Sri Lanka has witnessed a bitter and bloody civil conflict. This paper explores the experience of female-headed households in the region. Only partially the product of war, such households cannot be bundled together as a social problem with a single solution. Our study endorses the feminist suspicion of falsely homogenizing accounts of women's lives and suggests instead an alternative emphasis on the many ways in which gendered relations of dominance and subordination are maintained. With its co-existing Muslim, Tamil, and Sinhala groups, eastern Sri Lanka facilitates the exploration of ethnicity as a source of variation. The households included in this study share a common structure and face the same economic problems, yet ethnic differences divide them. The paper charts the problems, strategies, and partial triumphs of these lone mothers and proposes policies to help them in their mundane but heroic struggle.

Keywords: female headship, gender, ethnicity, eastern Sri Lanka, conflict, kinship and community

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Economies, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2004

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